Insulin pump therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus,how to prevent high blood sugar in the morning ranges,can diabetic patient donate blood in india,gc ghybe poperinge openingsuren - Try Out


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (sometimes called insulin-dependent diabetes) is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas produces little or no insulin. In 2011 the International Diabetes Federation estimated more than 350 million people worldwide suffered from diabetes and expected an increase to more than 550 million people by 2030. Insulin replacement by needle injection and subcutaneous pumps has had a huge impact on extending the lives of millions of patients with diabetes. Pancreas transplantation has resulted in insulin independence in most patients during the first year after transplant, but it is also associated with a risk of complications from surgery, as well as long-term immunosuppression treatments. Another option is transplanting just the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, which is much less invasive as procedures go (injection of cells under portal vein under local anesthesia). Gene therapy on the other hand looks to insert a properly functioning version of the insulin producing gene back into your own cells.
Work in this area over the last decade has produce some very promising results in reprogramming liver, gut, and pancreatic cells into insulin producing cells. Callejas D, Mann CJ, Ayuso E, Lage R, Grifoll I, Roca C, Andaluz A, Ruiz-de Gopegui R, Montane J, Munoz S, Ferre T, Haurigot V, Zhou S, Ruberte J, Mingozzi F, High K, Garcia F, Bosch F.
The major advantage of carb counting is that it gives flexibility to eat a meal or snack when ever you wish and gives a freedom to choose any food you like.
The carbohydrate content of a meal is quantitatively a determining factor of the mealtime insulin doses.
Initially carbohydrate counting and insulin dose calculation may sound like a difficult task. The good news is that the technology for the management of type 1 diabetes is moving fast and is making living with type 1 diabetes a lot easier. At ACE diets we can help you to learn the differences between carbohydrate counting and general diabetes control.
We also offer free, instant access to over 1,500 related articles on your pet's health including preventive medicine, common and not so common diseases, and even informative case studies.
People with this form of diabetes require injections of insulin every day to control the glucose levels in their blood, or they will die. Type 1 diabetes accounts for approximately 5% of all cases of diabetes and it is estimated that 78 000 children develop type 1 diabetes every year. This solution is not ideal however, as it still typically means a reduced lifespan, intensive disease management, and a high likelihood of developing debilitating complications. Considered a highly effective therapy inducing sustained insulin independence or reduced insulin requirements in most patients. A group in Spain last month reported they replaced two genes to cure a dog of type 1 diabetes using a similar approach. Treatment of Diabetes and Long-term Survival Following Insulin and Glucokinase Gene Therapy. For people with Type 1 Diabetes, blood glucose control is best achieved by matching rapid acting insulin dose directly to the amount of carbohydrate consumed; this method is called Carbohydrate Counting. Find your individual “correction factor” – extra units of insulin to correct a high blood glucose level that is above your personal targets.
However, you will gradually become more familiar with the process and it will eventually become second nature. If you are using insulin pump therapy, you are probably already using the bolus calculators built into most pumps. The randomized and non-randomized studies have shown the efficiency of Insulin Pump Therapy across all age groups. We are experts in advising people with multiple daily injection therapy (MDI) as well as those on insulin pump therapy (CSII). For more information about diabetes mellitus, see the fact sheets "Diabetes Mellitus - General Information", and "Diabetes Mellitus - Principles of Treatment". We encourage you to read any of these popular articles below or search our extensive pet health library. With over 600 hospitals and 1,800 fully qualified, dedicated and compassionate veterinarians, we strive to give your pet the very best in medical care.
The only draw backs to this therapy are the shortage of high-quality donor cells, long-term graft failure, and the risks associated with long term immunosuppression. I first heard of a group out in BC working on this using gut endocrine stem cells (cells in the lining of your gut that reproduce to form various cell types) back in the early 2000’s.
Although the technology requires more testing before human clinical trials can be started, the continued advancements in this technology provide hope for those searching for a cure to diabetes. If you are on  MDI therapy there are now several blood glucose meters available with a built in mealtime (bolus) insulin calculator for calculating suggested insulin doses which means that it eliminates the need for you to make any mathematical calculations when estimating your mealtime insulin dose.
However, to make most of the technology, you also need to know about carbohydrates, how to monitor your blood glucose regularly, how to re-address insulin to carb ratios and about correction factors, how to re-address the adequacy of your background basal rate and use correct strategies for high and low blood glucose. What is diabetes mellitus?-->-->Diabetes mellitus in dogs is caused by the failure of the pancreas to regulate blood sugar. Not good toward boarding, grooming, prescription and non-prescription medication, and retail items.


The idea being that these cells would be able to detect blood glucose levels and then produce insulin responsively.
For example, 1 unit of rapid acting insulin may be appropriate for every 10g of carbohydrate in a meal.
Once you have worked out and programmed the information into the meter along with your insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio and correction factors, the rest is then calculated by the meter. Using fasting tests help you learn about your individual background insulin requirements over 24-hour period and allow programming of your pump to your individual needs. In the dog, diabetes mellitus is usually Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (also called Type 1 Diabetes). The group eventually started the company EnGene that now works on a multitude of gene therapy and protein delivery solutions.
Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Center of Animal Biotechnology and Gene Therapy, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. This ratio is individualized from patient to patient, and it may even vary for the same patient at different times of the day.
It is also important to make full use of the extra features available on your pump, such as temporary basal rates and multi wave and square wave boluses. This type of diabetes usually results from destruction of most or all of the beta-cells that produce insulin in the pancreas. As the name implies, dogs with this type of diabetes require insulin injections to stabilize blood sugar levels. Patients will also have to take into account pre-meal blood glucose level and give a correction dose if blood glucose is above the target range. The correction factor is again individualized to each patient and it may vary at different times of the day.
Dogs with diabetes mellitus require one or more daily insulin injections, and almost all require some sort of dietary change. Although the dog can go a day or so without insulin and not have a crisis, this should not be a regular occurrence; treatment should be looked upon as part of the dog's daily routine.
This means that you, as the dog's owner, must make both a financial commitment and a personal commitment to treat your dog. If are out of town or go on vacation, your dog must receive proper treatment in your absence. The "immediate crisis" is only great if your dog is so sick that it has quit eating and drinking for several days.
Dogs in this state, called diabetic ketoacidosis, may require a several days of intensive care. Otherwise, the initial hospitalization may be only for a day or two while the dog's initial response to insulin injections is evaluated. Your veterinarian will work with you to try to achieve consistent regulation, but some dogs are difficult to keep regulated.
Your dog needs consistent administration of insulin, consistent feeding, and a stable, stress-free lifestyle. Although it is not essential, your dog should live indoors to minimize uncontrollable variables that can disrupt regulation. However, this fear is unfounded, since the disposable injection needles are extremely sharp and cause minimal pain, the insulin does not sting or otherwise hurt on injection, and the injections are given under the skin in areas where it is impossible to damage internal structures. Once you are shown how to give them, you may be pleasantly surprised at how easy it is and how well your dog tolerates the injections. How is insulin stored?Insulin is a hormone that will lose its effectiveness if exposed to direct sunlight or high temperatures. If you have any doubt about the storage of your pet's insulin, it is safer to replace it rather than risk using ineffective insulin. Insulin is safe as long as it is used as directed, but it should be kept out of the reach of children.
Insulin comes in an airtight bottle that is labeled with the insulin type and the concentration. It is important to make sure you match the insulin concentration with the proper insulin needles. Insulin needles show their measurement in "units per ml", which must correspond to the concentration of the insulin you are using.
Your veterinarian will instruct you on which type of insulin you are using and which type of syringe you should use.
How should I draw up the insulin?Before administering the insulin, you must mix the contents. The reason you do not shake insulin is to prevent foam formation, which will make accurate measuring difficult due to the tiny air bubbles. When you have finished mixing the insulin, turn the bottle upside down to see if any white powder adheres to the bottom of the bottle.


In order to ensure that you have the correct amount of insulin in the syringe, make sure that it starts at the "0" on the syringe barrel, and that the edge of the plunger nearest the needle is on the correct unit mark on the barrel.
Before injecting your dog with the insulin, check that there are no air bubbles in the syringe. Then withdraw the needle from the insulin bottle and tap the side of the barrel of the syringe with your fingernail to make the air bubble rise to the tip of the syringe. When you have removed all of the air bubbles, double-check that you have the correct amount of insulin in the syringe.
2)  Have someone hold your dog while you pick up a fold of skin from somewhere along your dog's back in the "scruff" region of the neck with your free hand. 3)  Quickly push the very sharp, very thin needle through your dog's skin at about a forty-five degree angle. However, take care to push the needle through only one layer of skin and not into your finger or through two layers of skin and out the other side. The latter will result in injecting the insulin onto your dog's haircoat or onto the floor.
4)  To inject the insulin, place your thumb on the plunger and push it all the way into the syringe barrel.
If you are unsure if you administered it correctly, or if you "missed," do not administer additional insulin. Simply resume your normal schedule and give the next insulin injection at the regular time.
Immediately place the needle guard over the needle and place the used needle and syringe into a puncture-resistant container. Be aware that some communities have strict rules about disposal of medical waste material so don't throw the needle and syringe into the garbage until you know if this is permissible. It is usually preferable to take the used needles and syringes to your veterinary clinic or local pharmacy for disposal.
Should I sterilize the skin with alcohol before giving the injection?It is neither necessary nor desirable to swab the skin with alcohol to "sterilize" it. 2)  Due to the nature of the thick hair coat and the type of bacteria that live near the skin of dogs, brief swabbing with alcohol or any other antiseptic is not effective. 3)  Because a small amount of alcohol can be carried through the skin by the needle, it may actually carry bacteria with it into the skin. 4)  If you have accidentally injected the insulin onto the surface of the skin, you will not know it.
If you do not use alcohol and the skin or hair is wet following an injection, the injection was not done properly.
Although the above procedures may at first seem complicated and somewhat overwhelming, they will very quickly become second nature.
Your dog will soon learn that once or twice each day it has to sit still for a few minutes. In most cases, a reward of stroking results in a fully cooperative dog that eventually may not even need to be held. Although most dogs will require the same dose of insulin for long periods of time, it is possible for the dog's insulin requirements to suddenly change. However, the most common causes for change are a reduction in food intake and an increase in exercise or activity.
The dog should eat before giving the insulin injection, because once the insulin is administered it can't be removed from the body. Always remember that it is better in the short term for the blood sugar to be too high than too low.
This can occur because the insulin was not properly measured in the syringe or because two doses were given.
You may forget that you gave it and repeat it, or two people in the family may each give a dose. The most likely time that a dog will become hypoglycemic is the time of peak insulin effect (5-8 hours after an insulin injection). If there is still no response, contact your veterinarian immediately for further instructions. If it occurs at night or on the weekend, call your veterinarian's emergency phone number for instructions. SUMMARY OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSULIN TREATMENT OF YOUR DOG: Read and reread this material so that you understand the specifics of proper regulation and how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia.
If glucose is not detected, measure the glucose two consecutive days every other week or as directed.
If two injections are given each day, be sure the test is done before the evening injection.



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