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Considerable confusion surrounds the precise meaning of the terms overweight, overfat, and obese. The term overweight refers to a person’s body weight that exceeds an average for height (and perhaps age), usually by some standard deviation unit or percentage value.
In the early 1940s, Navy physician and medical researcher Albert Behnke (1919–90) was first to assess the body composition of 25 professional football players using methods other than weight-for-height tables. Clinicians and researchers use the body mass index (BMI), derived from body weight related to height squared—Wt ? (Ht x Ht)—to evaluate the normalcy of body size.
The BMI was derived in 1832 by the Belgian mathematician, astronomer, and statistician Adolphe Quetelet (1796–1874). Current classification standards for overweight and obesity (discussed in the next section) assume the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat remains independent of age, gender, ethnicity, and race. The importance of the BMI is its curvilinear relationship to all-cause mortality; this means that as BMI increases, so does the risk for cardiovascular complications, including hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and renal disease. When methods other than height and weight are available to determine human body composition (body-fat weight and fat-free body weight), one can more accurately place an individual’s body-fat level on a continuum from low to high, independent of body weight or height. Research suggests excess body fat, not excess body weight per se, explains the relationship between above-average body weight and disease risk, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing the composition of excess body weight to determine an overweight person’s disease risk.
Caution should be used when using the term obesity, instead of overfatness to describe cases of excess body weight. The following BMI-based classification is used to determine the adequacy of one’s body weight. The figure below shows the current standards for identifying obesity (defined by BMI ? 30) for six heights (from 5 feet 6 inches tall to 6 feet 3 inches tall). For example, a 6-foot man weighing 221 pounds and a 5-foot-6-inch woman weighing 186 pounds both have a BMI of 30, and both are approximately 30 pounds overweight. Using the BMI standards listed above, the prevalence of childhood and adult obesity has reached epidemic proportions, more than doubling for adults in the United States and globally over the past 30 years. VICTOR KATCH has been active in the exercise, nutrition, and weight control arena for more than 40 years at the University of Michigan.
About the AuthorVICTOR KATCH has been active in the exercise, nutrition, and weight control arena for more than 40 years at the University of Michigan. Deep Tissue massage refers to massage designed to relieve severe tension in the muscle and the connective tissue or fascia.
Airbrush Tanning is the newest trend for maintaining a safe, healthy yet glowing tan.It is a great alternative to the dangers of sun exposure or tanning beds. Sports massage focuses on increasing blood and lymphatic fluid flow, reducing and eliminating pain as well as tender trigger points, and increasing range of motion of the affected area. Myofascial release is a form of soft tissue therapy used to treat somatic dysfunction and accompanying pain and restriction caused by constricted fascia.
Trigger points refer to concentrated bundles of pain causing chemicals that exist within the muscle tissue.This surrounding muscle tissue contricts around the trigger point which reults in a shortened muscle.
Reiki sessions are performed to Reiki music in a very serene atmosphere that encourages deep relaxation and tranquility You are fully clothed and lying on a gently heated massage table The Reiki energy touch is administered by placing my hands on or over the body on specific areas that align with the 7 Chakras ( energy portals ) Many describe feeling a peaceful radience and serenity that flows through and around them during their Reiki treatment. During the ionic foot bath your feet rest in a basin of water which contains a little sea salt (for conductivity). During a foot reflexology session specific points on the soles of the feet that correspond to each system & organ are specifically treated in order to bring physical balance to the body. The presence of diabetes is based on the population aged 12 or older who reported that a health professional diagnosed them as having diabetes. Diabetes is an important indicator of population health because of its increasing prevalence, association with lifestyle risk factors, and far-reaching consequences. The aging population is the most important demographic change affecting diabetes prevalence worldwide. Family history (parent or sibling with diabetes) was associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes5. Diabetes becomes more prevalent with advancing age—1 in 6 senior males and 1 in 7 senior females reported a diagnosis of diabetes, compared with fewer than 1 in 200 people aged 12 to 24. Overall, males were more likely than females to be diagnosed with diabetes, particularly at ages 55 or older. These percentages were significantly different from the national percentage, even when accounting for the differing age structures in these provinces and territories. Many of those with low back pain do not get better after treatment due to a common misdiagnosis. In my career as a personal trainer specializing in pain reduction and posture improvement, I have seen roughly 40 clients with unresolved lower back pain who came to me for post physical therapy treatment (due to the Physical Therapist not ruling out SIJ dysfunction).

It baffles me that SIJ dysfunctions are being missed due to practitioners not performing the basic tests. The practitioner should place his thumbs at S2 or the ILA of the sacrum (shown above) on the same side as the Posterior Superior Iliac Spine (PSIS). Once the hands are placed in the proper positions, the patient will be instructed to stand on one leg while raising the opposite knee and to ninety degrees (waist height), flexing the hip for 2-3 repetitions. The short term answer:Pay a visit to a chiropractor who can move the locked joint and get you out of the pain cycle ASAP! Do not go a Chiropractor who only uses a device called an Activator (for an acute SIJ issue).
Please understand low back pain is one of the most misunderstood medical problems despite heavy research and training that has gone into it. Lastly, if you or someone you know is not getting better after about three months (give or take a little depending upon circumstance) do not continue to see the same practitioner expecting a different outcome!
Research emphasizes the need to distinguish between these terms to ensure consistency in use and interpretation.
While many people think of excess weight as being primarily fat, that is not always the case, particularly in active males and females at any age.
The first weight-for-height tables were established in 1943 by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and later revised in 1983. The BMI attempts to be a better indicator of weight status, relative to height, than body weight alone. For example, Asians have greater body fat content than Caucasians at a given BMI level and thus show greater risk for the fat-related illnesses of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The lowest health-risk category occurs for individuals with a BMI between 20-25, whereas the highest risk category includes individuals whose BMI exceeds 40. It is unfortunate that these terms often are used interchangeably without actually measuring body fat and related disease risk. The fact that BMI positively relates to disease risk, at least in population studies, is used to justify its use in this context, even if it does not relate well to actual body fat estimates for any one individual. The revised standards currently place 65 percent of adult Americans in either the overweight or obese categories—a shocking number—up from 56 percent in just the last 15 years. More people are overweight and obese than ever before, a startling statistic by any measure. He earned his undergraduate degrees in international relations (political science) and physical education (kinesiology) from California State University at Northridge. This type of massage focuses on the muscles located below the surface of the top muscles(deep to the surface muscles).
Sports massages can be broken into 4 distinct types – the pre-event sports massage, the post-event sports massage, the restorative sports massage and the rehabilitative sports massage. Performed as a concentrated slow drag with pressure to specific areas of the facia this is technique alows the therapist to release and elongate the fascia which allows the contracted muscles to resume their full lengthas well as increase circulation & increase venous and lymphatic drainage.
The trigger point pain frequently radiates from these points of local tenderness to broader areas, sometimes distant from the trigger point itself.
Common complications include heart disease and stroke, vision problems or blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage1.
Even if incidence rates were to remain stable, because of the growing number of seniors, the overall prevalence of diabetes would increase2,5. Rising percentages of Canadians in these categories7 could increase the prevalence of diabetes. While this may indicate a genetic predisposition, shared behaviours and increased awareness that leads to testing might also be factors associated with the family history. The actual number of people with diabetes is likely to be even higher8 because many people with diabetes may not be aware of it. Females in the 25 to 34 year old age group were more likely than males to report such a diagnosis. An algorithm to differentiate diabetic respondents in the Canadian Community Health Survey.
Dysfunction of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is often not ruled out as a potential cause of low back pain in many clinics.
For this article, I am only going to cover one of my favorite tests for SIJ function, the one-leg standing test (also known as the Gillet test, Stork test or kinetic test).
Dona€™t worry, for those of you without a background in anatomy and who are interpreting this picture from the frontal view a€“ this hand position takes place on the backside!
If these two landmarks are not moving in sync, one or both of the sacroiliac joints may be a€?locked upa€? on one side.

If you are in pain long enough, body compensations take place, creating additional and different layers of musculoskeletal disorders. Although an Activator can be a great tool, it does not provide enough force to move larger joints in acute pain situations when the joint is locked up. The best practitioners to work with are personal trainers specializing and experienced in pain and posture correction or physical therapists.
These tables serve as statistical landmarks based on the average ranges of body weight related to height in which men and women age 25-59 years have the lowest mortality rate. Competitive athletes clearly illustrate this point; many possess high muscularity and exceed the average weight for their sex and height but otherwise possess very little fat compared to their non-active peers. Carefully evaluating each player’s actual body fat indicated their excess weight consisted primarily of muscle weight, not fat weight.
Hispanic-American women also have a higher body fat percentage at a given BMI than European-American and African-American women. The term obesity with its many pejorative connotations seems unjustified in many instances. He also did undergraduate work in international relations at the prestigious University of Uppsala in Sweden. Swedish massage has shown to be helpful in reducing pain, joint stiffness, and improving function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee over a period of eight weeks.
As the names indicate, each type of sports massage has a different focus for the athlete as they are delivered at different times during their training and performance schedule. To accommodate swollen tender breasts and a growing belly, special pillows, positioning and techniques are utilized to ensure comfort for both the expecting mother and baby. Trigger point therapy is a very specific, excellent massage modality that facilitates the release of each consrtricted area of muscle allowing to relax and resume its full length, flexibility and strength. Reiki is becoming a widely accepted form treatment used in hospitals and during surgery to decrease bleeding, reduce bruising and speed recovery time Reiki can alleviate stress, anxiety and dpression. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for the year 2030.
The practitioner should maintain his hands in position on that side until both legs are tested.
Soft tissue work is critical alongside chiropractic care in treating acute SIJ for the first few visits. Sports massage is beneficial for athletes of all ages to aid in muscle recovery and avoidance of muscle injury due to over training as well as enhance speed, strength and overall performance. When our energy is high we are more capable of being healthy and feel happy and mentally balanced. The positive ions attract whatever is not natural to the body and these toxins are released through the pores in the soles of your feet. Lastly, the hands will palpate the opposite side of the sacrum while the process is repeated.
Chiropractors are often excellent at soft tissue work, so it is best to find one who can work both angles. Weight-for-height tables do not consider specific causes of death or disease status before death (morbidity). The BMI is expressed in kilograms per meters squared: weight in kilograms ? (height in meters X height in meters).
The development of Swedish massage is credited to Per Henrik Ling, though the Dutch practitioner Johan Georg Mezger adopted the French names to denote the basic strokes. Alternatively you can seek a massage therapist who specializes in myofascial release therapy or ART (active release therapy). A more desirable strategy, particularly for physically active individuals, evaluates body composition (percent body fat, fat weight, and fat-free body weight) by more sophisticated techniques that I will discuss in a future column. He has three children and five grandchildren, and is an avid exerciser who enjoys year-round walking and jogging with his wife, Heather, and playing golf whenever possible, weather permitting.