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A "major breakthrough" in understanding how glucose uptake is stimulated in brown fat could be used to develop new medications for type 2 diabetes, according to a new study published in the Journal of Cell Biology.
Insulin or oral medication is sometimes needed to control type 2 diabetes, which currently has no definitive treatment or cure.
The researchers, from Stockholm University in Sweden, say they have uncovered a new mechanism that encourages glucose uptake in brown fat. By using this new knowledge, the researchers say they may be able to stimulate this signalling pathway with drugs, lowering blood sugar levels and potentially even curing type 2 diabetes.
Currently, there is no definitive treatment or cure for type 2 diabetes, a disease that affects more than 382 million people worldwide. In a person with the condition, the body's tissues are unable to respond to insulin, rendering them unable to take up sugar from the blood.
Very high blood sugar levels are dangerous to organs in the body and can lead to heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, peripheral nervous system damage, amputations and even early death. The researchers explain that brown fat is active in adults, acting as one of the bodily tissues that can be encouraged to take up large amounts of glucose from the bloodstream to use as a fuel source to create body heat. As such, increasing the uptake of glucose in brown fat can quickly decrease blood sugar levels, they say. He adds that they have shown the mechanism through which "adrenergic receptors" - found on brown fat - encourage the uptake of glucose. The next step is to investigate how stimulating the pathway could affect glucose homeostasis in rodents, creating a potentially effective treatment for both type 2 diabetes and obesity.
In the US, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of diabetes cases, and it is typically linked with older age, obesity, physical inactivity, and family and personal history.
Medical News Today recently reported on a new clinical trial set to investigate whether a common blood pressure drug could reverse type 1 diabetes in humans. Additionally, for American Diabetes Month, we presented a feature on spotting the signs of child diabetes.
Visit our Diabetes category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Diabetes. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:MLAEllis, Marie. For any corrections of factual information, or to contact our editorial team, please see our contact page.
Please note: Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a health care professional. Learn all about diabetes, a lifelong metabolism disorder that causes high blood sugar levels. Learn all about type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the differences between the two conditions in our article about the diabetes mellitus metabolism disorder.
Scientists have discovered a comprehensive blueprint for understanding what goes wrong in diabetes after charting the path of insulin action in cells. Colleague Sean Humphrey discovered over 1,500 phosphorylation sites that respond to insulin and shed new light on how one of the most important regulators in the cell, a protein called Akt, is itself regulated.


These powerful devices have opened up a field known as ‘proteomics’, the study of proteins on a very large scale.
Each of the protein types in a cell has up to 20 potential ‘phosphorylation sites’, regions to which a phosphate molecule can be added.
The same Japanese team created viable mouse sperm from embryonic stem cells earlier this year. The findings, published in the journal Science, demonstrated that the egg cells created in the experiment produced healthy mouse offspring, and that the offspring went on to produce their own healthy offspring. The mice also grew normally in terms of body weight and size, had a normal pattern of genomic imprinting, or the way genes are inherited, and were fertile and able to reproduce pups with comparable size of the litter. The finding is seen as an important breakthrough in research to find ways of producing egg cells from infertile women with defective ovaries.
Researchers first took stem cells from female mouse embryos and stem cells reprogrammed from fetal cells called induced pluripotent stem cells.
Sharon Stone’s career has been in the spotlight since she made her breakthrough in the 1980s. After the initial commotion she turned to more serious roles as witnessed in ‘Casino’, playing alongside Robert De Niro and Joe Pesci in the seedy underworld of gangsters and gamblers.
Stone was hospitalized in San Francisco after suffering from severe head pains and the results of an angiogram indicated that she’d had a minor brain aneurysm resulting in bleeding in the brain. However after being in hospital for several days she returned home and continued to rest there. Her health problems didn’t begin or end with the aneurysm as she also has to live with Type I Diabetes, an illness that affects one in 17 people across the globe. Also in Sharon Stone’s illness arsenal is asthma and she has sadly lost two children to miscarriages.
This entry was posted in Diabetes and tagged aneurysm, asthma, diabetes, miscarriage, sharon stone by lee.
Because insulin is released after eating to regulate blood sugar, when the insulin signal no longer functions properly, blood sugar levels rise.
Tore Bengtsson of Stockholm University's Department of Molecular Biosciences - discovered a new signal pathway that differs from the one triggered by insulin.
Type 2 diabetes can be prevented by making healthy food choices, exercising and losing weight. In what is being described as a breakthrough study, scientists at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney, Australia, believe they are closer to understanding exactly how insulin achieves its task. The work has come through the use of the latest analytical devices called mass spectrometers which provide the means of looking into the vastly complex molecular maze that exists in every single cell in the human body. Scott Turner, MD, PhD, began enrolling people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease into a nationwide study last year, he expected to find only a handful of participants with undiagnosed glucose intolerance, as all the patients were already under a doctor’s care and those with known diabetes were excluded. Proteins represent the working parts of cells, using energy to perform all essential functions such as muscle contraction, heartbeat or even memory.
This pushes the total number of possible cell states from one moment to the next into the billions. Researchers successfully produced healthy baby mice using egg stem cells in a breakthrough that, if successfully replicated in humans, could someday relieve worries women may have about the state of their fertility and reduce the need for female egg donation.


Together both advances greatly increase the likelihood of radical and controversial future treatments for restoring fertility. They then manipulated the activity of a few genes in the stem cells to transform them into cells that resemble precursors of female sex cells.
If the same methods could be used in people then cells in skin could be turned into an egg. Many ethical concerns must first be addressed, along with the necessary acquisition of government support and funding. The famously blonde Hollywood star certainly gave a lot of men cause to remember her performances in movies like ‘Basic Instinct’. The bleeding was a result of a ruptured aneurysm – a burst vein or artery – which can often lead to a stroke.
In 2007, during an interview with Larry King, she said: ”I seem to be able to walk and talk just fine (now). Type 1 diabetes causes the pancreas to under-produce insulin which means that body’s cells are starved of vital sugar supplies after food consumption causing weakness and ill-health. Both of her children passed away during the fifth month of pregnancy she regards that period of her life as the most testing and difficult. Though it can be controlled with these same activities, insulin or oral medication is often necessary. Until this study, we did not really appreciate the scale and complexity of insulin regulation,’ he explained. Each cell houses multiple copies of between 10,000 and 12,000 protein types, which communicate with each other using various methods, the most common of which is a process known as ‘phosphorylation’. The authors discovered 37,248 phosphorylation sites on 5,705 different proteins, 15% of which changed in response to insulin. The scientists successfully produced three fertile baby mice using the technique, which involves transforming ordinary skin cells into personalized stem cells. Regardless, the reproduction of health, living mammals from stem cells is a scientific breakthrough and which may some day render the egg donors useless.
Phosphate molecules are deliberately added to proteins in order to convey information, or else change the protein’s function.
The classic story is to be set in modern-day London and Samuel L Jackson and Oscar-winner Christoph Waltz will also appear in the film.Although the story has been retold numerous times, this production aims to put a more humanised aspect on the Edgar Rice Burroughs tale. Without the mass spectrometer, we could not have discovered the importance of SIN1 phosphorylation in the overall insulin signalling process,’ said James.
Skarsgard’s portrayal will focus on Tarzan's later life, exploring how he adapts to life in the British capital after being orphaned as a baby and raised in the jungle by animals. She is currently the number three most-searched star on IMDB after Phillip Seymour Hoffman and Jennifer Lawrence, and ahead of Scarlett Johansson.Margot Robbie in her film, Wolf of Wall StreetThe Neighbours actress has hit the big time after her breakout role as Leonardo DiCaprio’s wife in The Wolf of Wall Street this year.



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