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HNF-4α controlling many genes involved in liver function such as the GLUT2 and L-PK genes. Evidence on the mode of action of metformin shows that it improves insulin sensitivity by increasing insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity and enhancing glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes, and by increasing recruitment and transport of GLUT4 transporters to the plasma membrane in adipose tissue.
In addition to its effects on hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis and adipose tissue lipid homeostasis, metformin exerts effects in the pancreas, vascular endothelial cells, and in cancer cells.
Golgi-associated membrane protein HBET1 is centromeric to COL1A2 and telomeric neighbors include: CAS1 domain containing 1, PEG10 and SGCE (minus strand). Description The COL1A2 gene is 36.67 kb and is composed of 52 exons that encode a 5411 base mRNA and a protein of 1366 amino acids.
Description One alpha2 chain pairs with two alpha1 chains to form the triple helix of type I collagen.
Expression Type I collagen is an abundant structural component of healthy connective tissue.
Function As a structural protein, type I collagen interacts with other matrix proteins including proteoglycans and fibronectin. MutationsGerminal Multiple independent mutations in COL1A2 occur in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and in one form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Somatic In tumors from patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma, loss of heterozygosity was found at a 9% frequency for a nucleotide repeat in the promoter of COL1A2 and at a 12% frequency for a repeat in the first intron of the gene. Disease Tbx2 is a member of T-box family of transcription factors whose expression is de-regulated in some melanoma, breast and pancreatic cancers. Oncogenesis The mechanism by which COL1A2 alters tumor growth may involve interactions with collagen receptors on both tumor cells and tumor stromal cells. Note Three serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) tags for COL1A2 were significantly more abundant in an analysis of tumor endothelium isolated from human colon carcinomas versus normal endothelium. Note COL1A2 was independently identified as one of 17 genes highly correlated with metastatic potential from gene expression profiling applied to a set of 279 tumors of diverse types.
Oncogenesis As in regulating tumor growth, the mechanism by which increased COL1A2 expression increases metastasis may involve interactions with collagen receptors on both tumor cells and tumor stromal cells. To be noted Premalignant conditions: Leiomyomas are benign hypertrophic lesions of the uterus that are characterized by increased type I collagen deposition. Transcriptional activity of the alpha 1(I)-collagen promoter is correlated with the formation of capillary-like structures by endothelial cells in vitro.
Phorbol-ester-mediated expression of the collagen type I pro-alpha 2 gene in mouse 3T3-L1 cells and its absence in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-non-responsive variant. Komarova EA, Diatchenko L, Rokhlin OW, Hill JE, Wang ZJ, Krivokrysenko VI, Feinstein E, Gudkov AV.
Elevation of alpha2(I) collagen, a suppressor of Ras transformation, is required for stable phenotypic reversion by farnesyltransferase inhibitors. St Croix B, Rago C, Velculescu V, Traverso G, Romans KE, Montgomery E, Lal A, Riggins GJ, Lengauer C, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW.
Interaction of collagen-related genes and susceptibility to betel quid-induced oral submucous fibrosis.
Ets1 is an effector of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ) signaling pathway and an antagonist of the profibrotic effects of TGF-beta. Infrequent somatic deletion of the 5' region of the COL1A2 gene in oesophageal squamous cell cancer patients. Microarray analysis of gene-expression profiles in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: identification of genes related to disease progression. The alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins provide critical support for vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, endothelial cell migration, and tumor angiogenesis. Interactions of cytokines, growth factors, and the extracellular matrix in the cellular biology of uterine leiomyomata. Singhal S, Wiewrodt R, Malden LD, Amin KM, Matzie K, Friedberg J, Kucharczuk JC, Litzky LA, Johnson SW, Kaiser LR, Albelda SM. Cell growth inhibition and gene expression induced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, on human hepatoma cells.
Gene expression profile of gastric carcinoma: identification of genes and tags potentially involved in invasion, metastasis, and carcinogenesis by serial analysis of gene expression.
Search for new biomarkers of gastric cancer through serial analysis of gene expression and its clinical implications.
Chiba T, Yokosuka O, Fukai K, Hirasawa Y, Tada M, Mikata R, Imazeki F, Taniguchi H, Iwama A, Miyazaki M, Ochiai T, Saisho H. Kettunen E, Nicholson AG, Nagy B, Wikman H, Seppänen JK, Stjernvall T, Ollikainen T, Kinnula V, Nordling S, Hollmen J, Anttila S, Knuutila S. Type I collagen receptor (alpha 2 beta 1) signaling promotes the growth of human prostate cancer cells within the bone. Transcriptional regulation of the human alpha2(I) collagen gene (COL1A2), an informative model system to study fibrotic diseases.
Type I collagen is a molecular target for inhibition of angiogenesis by endogenous thrombospondin-1. The collagen receptor Endo180 (CD280) Is expressed on basal-like breast tumor cells and promotes tumor growth in vivo. Wienke D, Davies GC, Johnson DA, Sturge J, Lambros MB, Savage K, Elsheikh SE, Green AR, Ellis IO, Robertson D, Reis-Filho JS, Isacke CM.
Metastasis signatures: genes regulating tumor-microenvironment interactions predict metastatic behavior.
Type I collagen is overexpressed in medulloblastoma as a component of tumor microenvironment. Type I collagen expression contributes to angiogenesis and the development of deeply invasive cutaneous melanoma. The Diabetes Forum - find support, ask questions and share your experiences with 209,001 people. Researchers have discovered a set of genes that could trigger type 2 diabetes when exposed to the environment. The study, which was conducted at the National University of Mexico, provides further evidence that the causes of type 2 diabetes are varied, rather than just unhealthy diet and lack of exercise. The researchers found around 50 genes that can cause changes in DNA - known as polymorphisms - which can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Specifically, the researchers identified pesticides, cadmium, and the chemical bisphenol A (which is used to make certain plastics) as chemicals that can trigger genetic changes.

The most well-known gene-altering chemical is arsenic, which gets into water in the northern states of Mexico.
The research indicates that the causes of type 2 diabetes are more complex and wide-ranging than many people assume. Find support, ask questions and share your experiences with 209,001 members of the diabetes community. 10 week (free) low-carb education program developed with the help of 20,000 people with T2D and based on the latest research.
The first comprehensive, free and open to all online step-by-step guide to improving hypo awareness. Ces travaux publies en ligne par la revue scientifique "Nature" sont les premiers a decrire aussi precisement une maladie humaine sur le plan genetique. Ces recherches, fruit d'une collaboration entre les equipes dirigees par le Pr Philippe Froguel de l'universite de Lille 2 et Rob Sladek de l'Universite McGill (Montreal, Canada) ouvrent des perspectives preventives par le developpement d'un test genetique de predisposition, et therapeutiques. L'epidemie d'obesite entraine une augmentation du nombre de diabetiques mais l'heredite joue aussi un grand role. L'equipe de Philippe Froguel avait identifie en 1992 un premier gene implique dans le diabete, le gene codant la glucokinase. Le sequencage du genome humain et la mise au point en 2006 d'une technologie d'analyse genetique reposant sur des puces a ADN de quelques centimetres carres sur lesquelles pres d'un demi million de mutations de l'ADN peuvent etre gravees, ont permis d'avancer. Ces resultats montrent des associations tres fortes du diabete de type 2 avec au moins quatre genes jouant des roles importants dans le developpement du pancreas et des cellules productrices de l'insuline.
Ces travaux devraient permettre le developpement de tests de prediction du risque genetique de diabete de type 2. The discovery is a potential game-changer in Type 2 diabetes research, leading to a new way of thinking about the disease and its future treatment. MacDonald believes the key to his latest research has been access to the Alberta Diabetes Institute’s IsletCore. Though important new strides in the fight against Type 2 diabetes have been taken, MacDonald stresses that much more needs to be done.
Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease that is caused by a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0). Another exenatide-related drug is Bydureon® which is a once-a-week injectable form of exenatide. A more recent addition to the GLP-1 receptor agonist family of diabetes drugs is Trulicity® (dulaglutide) manufactured by Eli Lilly and Co. Additionally, it has been shown that metformin affects mitochondrial activities dependent upon the model system studied.
The latter effects of metformin were recognized in epidemiological studies of diabetic patients taking metformin versus those who were taking another anti-hyperglycemia drug.
Cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors found within the proximal promoter, upstream enhancer and downstream repressor regions regulate the constitutive, cytokine-mediated and tissue-specific expression of this gene. These mutations cause skeletal and cardiovascular defects but are not associated with malignancy.
Prior to widespread use of microdissection methods, it was impossible to distinguish changes in tumor cell versus stromal cell expression of COL1A2.
Studies of the collagen receptor Endo180 have identified roles in tumor growth mediated by its expression on both stromal fibroblasts and breast carcinoma cells. COL1A1 was also strongly upregulated in tumor endothelium, identifying type I collagen as a potential tumor-endothelium marker.
Increased COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression is driven at least in part by increased TGFβ expression in leiomyomas, although this overexpression is limited to the proliferative phase of the menstral cycle.
The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) and collagen type I alpha2 (COL1A2) are epidermal growth factor-regulated growth repressors.
The researchers found that drinking water affected by arsenic makes one more susceptible to type 2 diabetes, because it alters the way that insulin is secreted. Wegman argues that, if type 2 diabetes is to be seriously addressed, causes not related to diet or obesity must be taken into account. Des anomalies de la secretion de l'insuline apparaissent tres precocement chez les descendants de diabetiques, qui deviennent hyperglycemiques quand ils grossissent et sont resistants a l'action de l'insuline qu'ils produisent.
Depuis, d'autres ont ete decouverts mais ils n'expliquent qu'une faible proportion des cas de diabete de type 2. L'ADN de 694 diabetiques de type 2 non obeses et ayant des antecedents familiaux de la maladie a ete compare a l'ADN de 669 non diabetiques.
Au moment ou le nombre de diabetiques flambe du fait de l'apparition d'obesites precoces et severes, il est important de pouvoir etablir le profil des jeunes adultes les plus a risque, pour mettre en place des strategies preventives personnalisees. Encore faut-il savoir ce qu'on propose comme prise en charge en cas de test positif", tempere le chercheur. The Canadian Diabetes Association reports that more than 20 Canadians are newly diagnosed with the disease every hour of every day. The ability to restore and fix the dimmer switch in islet cells may have been proven on a molecular level, but finding a way to translate those findings into clinical use could yet take decades.
X axis shows the chromosomal location, Y shows the effect sizes and Z axis shows the year of discovery. The variants are represented by gene names here, which could indicate that the location is present either in the gene, or in the vicinity of the gene. While the major environmental factors, diet and activity level, are well known, identification of the genetic factors has been a challenge.
Metformin has a mild inhibitory effect on complex I of oxidative phosphorylation, has antioxidant properties, and activates both glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH and AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK.
In cancers, expression is typically seen by stromal fibroblasts and vascular cells infiltrating the tumor.
In addition to its structural roles, type I collagen signaling to cells through its integrin receptors and other cell surface collagen receptors (CD36, inhibitory leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor (LAIR)-1 (CD305), Endo180 (CD280), and discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2) can regulate cell growth, motility, and differentiation. In vitro studies have generally shown inhibitory Roles of tumor cell COL1A2 expression and, as discussed below, promoting roles of stromal cell expression.
The functional significance of this increased expression was unclear, although early in vitro studies had found that type I collagen is induced during sprouting of post-confluent endothelial cell monolayers. Subsequent studies showed that the significance of COL1A2 to this signature is limited to certain cancer sites, but the significance of a microenvironment gene signature that includes COL1A2 for predicting disease-free survival has been confirmed in breast cancers.

Keloids are benign hypertrophic cutaneous lesions that exhibit a similar dependence on glycolytic metabolism as is characteristic of cancers. The researchers were quick to point out that this does not mean that everyone exposed to gene-altering chemicals will develop type 2 diabetes. La meconnaissance du genome humain et l'absence de technologies d'analyses rapides et peu onereuses ont longtemps bloque les progres. Les resultats ont ensuite ete confirmes chez plus de 5.500 Francais diabetiques et chez d'autres controles, cohortes qui ont ete formees avec le soutien de l'Association francaise des diabetiques (AFD). Avant de passer a la conception de tels tests, les chercheurs vont d'abord reunir l'ensemble des travaux dans ce domaine. Par ailleurs, certains des genes decouverts, et particulierement le transporteur de zinc ZnT8 code par le gene SLC30A8, pourraient constituer des cibles therapeutiques ideales pour traiter le diabete de type 2. It is also the seventh leading cause of death in Canada, with associated health-care costs estimated at nearly $9 billion a year. Only 1 risk variant was reported in 1998; there were 2 in 2002, and today, we have a total of ~153 T2D variants. The black circle represents T2D, and the gene names in black in this represent variants only associated with T2D. However, recent years have seen an explosion of genetic variants in risk and protection of T2D due to the technical development that has allowed genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing.
The importance of AMPK in the actions of metformin stems from the role of AMPK in the regulation of both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (see AMPK: Master Metabolic Regulator for more details).
This location contains the GCC-rich sequences which bind Sp1 and upon which COL1A2 promoter activity is highly dependent.
Aberrant methylation of COL1A2 was found in about half of primary hepatoma tissues examined. Thus some of the conflicting data concerning tumor expression may be resolved with better localization of the cells responsible for COL1A2 expression in specific tumors.
In studies overexpressing murine Tbx2 in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and a rat osteoblastic cell line, Col1α gene was upregulated and downregulated respectively . An additional role of stromal collagen is in regulation of tumor angiogenesis as discussed in more detail below.
COL1A2 (and COL1A1) was subsequently identified as an important target of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). The COL1A1 gene, which encodes the other subunit of type I collagen, was also found in these metastasis signatures, implying that increased type I collagen protein expression would be associated with increased metastasis. De plus, plusieurs dizaines d'autres signaux forts ont ete retrouves qui, s'ils sont confirmes, pourraient completer la carte du genome des diabetiques", soulignent les chercheurs. D'autres equipes americaines et britanniques devraient publier prochainement leurs resultats. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 per cent of all cases, increasing the risk of blindness, nerve damage, stroke, heart disease and several other serious health conditions.
Today, more than 120 variants have been convincingly replicated for association with T2D and many more with diabetes-related traits. In adipose tissue, metformin inhibits lipolysis while enhancing re-esterification of fatty acids.
Additionally, Ets1 and related Fli1, have differential effects on transcription within this region.
In primary infiltrating ductal carcinomas, COL1A2 expression in fibroblasts adjacent to breast tumor cells was increased with stage I tumors compared to nearby normal tissue while in stage II and III tumors a decrease in COL1A2 was observed in adjacent stromal fibroblasts.
This has been confirmed in human and porcine cutaneous melanomas, where increased expression was found in fibroblasts associated with invasive melanomas. The activation of AMPK by metformin is likely related to the inhibitory effects of the drug on complex I of oxidative phosphorylation. Additionally, co-culture of normal fibroblasts with breast tumor cell lines resulted in down-regulation of collagen mRNA and protein in fibroblasts. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of collagen gene expression in the porcine model limited invasive growth and vascularization of the tumors.
La deuxieme phase des travaux de son equipe vise a valider dans la population generale francaise la pertinence des genes identifies.
The data clearly illustrates the difficulty classifying diabetic patients at diagnosis with 19% unclassifiable. This would lead to a reduction in ATP production and, therefore, an increase in the level of AMP and as a result activation of AMPK. The TCC-rich box at -160 acts as a repressor and negatively modulates the downstream TCC-rich box as well as the upstream GCC-rich sequences. Microarray analysis of medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) specimens reveal overexpression of COL1A2 compared to normal brain tissue.
In fact, since the cells of the gut will see the highest doses of metformin they will experience the greatest level of inhibited complex I which may explain the gastrointestinal side effects (nausea, diarrhea, anorexia) of the drug that limit its utility in many patients. RFX proteins bind the promoter at a methylation-sensitive CpG site at +7 and repress COL1A2 promoter activity.
Expression profiling of microarray data showed an increased COL1A2 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas compared to normal tissue. Increased COL1A2 expression was also associated with invasion and metastasis in gastric carcinoma.
The cytokine, TGF-β is an important regulator of tissue fibrosis and ECM remodeling and resides in the matrix as a latent complex until it is activated.
Gene silencing as a result of epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation and CpG methylation is increasingly being recognized as an important player in cancer development. In several human hepatoma cell lines, treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), upregulated COL1A2 as demonstrated by microarray and qRT-PCR analysis. COL1A2 gene transcription was reestablished upon application of the demethylating agent, 5'Aza-dC.
In comparison, TGFβ stimulation resulted in a 2-fold increase of the collagen mRNAs Stuiver et al (1991) determined that the COL1A2 promoter contains a response element sensitive to the phorbol ester, TPA, an activator of PKC. TPA increased COL1A2 at the transcriptional and protein level only in TPA-responsive 3T3-L1 fibroblasts but not in VT-1 fibroblasts, a variant cell line that is non-responsive to TPA due to the inability of PKC translocation to the membrane.

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