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Diabetic Ketoacidosis - What is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening emergency condition that often occurs in patients with type I Diabetes. The early stages of cancer may be asymptomatic, but a malignant tumor will eventually grow–large enough to be detected. Other symptoms include persistent headaches, chronic pain in bones and various areas of the body, persistent fatigue, persistent low-grade fever and repeated infection. Nurses are encouraged to provide as much care and comfort as possible to patients with cancer.
Priorities of care include provision of information about the disease, prevention of complications, promotion of comfort and preservation of optimal physiological functioning.
The first goal of diabetes treatment is to eliminate the symptoms and stabilize blood glucose levels.
Type 2 diabetes means that the body has insulin resistance; the fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin.
If left untreated, hyperglycemia can cause damage to nerves, blood vessels, and other body organs. Yale School of Medicine researchers have found that intensively controlling glucose (glycemic) levels in type-2 diabetes patients may not reduce the risk of kidney failure. To test the hypothesis that aggressive glycemic control can prevent renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, first author Steven G. The team found that compared with those who had usual treatment, intensively controlling glucose with higher doses of medication did not definitively reduce the risk of impaired kidney function, the need for dialysis, or death from kidney disease. Coca said many researchers have presumed that such intensive treatment would benefit patients by protecting the kidneys, but these results question whether patients truly are better off with this approach. According to a University of Texas study, Crazy Ants may become the dominant invasive ant species displacing Fire Ants in the near future. Scientists have successfully placed tiny synthetic motors in live human cells through nanotechnology.
What is Diabetic Nephropathy?Diabetic nephropathy (''nephropatia diabetica''), also known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome and intercapillary glomerulonephritis, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. Type 2 diabetes is triggered by multiple causes interacting with one another, such as genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors that may favor the development of diabetes there are overweight and obesity (especially excess of belly fat) and an unbalanced diet, rich in saturated fats and simple sugars. Often , diabetes is associated with other metabolic diseases, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia.
The main characteristic of diabetes is the presence of elevated blood glucose levels in the blood; hyperglycemia may be asymptomatic or present with nonspecific symptoms (such as persistent thirst or increased sense of hunger associated with weight loss). It 's very important to diagnose and treat diabetes the best way you can, because over time this disease can cause very serious complications, especially regarding retina and kidney. Type 2 diabetes must be treated by a healthcare professional with appropriate pharmacotherapy .


For lunch and dinner eat full meals composed of bread, pasta or rice (preferably cooked "al dente", using in about 50% of cases whole grains) plus a second course (meat or fish or cheese or cold meats or eggs or legumes) plus vegetables plus fruit. Limit sugary fruit: bananas, figs, persimmons, grapes, tangerines and clementines, dried fruit, dried and canned. Limit as much as possible the consumption of sweets (cookies, cakes, snacks, desserts) and carbonated soft drinks. Patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin may need personalized type 2 diabetes diet that is generally provided by the Diet and Nutrition Clinic Services. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. I want to explain a few secrets of endurance training by answering some fair and common questions about it. By continuing to use this website without changing the settings, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. It occurs when the sugar (glucose) in your body is not enough to be used as fuel for cells. The more it grows, the more it presses on nerves, producing pain and interfering with bodily functions. Interventions (CANCER) should be focused on patient’s comfort, altered body image, nutrition, chemotherapy, response to medications and respite for caretakers.
Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy. Chronic hyperglycemia injures the heart, even in patients without a history of heart disease or diabetes. The study, which is a review of data from seven clinical trials, is published in the May 28 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine. Coca of Yale and colleagues searched available medical literature and evaluated seven randomized trials involving 28,065 adult patients who were monitored for two to 15 years. I became a fitness passionate during the last 10 years, where I learned a lot by studying and also through personal experience. Cookies are files stored in your browser and are used by most websites to help personalize your web experience. It is also strongly associated with heart attacks and death in subjects with no coronary heart disease or history of heart failure. The disease is progressive and may cause death two or three years after the initial lesions, and is more frequent in men.
Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic kidney failure and end-stage kidney disease in the United States.
Further, once nephropathy develops, the greatest rate of progression is seen in patients with poor control of their blood pressure.
Also people with high cholesterol level in their blood have much more risk than others.The earliest detectable change in the course of diabetic nephropathy is a thickening in the glomerulus.
At this stage, the kidney may start allowing more serum albumin (plasma protein) than normal in the urine (albuminuria), and this can be detected by sensitive medical tests for albumin.


As diabetic nephropathy progresses, increasing numbers of glomeruli are destroyed by nodular glomerulosclerosis.
Now the amounts of albumin being excreted in the urine increases, and may be detected by ordinary urinalysis techniques. At this stage, a kidney biopsy clearly shows diabetic nephropathy.Diabetic nephropathy continues to get gradually worse. Complications of chronic kidney failure are more likely to occur earlier, and progress more rapidly, when it is caused by diabetes than other causes. The main treatment, once proteinuria is established, is ACE inhibitor drugs, which usually reduces proteinuria levels and slows the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Several effects of the ACEIs that may contribute to renal protection have been related to the association of rise in Kinins which is also responsible for some of the side effects associated with ACEIs therapy such as dry cough. The renal protection effect is related to the antihypertensive effects in normal and hypertensive patients, renal vasodilatation resulting in increased renal blood flow and dilatation of the efferent arterioles. Many studies have shown that related drugs, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), have a similar benefit. However, combination therapy, according to the ONTARGET study, is known to worsen major renal outcomes, such as increasing serum creatinine and causing a greater decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).Blood-glucose levels should be closely monitored and controlled.
As kidney failure progresses, less insulin is excreted, so smaller doses may be needed to control glucose levels.Diet may be modified to help control blood-sugar levels. Modification of protein intake can effect hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic injury.High blood pressure should be aggressively treated with antihypertensive medications, in order to reduce the risks of kidney, eye, and blood vessel damage in the body. Urinary tract and other infections are common and can be treated with appropriate antibiotics.Dialysis may be necessary once end-stage renal disease develops. These include, but are not limited to, bardoxolone methyl, olmesartan medoxomil, sulodexide, and avosentan This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.
There is an increase in blood pressure (hypertension) and fluid retention in the body plus a reduced plasma oncotic pressure causes oedema. Other complications may be arteriosclerosis of the renal artery and proteinuria.Throughout its early course, diabetic nephropathy has no symptoms. Most often, the diagnosis is suspected when a routine urinalysis of a person with diabetes shows too much protein in the urine (proteinuria). The urinalysis may also show glucose in the urine, especially if blood glucose is poorly controlled.
Serum creatinine and BUN may increase as kidney damage progresses.A kidney biopsy confirms the diagnosis, although it is not always necessary if the case is straightforward, with a documented progression of proteinuria over time and presence of diabetic retinopathy on examination of the retina of the eyes.



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