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Ruined cars are seen following a fireworks accident in central Thailand's Suphan Buri Province on Jan. Another 30 people were injured after sparks from a fireworks display for the Chinese New Year set about 50 wooden houses on fire in a nearby residential area, the Bangkok Post reported on its website. This is how your name and profile photo will appear on Panoramio if you connect this Google+ account.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sukhumvit 23 Road, Wattana, Bangkok 10110, Thailand. From July 2008 to June 2009, livers of the swamp eels (Monopterus alba) were investigated for advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum. It has been reported that the annually AL3 infection rate in eels from a local market in Bangkok, Thailand is high in the rainy season and drops abruptly during the winter, and becomes negative in the summer [19]. Interestingly, eel farming has started and grew extensively in many countries throughout Southeast Asia in the last 2 decades. A total of 1,420 swamp eel livers from 2 different sources were collected at different time intervals during July 2008 and June 2009.
A: One thousand and thirty-seven (1,037) eels purchased from a farm in Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo Province (APSK) was studied for the AL3 infection. B: Three hundred eighty-three (383) wild-caught eels were purchased from a local market in Min Buri (MBBK) District which was located 75 km north from the center of Bangkok. The livers of the swamp eels were separated from other visceral organs and washed with tap water. The number of AL3 harvested was calculated for prevalence and intensity with mean and standard error (SE). The infection rates and the average rainfall (mm) from the inter-annual report of Thai Meteorological Department, Ministry of Information and Communication Technology [25] during our study period were presented (Fig. Among 1,420 investigated eels' livers from 2 different sources, a total of 674 larvae were harvested. Among fresh water fish in natural habitats studied in Thailand, swamp eels had the highest prevalence and infection intensity of G.
There are 3 seasons in Thailand: a hot season or summer (February-May), a rainy season (May-October), and a cool season or winter (October-February). This study is the first observation in Thailand that farmed eels showed positive findings of G. The prevalence of AL3 in farmed eels from Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo (APSK) and wild-caught swamp eels from Min Buri District, Bangkok (MBBK), Thailand during July and December 2008 and during January and June 2009. Image of the advanced third stage larva of Gnathostoma spinigerum harvested from the investigated eel's liver. 24 (Xinhua) -- At least three people were killed Tuesday night in a fireworks accident in central Thailand's Suphan Buri Province, Thai media reported.
The disease has also been reported in China, Korea, Loas, Myanmar, Vietnam, India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Israel [1].
In Vietnam, there was a survey of AL3 infection in 1,020 eels from a farm and no infection was reported [22]. The significant difference of the prevalence and the intensity between the 2 sources was analyzed by student's t-test with 95% confidence interval. The disease is now considered an emerging imported disease in Europe and Western countries. Baquera-Heredia J, Cruz-Reyes A, Flores-Gaxiola A, LA?pez-Pulido G, DA­az-Simental E, Valderrama-Valenzuela L.


Nawa Y, Katchanov J, Yoshikawa M, Rojekittikhun W, Dekumyoy P, Kusolusuk T, Wattanakulpanich D. The Inter-annual Report of Thai Meteorological Department Ministry of Information and Communication Technology. Lines represent mean rainfall in Thailand (mm); Bars represent the prevalence in percentage (%). Sparks from a fireworks display for the Chinese New Year set wooden houses on fire in a nearby residential area.
These include fish (20 species), amphibians (2 species), reptiles (11 species), avians (11 species), and mammals (4 species). The highest numbers of AL3-infected livers observed were 47 and 18 from MBBK caught and APSK farmed eels, respectively.
There was a report showing that the infections were commonly found in rainy season between June and October and suddenly drop in November after the end of rainy season [19]. Mobile edema of the face and neck followed by intraocular localization of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Gnathostomiasis: a review of a previously localized zoonosis now crossing numerous geographical boundaries. Seasonal variation in the intensity of Gnathostoma larvae in swamp eels (Fluta alba) sold in a local market in Bangkok. A survey of the infective larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum in swamp eels bought in a local market in Bangkok, Thailand. Gnathostoma infection in fish caught for local consumption in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand. Three cases of human gnathostomiasis caused by Gnathostoma hispidum, with particular reference to the identification of parasitic larvae.
Due to the expansion of international traveling, there are increasing imported cases described in many countries, including Asia, Europe, and America [11-13]. Among these hosts, fresh water fish; particularly, swamp eels (Monopterus albus, previously Fluta alba) had the highest prevalence of G. On the criteria of morphology and number of cephalic hooklet rows on the head bulb, all Gnathostoma AL3 harvested were G.
The APSK farm in this survey is closed to Cambodia and is now the only formal and biggest farm. These numbers were lower than the density found in a caught eel reported in Nakhon Nayok province (2,258 AL3 per wild eel in 1987-1989) and from Klong Toey market, a local market in Bangkok (55 AL3 per liver in 2000) [18,20]. However, the prevalence of AL3 in eels from both places of our results interestingly showed positive finding of AL3 throughout the rainy and winter seasons both in farmed and wild-caught eels.
In Southeast Asian Medical Information Center; International Medical Foundation of Japan Tokyo. The highest infection rate (13.7%) was observed in September and absence of infection (0%) in March-April in the farmed eels. The infection rate of 12.2% was reported in wild-caught eels obtained from markets in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam [22]. Lighter materials could then be decanted off, leaving the heavier particles including any AL3 in the sediment.
These overall infection intensity (larvae recovered per positive liver showed significant difference (P=0.011) between the eels from the 2 different sources. A drop of infection was observed at the end of winter or at the beginning of summer (February).


This study presents a risk to consume undercooked eels during the annual rainy and winter seasons and could support the necessity of improvements in public health surveillance programs. The eggs are passed in the feces and then into water and later hatch into first-stage larvae. Overall, the mean intensity or number of AL3 recovered per investigated liver, and also AL3 per infected liver, from MBBK wild-caught eels were significantly higher than those from APSK farmed eels (Table 1). After the rainy season ends parasites in the intermediate hosts seem to be still growing and therefore could be detected during 2-3 months later. These larvae are ingested by the first intermediate host (copepod) and develop into second-stage larvae. It is known that about half (43-52%) of the total AL3 number was accumulated in the livers of fresh water fish, including eels, cat fish, snake fish, and others, while the remaining half distributed in the whole body muscles [23].
In March, the infection bcame negative (0%) in APSK farm and showed the lowest (6.3%) in MBBK wild-caught eels.
The catching areas around MBBK are the small canals which join to big rivers, Chao Phraya and Bang Pakong Rivers. We hypothesize that in the beginning of winter, the aquatic environment or water level was still high enough for supporting the survival of all the intermediate hosts.
Following ingestion of the infected copepods by the second intermediate hosts (fish, frogs, snakes, and fowls), the second-stage larvae develop into third-stage and later into advanced third stage larvae (AL3).
Therefore, in the present study, we studied the burden of Gnathostoma AL3 in swamp eels purchased from a farm in the district of Aranyaprathet Sa Kaeo Province and compared with the results obtained from wild-caught eels sold in a market in Min Buri District, Bangkok, Thailand by using the liver as the target organ to quantify the prevalence and intensity of AL3 population.
Therefore, we investigated the eels from both APSK farm and MBBK market as the representatives of the consumed eels in Thailand. When water decreases in the late winter, some copepods which serve as the first intermediate hosts might not be able to survive.
An AL3 finally develops into an adult worm if the second intermediate host is ingested by a definitive host.
The species identification was done based on the criteria of morphology and number of cephalic hooklet rows as described [24]. Thus, the parasite life cycle may be interrupted and result in low infection rates or negativity for AL3 in summer. The AL3 intensity showed significant difference (P=0.011) between these 2 different sources of eels.
Man is its accidental host by ingestion of undercooked fish or poultry containing AL3 [14].
Many other studies on AL3 prevalence and intensity in eels sold in local markets were reported [19,20].
In contrast, eels can dig into mud burrows; breathe atmospheric air and live in anoxic environments.
They are nocturnal predator devouring crustaceans, copepod, fishes, and other small aquatic animals [27]. In addition, an AL3 can invade the eye, brain, and other visceral organs which can cause serious illnesses [12,14-16]. This may affect the standard farming of the culture farm and also present a risk of consuming undercooked eels from the wild-caught and farmed eels.



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