Glp-1 drugs for diabetes treatment,type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in sub-saharan africa 2013,type 1 diabetes and insulin resistance symptoms - .

The FDA approved a new drug for diabetes today – Tazeum (albiglutide), a once per week injectible GLP-1 receptor agonist. This new drug is for people with type 2 diabetes who require additional help control their blood sugar levels. The drug is in the drug class GLP-1 receptor agonist class, the same class as current brand name drugs on the market – Victoza, Byetta and Bydureon. These are all injectible drugs and the newer medication which was approved goes by the brand name Tanzeum (albiglutide) and is manufactured by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline. This drug is the second in the class which has an extended release formulation which makes it a once weekly drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this article is to review the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes Forum - find support, ask questions and share your experiences with 209,001 people.
Approved in 2010, the diabetes drug operates with a 24-hour duration of action and is therefore taken by injection once per day. The drug displays a number of benefits such as in improving blood glucose control whilst helping with weight loss. How does Victoza (Liraglutide) work?Liraglutide functions over a 24-hour period to lower both fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels, and help people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar.
Liraglutide works by stimulating the secretion of insulin as well as suppressing the secretion of glucagon in a glucose-dependent manner. The drug also delays gastric (stomach) emptying, slowing down the absorption of glucose by the gut and reducing appetite. Victoza is prescribed for people with type 2 diabetes that are obese and are suffering with significant problems as a result of their weight. Victoza is injected, under the skin (subcutaneously), in areas such as the stomach (abdomen), thigh or upper arm.
Victoza can be taken in addition to other diabetes drugs such as metformin and sluphonylureas. Less common side effects include loss of appetite, indigestion, acid-reflux and constipation. In liraglutide in combination with metformin, no episodes of major hypoglycaemia have been observed. Some head-to-head studies have showed that Victoza can be more effective than Byetta. Researchers have clearly stated that Victoza is an appropriate GLP-1 analogue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Victoza has been shown to help patients to achieve weight loss by increasing satiety (feeling of fullness) and delaying gastric emptying, therefore reducing intake of calories.
Weight-gain is a common side-effect of type 2 diabetes treatments, and weight loss is an important goal.
Find support, ask questions and share your experiences with 209,001 members of the diabetes community. 10 week (free) low-carb education program developed with the help of 20,000 people with T2D and based on the latest research. The first comprehensive, free and open to all online step-by-step guide to improving hypo awareness. Xultophy is a prefilled pen containing a fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide, licensed for the treatment of type II diabetes in combination with oral hypoglycaemics.

Xultophy contains a fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec 100 units and liraglutide 1.8mg per ml. Investigators assessed the efficacy and safety of the combination product for the treatment of uncontrolled type II diabetes in two phase 3 clinical studies. Patients in the liraglutide arm followed a fixed-dose titration over 3 weeks to a dose of 1.8mg once daily. In both studies, the safety profile of the combination product reflected that of the individual components. GPs can get MIMS print & online and GPonline for free when they register online – take 2 minutes, and make sure you get your free MIMS access! Moreover, elderly diabetics have a greater mortality risk than their non-diabetic counterparts. Based on the lifestyle and medical condition of an elderly diabetic patient an appropriate diet is planned to meet the daily calorie requirement without boosting the blood sugar level.
Sucrose and refined carbohydrates in the diet should be replaced with complex carbohydrates and whole grains. Lactic acidosis is a serious side effect of metformin, which can be avoided by taking proper precautions while using the drug. Sulfonylurea medication is recommended as an alternative to metformin to patients susceptible to adverse reactions of metformin. Sulfonylurea is not recommended for diabetics suffering from cardiac problems, kidney impairment and gastrointestinal disorder. Usually DPP-IV inhibitor is combined with other diabetes drugs as it causes moderate changes in the blood sugar level when used alone. In elderly people with mild to moderate diabetes, GLP-1 analog drugs can be used as an adjunct to nutritional therapy and lifestyle modifications to keep the blood sugar level under control.
Insulin therapy can cause significant improvement in the quality of life of elderly diabetes patients.
A hormone which is defective in people with type 2 diabetes and responsible for first phase insulin response following a meal.
Liraglutide should be taken at the same time each day so it is advisable to pick a time of day that will be easy to remember and convenient. Hypoglycaemia is more common when liraglutide is used in conjunction with a sulphonylurea.
Following a 26-week study, patients who took liraglutide experienced a greater reduction in average blood sugar levels than those who took Byetta. GLP-1 is a hormone that is found in the gut, however, the drug itself is a chemical analogue which means that some changes to the original chemical structure have been made. It forms a depot of soluble multi-hexamers following subcutaneous injection which slowly releases insulin monomers throughout the day. Doses are administered by subcutaneous injection once daily and can be adjusted in dose steps of 1 unit of insulin degludec and 0.036mg of liraglutide. Gastrointestinal disturbances were commonly observed, probably due to the liraglutide component.
They are also more vulnerable to geriatric syndromes such as urinary incontinence, pains, falls, cognitive impairment and depression. With appropriate nutritional intervention, the blood sugar level can be easily maintained in the normal range. They have an especially higher risk of experiencing deficiencies of folic acid, vitamins B1, B12, C, D, calcium, magnesium and zinc.

However, the exact minimum daily calorie needs vary according to the body mass index, medical conditions and activity levels.
However, the appropriate drug for keeping the blood sugar level under control may vary from person to person.
Hypoglycemia, a common side effect of the long acting sulfonylurea drug, can be avoided by taking the short acting version of the drug. It may interact with certain medications such as warfarin, salicylates, fibric acid and sulfonamides.
As there is no risk of hypoglycemia and weight changes following DPP-IV monotherapy, it is considered safe for elderly diabetes patients. Long-acting insulin is taken alone or combined with oral diabetes drugs to keep the blood sugar level under control. Rates of hypoglycaemia were comparable to or lower than those seen with insulin degludec alone. Elderly diabetes patients who have been exposed to elevated blood sugar level for several years are more likely to experience diabetes-related complications.
Although the diabetes treatment options for the elderly are similar to that for the younger patients, given the delicate health condition of older patients, doctors are more concerned about avoiding drug interactions, hypoglycemia and very low blood pressure in elderly diabetics that may occur during diabetes treatment. Due to diverse medical conditions, elderly patients have a higher risk of experiencing under-nutrition.
Along with a balanced diet, vitamin and mineral supplements may be needed to improve the nutritional status of the patient. They will meet your carbohydrate requirement while supplying your body essential nutrients. Most physicians recommend low doses of the drug at the initial stage of treatment, gradually changing the dosage over time.
Since it does not affect insulin production, there is no risk of the blood sugar level falling to very low levels during treatment.
Elderly patients should stop taking the drug and immediately contact their health care provider if they experience any of these adverse reactions of metformin. Risk of hypoglycemia can be minimized by taking meals at regular intervals and limiting alcohol intake. Elderly people who cannot administer the insulin shot on their own will require help from a family member, caregiver or pharmacist. Hence, the diet of elderly diabetics should be tailored to meet their specific nutritional requirements. The daily protein intake of an elderly person should not be less than 0.8g per kg of body weight. However, it is not prescribed to diabetics with cardiac failure or decreased kidney function. As they do not affect the concentration of insulin in the blood, there is no risk of developing hypoglycemia following thiazolinedinedione intake. Your physician will take into account the condition of your kidneys while prescribing the appropriate insulin dose.
Higher amounts of proteins can be consumed while recovering from infections, injuries and stress.

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