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Insulin Resistance Vs Insulin Sensitivity When it comes to insulin and insulin sensitivity vs insulin resistance, you are always on a continuum of how insulin sensitive your are are and what tissues are most effective at absorbing glucose. This entry was posted in Misc, Nutrition and tagged carbohydrates, carbs, diabetes, insulin. Equine Insulin Resistance is a condition in horses that is very similar to type II diabetes in humans. It is important to note that while obesity and Insulin Resistance are often commonly present together, not all Insulin Resistant horses are obese and not all obese horses are Insulin Resistant.
The causes for Equine Insulin Resistance are still unknown, but several possibilities exist.
If the horse tends towards obesity, formulate a balanced diet with low sugars containing primarily grass, or legume mix hay. Insulin Resistance in horses is best treated if the horse is obese by weight loss through exercise and diet. Another good supplement for Insulin Resistant horses is Metaboleeze.  Metaboleeze lowers circulating levels of insulin, thereby improving insulin sensitivity.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 7 per cent of women of reproductive age. In the majority of cases PCOS is diagnosed because amenorrhea, obesity or overweight, acne or hirsutism occur. The most common characteristic is the menstrual abnormality: menstrual intervals can be longer than 35 days and there are fewer than eight menstrual cycles a year. The elevated levels of male hormones result in excess facial and body hair (hirsutism) and adult or severe adolescent acne.
In these women the ovaries appear polycystic so characterized by an increase in antral follicles and ovarian stroma as well as by theca cell hyperplasia and ovarian cortical thickening. Therefore, expecially if the obesity (or the overweight) increases the condition, PCOS becomes a factor and a part of an heterogeneous disorder called "metabolic syndrome", in which the metabolism of carbohydrates and the pathway of insulin play a very significant role.
Metabolic syndrome is a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels. Insulin resistance is defined clinically as the inability of a known quantity of exogenous or endogenous insulin to increase glucose uptake and utilization in an individual as much as it does in a normal population.
Insuline resistance is very common and plays a central pathogenic role in PCOS, it is present in approximately 50-70 per cent of these women.
The studies about insulin signaling pathways in different responsive tissues - such as adipose tissues, skeletal muscles, adipose tissues, fibroblasts as well as ovaries - suggest a post receptor signaling defect: metabolic action of insulin is compromised but not the steroidogenic and mitogenic actions. For these reasons in the women affected by PCOS high androgen levels lead to menstrual disturbances, development of ovarian cysts and hirsutism, all clear symtomps typical of the disorder. IR also increases the risk for development of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular abnormalities in these women.
Adipocytes are not simply a storage depot: they are also endocrine organs, with multiple metabolic roles.
The adipocyte hormones leptin and adiponectin activate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle and other tissues, a pathway that increases fat oxidation and glucose transport. Also physical exercise activates the AMPK and, importantly, the same pathway is activated by the antidiabetic agents such as thiazolidinediones and metformin, used in the therapy of PCOS. When fat mass increases, leptin blood level increases, suppressing appetite until weight is lost. However obese individuals generally exhibit an unusually high circulating concentration of leptin : they are resistant to the effects of leptin. Also adiponectin is synthetised by adipocytes and its plasma concentration falls with increasing obesity. Finally adipose tissue in obese persons shows higher expression of pro-inflammatory proteins, including TNF-? and IL-6. TNF-? increases systemic insulin resistance by promoting the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue. In the same condition IL-6(whose concentration correlates with insulin resistance) increases lipolysis and fat oxidation.
Moreover, there is a relationship between iron deficiency and obesity: in fact the chronic low-grade inflammation that characterizes obesity enhances hepcidin production, the principal regulator of iron availability.
Then, hepcidin inhibits iron transport across the gut mucosa reducing iron absorption and also inhibits transport of iron out of macrophages (site of iron storage and transport).
A considerable iron deficiency ends up paralysing mechanisms and pathways that need iron, first of all the mitochondrial elecron transport chain that drives ATP synthesis. About the last two points it is funded by now that the two major pharmacological approaches to the treatment of diabetes are also an efficient therapy of PCOS. These are the insulin sensitizers: the biguanide metformin and the thiazolidinediones troglitazone, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone.
Metformin modestly increases menstrual regularity and ovulation and decreases weight and hyperandrogenism. If drugs are not enough to avoid a pregnancy, gonadotropins so follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are administered by injection. However, the safest and cheapest therapy that has shown benefit both in diabetes and PCOS is weight loss by lifestyle modification. Several studies have revealed that even modest weight loss (10–20%) improves all symptoms of PCOS in obese patients: acne, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularities. The improvements are likely a result of the reductions in insulin levels, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension (all factors of the metabolic syndrome). It is useful to pay attention to dietary composition: increasing fiber intake (because fiber slows nutrient absorption after meals and reduces insulin secretion), reducing both carbohydrates and the total calories intake. Finally, as a lifestyle modification, physical exercise helps sustain weight loss, but it also has other benefits.
Exercise as the primary intervention without attendant weight loss (< 5% weight loss) improved insulin sensitivity and testosterone index and induced ovulation in 9 of 18 obese PCOS patients.
The key enzyme of all the therapies is certainly the 5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK that plays a central role in cellular energy homeostasis.
It is expressed in various tissues, including the liver, the brain, and the skeletal muscle.
Then, clearly the AMPK pathway involves all the targets implied in the more difficult complications of PCOS, so the metabolic syndrome and the insuline resistance. Both the drug therapy, first of all the metformin, and the muscle contraction close in the activation of this enzyme, that is also the target of leptin and adiponectin.
The PCOS is a very heterogeneous disorder that needs an early diagnosis to avoid the regression in the worse manifestations, such as the diseases related with the carbohydrates metabolism and the insulin resistance. Either way there are valid solutions and treatments for both women who want to plan a pregnancy, and not.


Anyway, the most prudent and natural approach to this disorder corresponds to adjust the lifestyle with a correct and adapt diet and above all an healthy and moderate physical exercise.
Autoimmune disease symptoms can range from being mildly annoying to absolutely debilitating. Some diseases are so commonplace, some folks forget they are actually really autoimmune diseases. Some of these autoimmune symptoms are genetic but many of them are solely caused by diet and lifestyle. We found a simple diet plan that helps manage weight, dental issues, diabetes, thyroid problems, and autoimmune issues. Perhaps the biggest misconception that people have suffered about diabetes is that it happens only to older people.
They too suffer from typical “Diabetes” symptoms but most people just don’t know that these symptoms could be. The main function of insulin is to help convert the glucose from food into glucose, which is a fuel for the body. When diabetes is caused due to less insulin production or zero production of insulin by the beta cells in pancreas, it is classified as Type 1 diabetes. It is believed that type 1 diabetes occurs because the healthy body tissues are attacked due to a lowering of immunity. Knowing about the early diabetes symptoms can help you prevent it of diagnose it right in its earliest stages when it still hasn’t done much harm to your body. People suffering from diabetes not only show physical symptoms but their cognition skills might be affected too. Any kind of tingling, numbness  and prolonged pain in any part of the hands or the feet can indicate the existence of blood sugar. As the people suffering from diabetes are prone to infections, they might have wounds which take a lot of time to heal. Vomiting and stomach pains are most often assumed to be due to either food poisoning or common flu, but it can also be a symptom of diabetes. Lifestyle diseases like diabetes, linked to sedentary lifestyles, obesity and bad eating habits, are catching people young. Madhavi is a senior editor at UrbanWired with deep love and passion for all things health, wellness, fitness and fashion. Content (text, audio, video) on this website is only intended to provide general information to the reader and is not intended to be used as medical advice, professional diagnosis or treatment. Signup to get the most important weekly news roundup from across the web about Health, Wellness & Fitness. Glucose, which is sugar, serves as the drive for many functions in the body and in response to high glucose levels, insulin is usually produced. The most common are the lethargy, weight gain, weight loss, muscle loss, lack of stamina, crusty neck, and the concentration of fat in areas such as the loin, behind the shoulder, and tail head. Diet and obesity tend to be at the top of the list with obese horses and those fed high levels of sugar and starch rather than fiber and far rations far more likely to acquire the disorder. Testing pastures and dry forages for the amounts of sugar present is also a good practice for prevention. A minimum exercise of 30 minutes and the elimination of carbohydrates through less grains and sugar for the horse’s diet are good beginners.
When used in conjunction with typical therapies (pergolide or cyproheptadine), evidence suggests that Metaboleeze corrects Insulin Resistance more rapidly.
Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, particularly heart failure, and diabetes. IR progresses towards the development of compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and hyperinsulinemia implies hyperandrogenemia.
The enlarged adipocytes of obese individuals recruit macrophages and promote inflammation and the release of a range of factors that predispose toward insulin resistance. This hormone circulates in blood and acts on receptors in the hypothalamus of the brain, where it inhibits appetite counteracting the effects of neuropeptide Y (that on the contrary stimulates the appetite) and supporting the synthesis of ?-MSH, an appetite suppressant. The high concentrations of leptin from the enlarged adipocytes drives leptin desensitization, so the body does not adequately receive the satiety feeling subsequent to eating. Reduced adiponectin concentrations correlate with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and hypertrophy of the adipocytes. So, in states of high hepcidin levels (including inflammatory states such as the obesity), serum iron levels fall. In particular is known that the cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small heme protein associated with the inner mithocondrial membrane that transfers electrons between Complexes III (Coenzyme Q - Cyt C reductase) and IV (Cyt C oxidase) through the passage from the ferric iron (oxidized form) to ferrous iron (reduced form).
These agents improve not only glucose control, but also the reproductive abnormalities associated with PCOS. It improves insulin resistance, increases peripheral glucose uptake and decreases hepatic glucose production. Pramlintide is an analog of amylin, a ?-cell hormone that is normally co-secreted with insulin; it complements the effects of insulin in postprandial glucose control, in part by suppressing glucagon secretion. Moreover an outpatient surgery called “laparoscopic ovarian drilling” is an option for few candidate women with PCOS. In PCOS, women who self-reported 8 hours of sports activities per week had improvement in acne and menstrual irregularities. The functions of AMPK are: stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and muscle glucose uptake, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells. I have seen many of the problems on the autoimmune disease list reverse once the diet is cleaned up properly. However, recognizing early diabetes symptoms, can prevent it from becoming too severe and cause major harm to internal organs. Though, there are a number of medications to control diabetes and enhance your cells’ reception to insulin, the problem is never uprooted completely. People suffering from diabetes have a tremendous amount of blood loss if there is an injury or an accident.
Pancreas become dysfunctional: As we already know, it is the pancreas which release insulin which is responsible for keep the blood sugar level within normal limits.
Insulin Resistance: Sometimes even if the body cells absorb insulin, they fail to use it correctly. Defective Insulin: Sometimes there is also a condition wherein the insulin produced by pancreas fails to carry out its function adequately. Beta cells are special cells which are present in the pancreas and are responsible for insulin production. In type 2 diabetes, the fat, liver and muscle cells do not respond well to the insulin that is being produced by the beta cells.


It leads to other chronic conditions as well, reducing the overall well being of an individual. They might not be able to concentrate for a long time or might simply not be interested in taking up any task. It is not only unhealthy to lose weight that way, but it’s an open invitation to other diseases too. Checking up for the same is absolutely necessary in such cases as this symptom can complicate things further. These wounds can cause a lot of blood loss as it is tough to stop bleeding in diabetic patients. By the time we actually realize that there is a problem somewhere, the damage is already done.
More and more people below the age of 35 are seen suffering from obesity, hypertension and diabetes. Diabetes, if detected early, can easily be kept under control and you can still lead a healthy and tension-free life. She is a master's graduate in human resource management but fell in love with healthy living. Insulin’s primary function is to facilitate glucose levels in the blood which also relates to glucose uptake by cells and formation of fat. There is also significance in the relationship between Laminitis in horses and Insulin Resistance. Insulin Resistance is also far more prone to older horses and those with a family history of Laminitis. It is important to note that the horse’s diet is the most important step is prevention and the prevention is always preferable to treatment.
If the iron level is very low the cyt c and all the chain may not to operate well and the muscle prefer not to oxidize energetic substrates, principally the glucose. Anti-androgen therapy, such as spironolactone (that blocks the effects of androgens on the skin) can be added for further treatment of hirsutism.
D-chiro-inositol is an insulin sensitizer that has preliminarily been shown to increase ovulation in PCOS.
The surgeon makes a small incision in the abdomen, inserts a tube attached to a camera (laparoscope) and uses electrical or laser energy to burn holes in follicles on the surface of the ovaries.
High sugar levels are a result of low levels of insulin, secreted by pancreas, for lowering the glucose levels in blood.
Patients also have to suffer from a number of restrictions on what they can eat and what they can’t throughout their lives. The wounds of such people do not heal quickly and so there are high chances of it becoming septic.
When the pancreas fail to release the necessary quantities of insulin, we can say that they are dysfunctional.
As there is no insulin, there is glucose build up in the bloodstream instead of its supply to body cells. This happens because high levels of fat makes it very difficult to utilize insulin in the proper manner. Affecting almost all the parts of the body, it is a silent killer, as we have already read before.
High levels of blood sugar in spite of eating a proper diet makes this weight loss possible. If not taken care of in time, it can affect the eyesight further and damage the retina or induce cataract too.
For all those who have a hard time maintaining the work-health balance, getting regular health checkups done is one of the advised solutions to prevent harm due to diabetes.
Given how uninformed people were about personal health, fitness and fashion; she felt compelled to educate, enlighten and entertain the average joe and jane around the globe. We do not undertake any responsibility or liability of any health issues caused by following advise on this website. Equine Insulin Resistance occurs when there is a reduction in sensitivity to insulin that decreases the ability of glucose to be sent to the cells from the bloodstream.
With either Laminitis, or Insulin Resistance comes high risk for the other to eventually accompany. In this way it may become not responsive to insuline (because it doesn’t manage to use glucose) and aids the condition of insuline resistance.
Unfortunately the genes can turn up when people eat a diet full of animal products, dairy, and animal-based oils.
When there is insufficient amount of insulin being produced, blood sugar levels go way beyond the normal levels, and a person is believed to be suffering from diabetes. When the body cells are unable to respond to the insulin produced, the condition is known as insulin resistance. This condition is very rare and it is mostly one of the first two factors which lead to diabetes.
So, when these cells do not use insulin, it is stored in the bloodstream increasing blood sugar. So, it is absolutely necessary to know the signs and symptoms of diabetes for starting early treatment.
So much so that at times, it becomes extremely uncontrollable and the gaps between the next visit to the loo is very less. You may also be having cravings for sweet food and may be snacking on food more often in between meals. These conditions are not curable unless and until the blood sugar levels come back to normal. Most conventional care is to place someone on lifelong drugs that turn down the immune system and their pain levels. Other contributing factors are a refined high carbohydrate diet, too many medications or vaccines, serious illness, or even chronic stress.
Those with low activity levels, excess weight around the waist and a poor diet are at a higher risk of contracting type 2 diabetes. According to the International Diabetes Foundation, there are a few common symptoms which are a combination of type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes.
This happens when body cells do not respond adequately to the insulin produced, giving rise to diabetes.



Type 2 diabetes metabolic pathways jobs
Insulin resistance from benign to type 2 diabetes mellitus




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