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Propolis is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources.
Genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population.
Cancer stem cells (CSC) are chemoresistant and implicated in tumor recurrence,metastasis and high patient mortality; CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester), a component of propolis, inhibits growth of MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231) cells, mdr gene expression, NF-?B, EGFR, and VEGF. All forms of diabetes are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and the development of diabetes-specific microvascular pathology in the retina, renal glomerulus, and peripheral nerve. Six volunteers took part in a double-blind crossover study performed in two phases of 3 days.
Besides a pioneer study on the effect of propolis on dentinal hypersensitivity in vivo was conducted. In conclusion there is some evidence that propolis may actively protect against oral disease due to its antimicrobial properties. Case report: a 36-year-old woman presented with severely pruritic, multiple, erythematous papules, patches and edema of the face, neck, arms, abdomen and thighs.
Products containing propolis are marketed in various oral forms such as tablets, toothpastes, gargles, syrups and lozenges. Adipose tissue distribution and risk of metabolic disease: does thiazolidinedione-induced adi-pose tissue redistribution provide a clue to the answer? Acute suppression of VLDL1 secretion rate by insulin is associated with hepatic fat content and insulin resistance. Cytokines promote Wnt signaling and inflammation and impair the normal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. It inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, is a potent leukotrienes biosynthesis inhibitor that blocks 5-lipoxygenase activity and arachidonic acid release.
Vascular endothelial growth factor plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor growth. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and derivatives. As a consequence of its microvascular pathology, diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, end-stage renal disease, and a variety of debilitating neuropathies. On the 4th day, the plaque index (PI) of the volunteers was scored and the supragingival dental plaque was analyzed. Twenty-six female subjects with age range 16–40 years (mean age 28 years) were included in the study. Before the cutaneous eruption, the patient had been ingesting propolis solution as a natural tonic for a few weeks. The growing use of propolis has been paralleled by reports of allergic contact dermatitis as a reaction to the substance.
Normally it is dark brown in color, but it can be found in green, red, black and white hues, depending on the sources of resin. In fact, many opthalmologic and neurodegenerative diseases seem to be mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress.
Acacetin decreas the steady level of VEGF mRNA level and inhibites VEGF transcriptional activation. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of propolis revealed a relatively high amount of phenylcarboxylic acids and low concentrations flavonoids when compared to the ethanolic special extract GH 2002.


Breast CSC (bCSC) from MDA-231 cells, a model of human triple-negative breast cancer, and mouse xenografts were isolated.
When islet b-cell function is impaired, insulin secretion is inadequate, leading to overproduction of glucose by the liver and under-utilization of glucose in peripheral tissue. Propolis extract is known to possess antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans ,a Gram-positive cocci, facultative anaerobic bacterium commonly found in the human oral cavity and a significant contributor to tooth decay.
She cutaneous examination revealed swollen erythematous papules and patches on the face, neck, abdomen and thighs, and marked erythematous swelling with oozing and crusting on the bilateral forearms. The adverse reactions due to propolis ingestion include allergic contact cheilitis, stomatitis, perioral eczema, labial edema, oral pain and dyspnea . Propolis is sticky at and above room temperature (20 °C) but at lower temperatures, it becomes hard and very brittle.
Excess ROS generation has damage to various cell components and triggering of the activation of specific signaling pathways. The cytotoxic and antiherpetic effect of propolis extracts against HSV-2 was analysed in cell culture, and revealed a moderate cytotoxicity on RC-37 cells. Under physiological conditions, a widespread antioxidant defense system protects the body against the adverse effects of free radical production. Because of its strong, anti-infective activity, propolis has often been called a “natural antibiotic.” Many studies show its strong inhibitory effect on a wide variety of pathogenic organisms. The chemical composition of propolis varies considerably from region to region, along with the vegetation.
AKT and HIF-1 are the essential downstream targets of acacetin for inhibiting VEGF expression in the cells. The antioxidant defense system represents a complex network with interactions, synergy, and specific tasks for a given antioxidant. Propolis has been found beneficial in the treatment of gingivitis and oral ulcers in several small case studies and pilot clinical studies. An experimental mouthrinse containing propolis was thus efficient in reducing supragingival plaque formation and IP formation under conditions of high plaque accumulation. It may be concluded that the propolis extract tested possesses anti-plaque activity and improves gingival health. The histopathological findings revealed spongiosis with marked crust, edema of the papillary dermis with vascular dilation and perivascular infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes.
In northern temperate climates, for example, bees collect resins from trees, such as poplars and conifers. Propolis extract and its active components showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging effect, a significant inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity, and an antilipoperoxidative capacity. Acacetin does not change HIF-1? mRNA level, but inhibites HIF-1? protein level through increasing its degradation and decreasing its stability.
Both propolis extracts exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-2 in viral suspension tests, infectivity was significantly reduced by >99% and a direct concentration- and time-dependent antiherpetic activity could be demonstrated for both extracts.
The efficiency of this defense mechanism is altered in diabetes and, therefore, the ineffective scavenging of free radicals may play a crucial role in determining the tissue damage.
In addition to the treatment of periodontopathies, preparations with propolis have been found to be antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, have antiscar effects, and to be highly antimycotic. The extract might be used as an alternative measure to prevent periodontal and gingival problems.


In order to determine the mode of virus suppression by propolis, the extracts were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Propolis-ethanol extract has a beneficial effect on reduction of blood sugar levels in alloxan-induced diabetes rabbits (alloxan is a toxic glucose analogue, which selectively destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas beta cells when administered to rodents and many other animal species).
The cutaneous lesions improved after four weeks of applying topical steroids and the oral administration of steroids and antihistamines.
However both propolis extracts exhibited high anti-herpetic activity when viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. After a washout period of four weeks following the complete healing of the skin eruptions, a patch test with propolis was performed. The bees seals the beehive with propolis to protect the colony from the elements, such as rain and cold winter drafts. Selectivity indices were determined at 80 and 42.5 for the aqueous and ethanolic extract, respectively, thus propolis extracts might be suitable for topical therapy in recurrent herpetic infection. Treatment of bCSC with CAPE (4.5-days) decreased CD44 levels by 95%, while another cell population containing 10-100-fold lower CD44 content concurrently increased. Propolis is also used by certain music instrument makers to enhance the appearance of the wood grain. Results suggest that CAPE causes pronounced changes in bCSC characteristics manifested by inhibition of self renewal, progenitor formation, clonal growth in soft agar, and concurrent significant decrease in CD44 content, all signs of decreased malignancy potential.
This makes the propolis a promising agent in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications because in diabetes mellitus, chronic hyperglycemia produces multiple biochemical sequelae, and diabetes-induced oxidative stress could play a role in the symptoms and progression of the disease.
Propolis is rich in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants; besides propolis is used as an antimicrobial, as an antiviral ,as an emollient to threat skin burns, as immunomodulator, as a dental antiplaque agent and an antitumor growth agent . Water-soluble fraction of Brazilian propolis and its bioactive constituent showed a strong antihyperglycemic effect, through the inhibition of intestinal maltase activity, this effect was more beneficial in modulating postprandial blood glucose level rise upon dietary carbohydrate intake.
For its potential role in contributing to human health, propolis is becoming increasingly popular. Propolis could be an effective functional food to prevent the development of insulin resistance induced by fructose-drinking rats in animal models that received 15% fructose solution in drinking water for 8 weeks.
Were also investigated the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) in STZ -treated rats. After 5 weeks of STZ injection, it was observed that there were significant increases in serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol with a concomitant decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol as compared with the control normal group. In addition, a significant elevation in pancreatic lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum NO amounting with marked reduction in serum reduced glutathione, catalase, and pancreatic superoxide dismutase were found. Meanwhile, oral daily treatment of animals with EEP ameliorated STZ-induced alterations in the animal body weight as well as in serum glucose, lipids, lipoproteins, NO, GSH, and CAT and pancreatic MDA and SOD. This can conclude that EEP offers a promising therapeutic value in prevention of diabetes and dyslipidemic profile. Further studies will be needed in future in order to determine which one(or more) of its active constituents has the main antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects.



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Comments

  1. su6

    Certain commonly prescribed medications, such as diuretics (enhance urine flow, opiates may.

    07.03.2014

  2. QARTAL_SAHIN

    High fat or high protein other meals.

    07.03.2014