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The analysis flow consists of the two processes: "Instrument Adjustment and Performance Checking" an "Simultaneous Analysis for Unknown Samples".
Home Journals Books Conferences News About Us Jobs Energy and Power Engineering Vol. Extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and screening of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz.
Background: Terminalia chebula is called the king of medicines in Tibet and is always listed first in the Ayurvedic meteria medica because of its extraordinary powers of healing. Ishrina Rubab,Shakir Ali Food and Agricultural Immunology. DSQ II.jpgGC-MS is a powerful analytical technique for separation, identification and quantification of volatile organic and inorganic compounds in a solvent mixture.
In the process of the "Instrument Adjustment and Performance Checking", the performance evaluation method is generated to check and confirm the instrument's performance using data obtained by standard solutions and data on substances for verifying the instrument performance registered in the database. Objective: Identification, isolation and screening of pyrogallol which are responsible for antimicrobial property of fruits of Terminalia chebula. Growth inhibitory activity of active component from Terminalia chebula fruits against intestinal bacteria. Screening South Indian medicinal plants for antifungal activity against cutaneous pathogens.
Increase of antioxidative potential of rat plasma by oral administration of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds.
Relationship among antioxidant activity, vasodilation capacity, and phenolic content of red wines.
A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas-liquid partition chromatography.
The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents. Determination of bioactive components of ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract. Catechin metabolism: Glutathione conjugate formation catalysed by tyrosinase, peroxidase, and cytochrome 450. Quercetin protects cutaneous tissue-associated cell type including sensory neurons from oxidative stress induced by glutathione depletion: Cooperative effects of ascorbic acid. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate show a pronounced growth inhibitory effect on cancerous cells but not on their normal counterparts. The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus.
It is an elegant interfaced instrument, in which the Gas chromatography (GC) first separates the components of a mixture and then the coupled Mass spectrometer (MS) characterizes each of the separated components individually.
Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction of fruits of Terminalia chebula was subjected to Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the components present in the extract.
The components are separated based on their relative affinity or retention time of the individual compounds. In the process of the "Simultaneous Analysis for Unknown Samples", the data obtained using standard solutions and other information required for quantitation analysis contained in the database such as the target masses, mass spectra and calibration curves are extracted, and the simultaneous analysis method for the GCMSsolution is generated. Results: Sixty four constituents were identified out of which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside flavonoid and Vitamin E has been detected for the first time in fruits of this plant. During the process, the well separated compounds from the GC are transferred to the interfaced MS instrument and get fragmentized into ions by ionization process.
Pyrogallol (46.26%) which was the major component of the extract in GC-MS analysis was isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against selected test pathogens by Disc Diffusion Assay.
Crude ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits was showing the same activity potential as was observed for pure pyrogallol which was the major component as per GC-MS analysis. This instrument is extensively used in the Medical, Pharmacological and Law enforcement fields. Waste plastics are not bio-degradable, it remains in the landfill for a long period of time causing vegetation and aquatic ecosystem dilemmas. Conclusion: Hence activity shown by crude ethyl acetate fraction might be due to pyrogallol present in the extract.
Abandoned waste plastic thrown into the ocean causes friction of ocean waves and then broken down by sunlight into small pieces and takes the shape of plastic like soup. Aquatic organism mistakes the plastic soup as their food and can’t digest, either they die or through food chain it affects human health.
To avoid severe environmental degradation problems of waste plastics some countries and big cities banned or restricted the use of plastic products. The aim was to determine whether the activity of the plant species is due to individual compound or group of compounds, in addition the aim was to isolate to the most appropriate economical method of extracting the active fraction from fruits of T. City municipalities spend huge amount of money each year just to dispose of these waste plastics into landfill because most waste plastics are not recycled. When the waste plastics are subjected to incineration, they release harmful toxic gas into the environment causing severe pollution.
Generally plastics are made from crude oil, however crude oil is a very limited natural resource and non-renewable. RUBL20868 was submitted in the 'Herbarium' of Botany Department, University of Rajasthan.Extraction procedureFruits were separately shade dried and finely powered using a mixer. Every year millions of barrels of crude oil are to produce the waste plastics and when plastics are discarded after use the energy source is lost. Twenty grams of finely powdered sample was soxhlet extracted with ethyl acetate on a water bath for 24 h and filtered.


A new developed technology plan minimizes the environment pollution problems simultaneously boost up energy sector by renovating the waste plastics into high energy content fuel.
The produced fuel is obtained using a unique thermal degradation of waste plastics and converting them into hydrocarbon fuel like materials. Unique production setup demonstrated to produce 93% fuel from waste plastic in the pilot scale. The fuel produced has been tested and proven to work on majority types of internal combustion engines.
This technology utilized can avoid waste plastic pollution problem worldwide by the implementation of newly developed technology.
Identification of the peaks was based on computer matching of the mass spectra with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NlST 08 and NIST 08s) library and by direct comparison with published data. Through the utilization of the technology the use of reliable plastics won’t need to be banned and serve as a very reliable alternate source of energy. The technology will also help reduce a significant amount of import oil from foreign countries and help provide a steady economy. Elutes were pooled, dried in vacuum and rechromatographed to test the purity of the isolated compound.The isolated compound was crystallized, weighed and subjected to melting point and infra-red spectral studies on Perkins Elmer model 555 spectrophotometer in KBr pellets. Introduction In recent years the production and consumption of plastics have increased drastically; as a consequence the responsible disposal of plastic wastes has created serious social and environmental arguments. In, Japan, the percentage of waste plastic, as a fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), that was land filled in the early 1980s was estimated to be 45%, incineration was 50%, and the other 5% was subjected to separation and recycling [1].
In the USA, more than 15% of the total MSW was incinerated in 1990; only about 1% of postconsumer plastic was recycled [2-4]. 46), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1934), Proteus mirabilis (MTCC 3310), Raoultella planticola (MTCC 2271), Enterobacter aerogens (MTCC 2822), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and three fungal strains, viz., Candida. Plastics usually account for about 7% of the total MSW by weight and much more by volume according to 1998 standard, this number is continuously increasing every year.
In order to recycle municipal waste plastics separation of waste plastics from other household wastes is required. Although MSW separation technologies have studied extensively it is still not possible to completely classify MSW mechanically and obtain marketable fractions. House hold waste plastics are usually composed of coded plastics; HDPE, LDPE, PP, PS, PETE, PVC, and non coded plastics.
Proper separations of these waste plastics are a big challenge and proper recycling and utilization of these waste plastics are even a bigger challenge. Co-incarnation of waste plastic wastes with other municipal solid wastes may be increasing practiced, because the high caloric value of plastics can enhance the heating value of MSW and facilitate an efficient incineration, while their energy content can also be recovered. But the potential relationship between plastics fed into an incineration and the formation of some highly toxic pollutants such as dioxins and furans is still unclear. It has been suggested that the chlorine content in PVC and other plastics is related to the formation of dioxins and furans, which are chlorinated polynuclear aromatic compounds. And although there is considerable evidence that these pollutants would still be generated in the absence of plastics, environment pressures against incineration have never completely disappeared. Thermal recycling of waste polymers under different catalytic and thermal circumstances has been well investigated by researchers [5-9]. Other important parameters for waste polymer degradation are residence time, and the chemical structure of polymer. Bacterial and fungal suspensions were used as negative control, while broth containing standard drug was used as positive control.
In a company collecting and handling communal and selective wastes, separation cannot be ideal thus the targeted polymer type always contains also other types of polymer. Each extract was assayed in duplicate and each time two sets of microtiter plates were prepared, one was kept for incubation while another set was kept at 4°C for comparing the turbidity in the wells of microtiter plate. The MIC values were taken as the lowest concentration of the extracts in the well of the microtiter plate that showed no turbidity after incubation.
The turbidity of the wells in the microtiter plate was interpreted as visible growth of microorganisms. In thermal cracking, waste plastics are heated to high temperatures, so their macromolecular structures are broken down into smaller molecules and a wide spectrum of hydrocarbons are formed. The products produced by this process can be divided into a gas fraction, a liquid fraction consisting of paraffin’s, olefins, naphthelines and aromatics and solid residues. In catalytic cracking, more aromatics and naphthenes are selectively formed in the presence of commercial fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) or forming catalysts, so that the productively and economics of thermal cracking are improved. This paper reviews laboratory experiments on converting waste plastic samples to liquid hydrocarbon fuel utilizing the thermal degradation process. The active principle, area of the peak concentration (%), retention time (RT), molecular weight and molecular formula are presented in the table. The major components in the ethyl acetate fraction as identified by GC-MS was pyrogallol (1, 2, 3-benzenetriol).
Materials Disposable waste plastic collected from local grocery store and local restaurant. After collecting the raw materials they were washed with 7th generation liquid soap into sink manually. Waste plastic was PP mix and PP waste plastic color was black and it was hard waste plastic.
4 - 5 inch size waste plastic put into grinder mach for 2 - 3 mm size and this size fit into reactor for liquefaction process. During waste plastic washing period creating also waste water and this waste water was not discharge into drain system.


Ellagitannin such as punacalagin, casurarinin, corilagin and terchebulin and others such as chebulanin, neochebulinic acid, chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid reported in literature.
For waste water treatment purpose was use potash alum and sodium hydroxide and for sedimentation purposed used ventonite clay.
Waste plastic to fuel production process fully cyclic process and save the environment problem. Pyrogallol has been reported to have various biological activity like allelochemic, antibacterial, abortifacient, anticlastogen, antidermatitic, antilupus, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antipsoriac, antiseptic, CNSActive, candidicide, cardiovascular, ecbolic, fungicide, insulin-sparing, irritant, nephrotoxic, nigrifacient, pesticide, prostaglandin-synthesis-inhibitor from Dr. Antimicrobial activity (assessed in terms of inhibition zone and activity index) of the plant extracts, tested against selected microorganisms was recorded in [Table 3]. Results reveal that the inhibition zone produced by pyrogallol against selected pathogens was similar to the ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits. Experimental Process Grounded Polypropylene (PP) waste plastic put into reactor chamber without catalyst. By using temperature controller temperature can monitor increase and decrease temperature profile into desire production process. PP waste plastic to fuel production process reactor setup was under labconco fume hood and full setup was fully air tight close system.
Pyrogallol (1, 2, 3- Trihydroxybenzene) is allochemical which contains 3 hydroxyl groups belong to phenolic compounds of plants.
The phenolic hydroxyl group has a wide range of cellular activities that have not been clearly investigated.
At present there is intense interest in polyphenols which are present in the diet as part of fruits, tea, coffee and wine [14] since they have been shown to protect cells from oxidative stress. It was described earlier that the hydroxyl group (bound to a benzene ring) is important for the activities of some antimicrobial compounds and that these activities are enhanced by the presence of alpha-beta double bonds. Results of the present study reveal that all compound tested, inhibited the growth of selected bacteria and fungi, indicating broad spectrum bioactive nature of selected plant. In the present scenario when existing antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against pathogenic microorganisms, such studies should highly be encouraged, so that new and alternative sources for future antibiotics may be explored well in advance. This process can reroute the gas produced during the production period and use it as a heat source instead of electricity.
PP waste plastic to fuel was use for further fractional distillation process and making diesel grade fuel (see Figure 1). Fractional distillation process set up 5 different columns with different temperature profile like low boiling point fuel to high boiling point fuel. Collected diesel grade fuel percentage was 29% and rest of all other fractional fuel percentage was 71% including light gas also.
PP fuel to different fuel by using fractional distillation column used for heat applied with different column temperature wise and fuel break down into shorter into longer chain wise and come out into different fraction column then collected into different separate container for grade wise.
Results and Discussion The main point of this experiment is to extract the 4th fractional fuel from the distillation column. Perkin Elmer FT-IR (Spectrum 100) used for raw sample per analysis and liquid sample analysis.
Raw waste plastic sample analyzed by diamond crystal plate KRS-5 check there functional group and band energy value.
Both samples analysis by same parameter used such as scan number was 32, resolution 4 and range 4000 - 450 cm–1. Perkin Elmer Thermogavimetric (TGA Pyris-1) was used for raw waste plastics onset temperature measuring.
Perkin Elmer Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer (Clarus 500 series) used for raw waste plastic and liquid fuel analysis. Raw sample analysis purposed was used pyroprobe (CDS 5000) to volatile solid sample and transfer into GC column. Perkin Elmer Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used for liquid fuel boiling point and fuel enthalpy value determination. Many compounds are emerged on the analysis carbon Figure 2. In the spectrum field we noticed that higher wave number are emerged in the initial phase and middle index of the spectrum and in higher wave number small and bulky both functional groups are available and in low wave number double bond and single bond functional groups are available such as methane group, cis and trans alkene etc. Conclusion The 4th fraction of the PP-5 fuel is considered to be in a diesel grade category. The fuel contains a lot of heavy compounds since it is collected only at the second procedure of the fractional distillation.
The authors also acknowledge the valuable contributions NSR laboratory team members during the preparation of this manuscript. Subramanian, “Emerging Technologies in Plastics Recycling,” ACS Publications, Washington DC, 1992.
Lee, “Effect of ultrasonic wave on the degradation of Polypropylene Melt and morphology of Its Blend with polystyrene,” Polymer, Vol.
Roy, “Using the DTG curve Fitting Method to determine the Apparent Kinetic Parameters of Thermal Decomposition of polymers,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. Sharratt, “Conversion of Waste Plastics to hydrocarbons by Zeolited Catalytic Pyrolysis,” Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering, Vol.



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