Insulin treatment type 2 diabetes,blood glucose levels for type 2 diabetes,type 1 diabetes treatment uptodate youtube,diabetes pills type 1 youtube - Reviews


In type 1 diabetes the pancreas no longer produces insulin (or at least not a significant amount) therefore the primary type 1 diabetes treatment consists of giving the body insulin as closely as we can to the way the body would do it naturally.
There is no one right way to manage diabetes, since many different types of insulin treatment can successfully control blood sugar levels.  The type of insulin treatment varies from person to person, and can depend on many individual factors – including age and life style.
Many type 1 diabetics have what is called a ‘honeymoon’ period for the first few months (or even year) after being diagnosed.
Over time, people with type 1 diabetes usually learn to adjust their own insulin dose, although you will need help from time to time.
There are a few types of insulin, which can be used alone or in combination in order to treat type 1 diabetes.
There are two general types of insulin treatment plans: intensive insulin treatment and standard (conventional) insulin treatment. Intensive insulin treatment — Intensive insulin treatment is best for keeping blood sugar in tight control.
Intensive insulin therapy is recommended for most people with type 1 diabetes because it gives you the best chance for successful blood sugar control, and it is best to start it as soon as possible. The drawback to intensive insulin control is that you might experience a higher rate of low blood sugars (hypoglycemia) and it is about 3 times as expensive as standard insulin treatment. Intensive insulin therapy usually entails a long acting insulin (like glargine or detemir) that is used as a basal insulin, and an additional rapid insulin (lispro, aspart, or glusine) every time you eat. The Diabetes Media Foundation is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt nonprofit media organization devoted to informing, educating, and generating community around living a healthy life with diabetes.
First and foremost, there are two types of Diabetes, and they are very different from one another.
Diabetes is a serious health condition that not only affects your lifestyle, but puts you at risk for other health conditions including high blood pressure, stroke, and nerve damage.  Many Americans are at risk for type 2 diabetes, and the numbers are growing yearly. One change that I always recommend to my clients when we discuss lifestyle-eating, and healthy living options that can be made, is to give up soda. People often look at me, horrified.  They would rather I ask them to nibble on a pigs ear!  Here are some facts for you about regular and diet sodas and what they do to your body and your mind. British-Swedish drugmaker AstraZeneca has been approved by the FDA for its once-a-day Xigduo XR extended-release tablet to treat adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the United States. The Xigduo FDA approval gives the two anti-hyperglycaemic agents, dapagliflozin and metformin, a green light to be used as a once-daily oral tablet.
SGLT2 inhibitors are a new class of medicines that remove glucose from the body through the kidneys. However, safety worries have thus far limited uptake for the SGLT2 class, as the treatments have been linked to increased rates of genital and urinary tract infections, plus kidney damage and cardiovascular issues. LGM Pharma provides the two anti-hyperglycaemic agents dapagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride for research and development purposes, and offers clients continued support throughout the R&D process. Products currently covered by valid US Patents are offered for R&D use in accordance with 35 USC 271(e)+A13(1).
This entry was posted in Anti-Diabetic, Blood Glucose Regulator, FDA Approved 2014, OTC and Compounding Product, Therapeutic Classification and tagged Australia, type 2 Diabetes by admin. But many people with Diabetes are not aware that uncontrolled blood sugar can lead to problems relating to their oral health. There’s a correlation between high blood glucose levels and an increased risk of gum disease.
In addition, the areas around the teeth become populated with bacteria (and subsequent infections) and this in turn leads to an increase in blood sugar. Fact: Diabetics are more susceptible to bacterial infections and a decreased ability to fight bacteria that enter the gums.
This all comes back to our overall Wellness and how we all need to work on every aspect of ourselves…our mind, body and soul.
What is Insulin Resistance?Insulin resistance (IR) is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells.
Insulin requirements are relatively lower during this time, and when it ends patients insulin needs rise dramatically. Changes in weight, diet, health conditions (including pregnancy), activity level, emotional states, and work can affect the amount of insulin you need to take in order to control your blood sugar. Most people with type 1 diabetes meet with a doctor or nurse every three to four months, and review blood sugar levels and insulin doses at these visits, helping to fine-tune diabetes control. You will need to take 3 or more insulin shots per day or use an insulin pump, and you will need to check your blood sugar frequently. However, this regimen will be successful only if you are fully committed to it and you have good understanding of the regimen—this means checking your sugars 4 or more times a day. Many people engage in a variety of defenses and excuses when faced with the diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes.


Whether the patient is diagnosed with Type 1 or Type 2, the health care issues involved are painful and costly.  Peripheral neuropathy is a painful and difficult to treat complication of diabetes.
AstraZeneca’s once-daily tablet is indicated as an adjunct therapy to diet and exercise to improve glycaemic control. Dapagliflozin is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and metformin hydrochloride is a biguanide, which decreases glucose production and improves the body’s response to insulin.
As a result, peak sales estimates for the class of drugs have been erratic, with some pegging their potential north of $5 billion and others expecting cumulative revenue more in line with $2 billion a year. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes affecting patients globally, and the United States alone has over 23 million people suffering from this condition. If your blood sugar levels are not controlled, then this can lead to such systemic disorders as heart disease, stroke and kidney disease.
And not only do the gums become infected, but we also tend to lose the bone that is holding onto the roots of the teeth.
Infections lead to an increase in blood sugar and this makes the diabetes harder to control…again…a vicious circle. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist that helps the pancreas release more insulin after a meal to keep a person’s blood sugar levels under control. Insulin resistance in fat cells reduces the effects of insulin and results in elevated hydrolysis of stored triglycerides in the absence of measures which either increase insulin sensitivity or which provide additional insulin. Standard insulin treatment is an older regimen, although it may still be recommended for selected patients.
Unfortunately, ignoring the information isn’t an answer that will help or resolve anything.
Then after a long battle, Eli Lilly and Boehringer Ingelheim finally won approval for empagliflozin. Continued research and development of new and innovative treatments to combat this ever growing patient population is not only prudent, but also extremely necessary. The medication is currently available as a once-daily injection (VictozaPen), but an oral form of Victoza is undergoing testing.Victoza stimulates the production of insulin as needed, based on the body’s blood glucose level to decrease post-meal hyperglycemia. Increased mobilization of stored lipids in these cells elevates free fatty acids in the blood plasma. Meanwhile, Pfizer and Merck are still working through late-stage trials with the competing ertugliflozin.
The medication is active for 12 hours after the injection to provide benefits through all of the patient’s mealtimes.Victoza is made by a company called Novo Nordisk, which is one of the largest and broadest-reaching pharmaceutical companies that produce medications for diabetic patients in the world. Insulin resistance in muscle cells reduces glucose uptake (and so local storage of glucose as glycogen), whereas insulin resistance in liver cells results in impaired glycogen synthesis and a failure to suppress glucose production. Its generic name is liraglutide, but the generic counterpart of this medication has not yet been approved for sale. Elevated blood fatty-acid concentrations (associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus Type 2), reduced muscle glucose uptake, and increased liver glucose production all contribute to elevated blood glucose concentration.
It is a newer medication when compared with some of the other treatments available to patients with type 2 diabetes and it should not be used to treat any other form of diabetes or hypoglycemia. Liraglutide should be used with other therapies for diabetes treatment, including exercise and healthy eating habits.Victoza UsesAt this time, Victoza is used as part of a complete treatment and prevention plan for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Individuals with this condition do not produce enough insulin on their own to control the levels of glucose, or sugar, in their blood. Victoza works with the pancreas and digestive system to prevent either of these potentially life-threatening conditions from occurring. Because Victoza is still a new medication, other possible uses, as well as side effects are still unknown.
This medication also slows the time it takes for food to leave the stomach, thereby helping to keep patients’ appetites under control and sometimes even helping them to lose weight. In an ''insulin-resistant'' person, normal levels of insulin do not have the same effect on muscle and adipose cells, with the result that glucose levels stay higher than normal. Patients should not be concerned with hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, because the medication is specially designed to respond only to high levels of sugar in the blood.Victoza is taken once daily at the same time each day by injection and is 97% similar to the naturally occurring hormone in the body that signals natural insulin production. To compensate for this, the pancreas in an insulin-resistant individual is stimulated to release more insulin.
The elevated insulin levels have additional effects (see insulin) which cause further biological effects throughout the body.The most common type of insulin resistance is associated with a collection of symptoms known as metabolic syndrome. It is not recommended to be the first medication used to fight type 2 diabetes, but it is a wonderful alternative for patients who do not respond to more conventional therapies.
This is often seen when hyperglycemia develops after a meal, when pancreatic I?-cells are unable to produce sufficient insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels (euglycemia).
The inability of the I?-cells to produce sufficient insulin in a condition of hyperglycemia is what characterizes the transition from insulin resistance to Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Various disease states make the body tissues more resistant to the actions of insulin.


Recent research is investigating the roles of adipokines (the cytokines produced by adipose tissue) in insulin resistance. Exercise reverses this process in muscle tissue, but if left unchecked, it can spiral into insulin resistance.Elevated blood levels of glucose a€” regardless of cause a€” leads to increased glycation of proteins with changes (only a few of which are understood in any detail) in protein function throughout the body.
With respect to visceral adiposity, a great deal of evidence suggests two strong links with insulin resistance. First, unlike subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose cells produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and Interleukins-1 and -6, etc. In numerous experimental models, these proinfammatory cytokines profoundly disrupt normal insulin action in fat and muscle cells, and may be a major factor in causing the whole-body insulin resistance observed in patients with visceral adiposity.
Second, visceral adiposity is related to an accumulation of fat in the liver, a condition known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this case, the production of antibodies against insulin leads to lower-than-expected glucose level reductions (glycemia) after a specific dose of insulin. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that insulin may modulate the shift of Mg from extracellular to intracellular space.
Intracellular Mg concentration has also been shown to be effective in modulating insulin action (mainly oxidative glucose metabolism), offset calcium-related excitation-contraction coupling, and decrease smooth cell responsiveness to depolarizing stimuli.
Poor intracellular Mg concentrations, as found in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and in hypertensive patients, may result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity at the insulin receptor level and exaggerated intracellular calcium concentration. Both events are responsible for the impairment in insulin action and a worsening of insulin resistance in noninsulin-dependent diabetic and hypertensive patients. By contrast, in T2DM patients daily Mg administration, restoring a more appropriate intracellular Mg concentration, contributes to improve insulin-mediated glucose uptake.
The benefits deriving- from daily Mg supplementation in T2DM patients are further supported by epidemiological studies showing that high daily Mg intake are predictive of a lower incidence of T2DM. An American study has shown that glucosamine (often prescribed for joint problems) may cause insulin resistance.Insulin resistance has also been linked to PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) as either causing it or being caused by it. Insulin resistance has certainly risen in step with the increase in sugar consumption and the substantial commercial usage of HFCS since its introduction to the food trades; the effect may also be due to other parallel diet changes however. CellularAt the cellular level, excessive circulating insulin appears to be a contributor to insulin resistance via down-regulation of insulin receptors. Since the usual instances of Type 2 insulin resistance are distinct from pathological over production of insulin, this does not seem to be the typical cause of the insulin resistance leading to Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the largest clinical issue connected with insulin resistance. The presence of insulin resistance typically precedes the diagnosis of Types 2 diabetes mellitus, however, and as elevated blood glucose levels are the primary stimulus for insulin secretion and production, habitually excessive carbohydrate intake is a likely contributor.
Additionally, some Type 2 cases require so much external insulin that this down-regulation contributes to total insulin resistance.Inflammation also seems to be implicated in causing insulin resistance. PKC Theta inhibits Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) activation and hence prevents glucose up-take in response to insulin. MolecularInsulin resistance has been proposed at a molecular level to be a reaction to excess nutrition by superoxide dismutase in cell mitochondria that acts as a antioxidant defense mechanism. It is also based on the finding that insulin resistance can be rapidly reversed by exposing cells to mitochondrial uncouplers, electron transport chain inhibitors, or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetics.GeneticIndividual variability is a cause with an inherited component, as sharply increased rates of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are found in those with close relatives who have developed Type 2 diabetes.
DiseaseSub-clinical Cushing's syndrome and hypogonadism (low testosterone levels) seem to be the major insulin resistance causes .Recent research and experimentation has uncovered a non-obesity related connection to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. It has long been observed that patients who have had some kinds of bariatric surgery have increased insulin sensitivity and even remission of Type 2 diabetes. This suggested similar surgery in humans, and early reports in prominent medical journals (January 8) are that the same effect is seen in humans, at least the small number who have participated in the experimental surgical program.
The speculation is that some substance is produced in that portion of the small intestine which signals body cells to become insulin resistant. If the producing tissue is removed, the signal ceases and body cells revert to normal insulin sensitivity. Both metformin and the thiazolidinediones improve insulin resistance, but are only approved therapies for type 2 diabetes, not insulin resistance, ''per se''.
By contrast, growth hormone replacement therapy may be associated with increased insulin resistance.Metformin has become one of the more commonly prescribed medications for insulin resistance, and currently a newer drug, exenatide (marketed as Byetta), is being used. Exenatide has not been approved except for use in diabetics, but often improves insulin resistance by the same mechanism as it does diabetes.
It also has been used to aid in weight loss for diabetics and those with insulin resistance, and is being studied for this use as well as for weight loss in people who have gained weight while on antidepressants. The ''Diabetes Prevention Program'' showed that exercise and diet were nearly twice as effective as metformin at reducing the risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes.Many people with insulin resistance currently follow the lead of some diabetics, and add cinnamon in therapeutic doses to their diet to help control blood sugar.



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