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Most leaves are broad and so have a large surface area allowing them to absorb more light. A thin shape means a short distance for carbon dioxide to diffuse in and oxygen to diffuse out easily. This chemical gives the leaves their green colour and transfers light energy to chemical energy.
Networks of veins support the structure of the leaf and transport substances to and from the cells in the leaf.
These are small holes on the underside of the leaf that allow gases to diffuse in and out. The cuticle is a waxy, waterproof layer which cuts down the water lost by evaporation and protects against parasitic fungi. A single layer of cells that are transparent and contain no chloroplast allowing light to pass straight through.
This layer consists of irregularly shaped cells with large air spaces between them allowing gas exchange (diffusion) between stomata and photosynthesising cells.
The purpose of the pleura is to allow the lungs to move inside the body cavity without friction as friction would cause damage to the lungs and the tissue in the chest wall.
The intrapleural pressure, that is, the pressure in between the two layers of pleural membrane is -4mmHg. Healthy people’s lungs are always partly stretched, if they were fully collapsed, we would never be able to breathe. As you may know, the lungs are filled with little sacs called alveoli; this is where gas exchange occurs.
Even with surfactant, it still takes a lot of effort to open all the alveoli so it is advantageous not to have the lungs collapse fully.
Plants have two systems for the transportation of substances - using two different types of transport tissue. Plants have two transport systems to move food, water and minerals through their roots, stems and leaves. Xylem vessels are involved in the movement of water through a plant - from its roots to its leaves via the stem. The xylem tubes are made from dead xylem cells which have the cell walls removed at the end of the cells, forming tubes through which the water and dissolved mineral ions can flow. The wind pipe (trachea) divides into two tubes called right and left bronchi (singular=bronchus) which enter the corresponding lung. The lungs are two is number and are situated in the cavity of thorax on either side of the heart.
If blood tends to become acidic due to some metabolic derangement (for example uncontrolled diabetes can result in a condition called keto-acidosis which tends to make the blood acidic) the lungs breathe faster leading to carbon dioxide wash out. Pulmonary function tests: Using an instrument called spirometer it is possible to assess the function of the lungs. Kelsey, thanks for the comprehensive breakdown — you have discriminating taste in men and eyewear!


We also have Bitesize study guides covering many subjects at National 4 and National 5 on our Knowledge & Learning BETA website. We can think of all chemical reactions as either involving the breakdown of a larger molecule into smaller parts (a "breakdown reaction"), or as building up smaller molecules into bigger ones (a "synthesis reaction"). Imagine that if you got an empty balloon and put a few drops of a lubricant such as olive oil inside it. This is different to elasticity which is the tendency of your lungs to spring back to their original shape.
In order for this to happen, there is a thin layer of liquid on the surface of each alveoli to help the gases dissolve and move across the membrane. The problem with this is that too smooth wet surfaces that are stuck together are a lot harder to pull apart than if they were dry. To give it a bit of a hand, our alveolar cells make a substance called surfactant (this is a lipoprotein.).
Xylem transports water and solutes from the roots to the leaves, while phloem transports food from the leaves to the rest of the plant.
These systems use continuous tubes called xylem and phloem, and together they are known as vascular bundles.
Dissolved sugars, produced during photosynthesis [photosynthesis: A chemical process used by plants and algae to make glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water, using light energy.
The cell walls of these cells do not completely break down, but instead form small holes at the ends of the cell. The bronchi and their divisions are accompanied by branches of pulmonary artery (carrying impure blood) and branches of pulmonary veins (carrying pure blood). As blood passes through the alveoli carbon dioxide from the blood diffuses into the alveolar space and oxygen is taken up from the air in the alveolar space by the hemoglobin inside the red blood cells.
The cells of lungs secrete a substance called surfactant which lowers the surface tension of alveoli preventing collapse.
The person undergoing the test is asked to breathe through a mouth piece into the spirometer. The structures of leaves are adapted for efficient photosynthesis as shown in the table below.
The parietal pleura is attached to the chest wall and the visceral pleura covers the surface of the lungs. If you’ve ever stuck two microscope slides together with water in the middle, they are very hard to separate. This substance lowers surface tension and makes it a lot easier for alveoli to open if they collapse.
Transpiration is the process by which water evaporates from the leaves, which results in more water being drawn up from the roots. Oxygen is produced as a by-product of photosynthesis.] , and other soluble food molecules are moved from the leaves to growing tissues (eg the tips of the roots and shoots) and storage tissues (eg in the roots).
At the same time the muscles between the ribs (external inter-costal muscles) also contract elevating and expanding the thorax.


The lungs are elastic in nature and recoil generating positive pressure inside which pushes air out. Newborn babies breathe faster and a quiet baby may breathe up to 40 times per minute. The chest wall is very soft in babies and when there in some difficulty in breathing the chest wall caves in during inspiration.
In premature babies the lungs do not have adequate surfactant and hence such babies suffer from breathing difficulty (Hyaline membrane disease) such babies may even die. The lungs play an important role in maintaining acid base balance in the body. The instrument records the rate of air flow, the amount of air exhaled and hence the lung capacity. The connection of phloem cells effectively forms a tube which allows dissolved sugars to be transported.
It also acts as a filter and prevents dust from entering the lower airways. From the nose air enters a muscular tube called pharynx which starts at the roof of the nose. This is called chest retraction and is a sign of respiratory distress in babies and small children. It is possible to detect the presence and severity of obstructive airway diseases like asthma. I’ve been trying to find a bunch of diagrams and pictures for my blog and I found some great stuff.
However, if you do that, make sure to retain the copyright info on those containing the copyright info. There is a small amount of fluid in this potential space, this serous fluid acts like a lubricant. The entry to the larynx is guarded by a lid like structure called epiglottis which closes the entry to larynx when we swallow food or liquid and prevents choking.
The total weight of the two lungs is about 1000 grams. Within the lungs the bronchi go on dividing and sub dividing into progressively smaller tubes till they end up in minute sac like structures called alveoli. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Cigarette smoking causes considerable damage to the lining of the airways and predisposes to chronic cough and even cancer. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Cells can be thought of as chemical factories that conduct a variety of chemical reactions.Photosynthesis and RespirationThe process of converting sunlight energy to chemical-bond energy is photosynthesis. It is one of the major biochemical pathways through which plants produce food molecules such as carbohydrates for themselves as well as for all the other organisms on earth.Cellular respiration, a second major biochemical pathway, is a series of reactions during which cells release the chemical-bond energy from food and convert it into usable forms.  Share ! Sexual Reproduction: In bacterial sexual reproduction there is no meiosis, formation of gametes and zygote.



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