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Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. Phonics Bug is fast-paced – children start to read after learning just eight phonemes - and combines fun 100% decodable books with BBC CBeebies video and whole-class teaching software to give you a range of aural, visual and kinaesthetic phonic activities to appeal to all the children in your class.
Each lesson begins with a short video from the BBC CBeebies Words and Pictures series which allows your children to hear the sound pronounced correctly and see how the letter is formed.
A guide for each of Foundation and KS1 provides step-by-step advice to help you plan and deliver great lessons with Phonics Bug.
Children who love reading at school often can't wait to get their reading books out at home. The most common type of construction is the full foundation basement, with mainly below grade foundation walls supporting the house structure. Poured or concrete block foundations have been built since the 1920s, usually with parging, waterproofing and drain tiles on the exterior. If the house is new or it has been raised to accommodate a new basement, allow about a year of drying out time before insulating or renovating. Major water leaks, such as persistent leaks and flooding in the spring and when it rains, must be corrected.
Minor water leaks can sometimes be corrected by directing water away from the foundation by sloping the grade, aiming downspouts away from the house and patching the foundation on the interior. Symptoms of dampness on foundations and finishes include staining or mould growth, blistering and peeling paint, efflorescence (a whitish mineral deposit on the surface), spalling (deterioration of the surface) as well as a musty smell. If the foundation walls, slabs and earth floors appear dry yet the space seems damp, this might indicate that moisture is wicking through the foundations and evaporating faster than it can accumulate. To test for this, cut a sheet of plastic about 1 m (40 in.) square and tape it to the concrete walls and slab. Carefully remove the plastic and note any condensation on the bottom of the plastic or wetting of the concrete or soil. To reduce the movement of moisture into the home from the foundations, apply a moisture barrier (see Section 6.3, Crawl spaces) or have the interior or exterior concrete sealed or waterproofed. Radon may be present in all homes, with and without humidity and moisture problems (see Section 1.4, Health and safety considerations, for more information).
Insulating on the outside is best, but it is often necessary to insulate from the inside for economical and practical reasons. This may involve installing rigid insulation board and drywall, a wood-frame wall and insulation or other combinations of insulation.
It is often easier and cheaper to insulate the full wall and achieve high insulating values. Do not insulate a basement with moisture problems from the inside (leaks, dampness, efflorescence and blistering paint).
Obstructions such as electrical panels, wiring, plumbing, stairs and partition walls make the work more difficult and the insulation and air barrier less effective. Some authorities have expressed concern about the possibility of frost action and structural damage when foundations are insulated from the inside.
This involves excavating around the foundation, waterproofing and installing insulation, as per Figure 6-3. You can effectively see and correct any moisture or structural problems (efflorescence, cracks, spalling and eroded mortar). Freeze-thaw stresses are eliminated, and frost is unlikely to penetrate down to the footings. The mass of the foundation is within the insulated portion of the house and will tend to even out temperature fluctuations. Digging a trench around the house by hand can be difficult and risky depending on soil type and depth.
Excavation cannot be done in winter and can be a problem in the spring or throughout the year if the property has a high water table. Features such as non-removable steps, paved carports, shrubbery, trees or fences can make the work difficult. It is expensive to obtain high insulation levels, and the retrofit may detract from the appearance of the house. Refer to Section 1.4, Health and safety considerations, for general advice on safe working procedures.
In some cases it may only be practical to install insulation to a minimum of 610 mm (24 in.) below grade, especially when the foundation walls and drainage system are in good condition. In particular, follow safe trenching practices to avoid accidental burial and trench collapse.
First clean the surface of the foundation with a wire brush and scraper or use a pressure-washer if you can easily remove the water. Have a contractor apply waterproofing material from grade level down to and over the top of the footings, and then seal all penetrations and overlaps. Type IV polystyrene board is the material most commonly used in exterior below-grade applications (see Figure 6-3 and Figure 6-4). Measure and cut the insulation to the desired height (generally from the top of the footings to the exterior wall flashing). It may be convenient (although more expensive) to purchase a special interlocking system of grooved polystyrene boards with steel channels. Apply parging to rubble and brick foundations to smooth the wall after all repairs have been completed. Flashing helps keep the insulation in place, prevents water from getting behind it and provides a clean, neat junction. For wood flashing or a J-channel, seal the joint between the flashing and the house with a suitable caulking. For brick siding, keep the weep holes open that allow water to escape from behind the brick.
Ideally, carry the insulation up past the header area by at least 150 mm (6 in.) as shown in Figure 6-8. Protect the insulation from sunlight and physical damage with a covering applied from the top of the insulation to a point about 300 mm (12 in.) below ground level.
Backfill the excavated area in stages by removing large objects from the backfill and then compacting or tamping the ground. Windows can usually be finished by wrapping the insulation around the foundation to meet the window frame. Seal penetrations through the insulation and covering to prevent wind, water and vermin entry.
If the exterior insulation does not extend above the header area by at least 150 mm (6 in.), air seal and insulate the header area from inside the basement.
Where part of the basement wall encloses a cold cellar or unheated garage, apply the insulation inside the basement, against the cold cellar or garage walls, treating them like exterior basement walls.
Extend the outside insulation around the rest of the basement by at least 610 mm (24 in.) beyond the inside wall junction to minimize heat loss at these points. If a concrete porch is butted against a basement wall, a paved driveway or some other obstruction, the insulation should switch to the inside around these obstacles. Consult your local building authorities to be sure that your proposed project will meet code requirements. Common types of insulation used as interior basement insulation include batt or blanket, glass fibre loose fill, polyurethane spray and rigid plastic board.
Closed cell polyurethane spray foam, which should be applied only by a certified installer, is a high-quality insulating method for all types of walls, including uneven ones.
Rigid plastic board insulation generally has a higher RSI value per millimetre than batt insulation and requires less basement space and a thinner supporting framework.
When working inside basements, refer to Section 1.4, Health and safety considerations, and follow those guidelines. After checking the wall and making any necessary repairs, air seal all leakage paths such as at the sill and around penetrations. As the insulation board is acting as a moisture barrier, use medium- to high-density foam board with good moisture resistance properties such as extruded polystyrene and Type IV expanded polystyrene. The insulation can be sealed to the foundation by applying foam-compatible adhesive around the perimeter of the foam board before fastening it to the wall.
As mechanical fasteners are essential to secure the gypsum board to the wall, use wooden fastening strips on top of the insulation.
There are three common methods for insulating the interior of a basement incorporating a frame wall. To protect the insulation, framing and wall finish from possible water damage, cover the basement walls with house wrap. By using house wrap, moisture (not excessive and not leakage) that penetrates the new wall will dry out either into the interior of the house or to the top of the foundations that are above grade. Do not use asphalt building paper (tar paper) inside of the house because it can release toxic vapours. Install the wall close to but not touching the house wrap (12-mm [?-in.] spacing) using 2 x 4 or 2 x 6 lumber. Position the framing further away from the foundation wall to allow for a layer of batt insulation between the framing and the wall.
The second approach takes up more interior room but provides more insulation, less thermal bridging through the studs and better moisture protection. If all alignments are perfectly level and square and there are no obstructions, you may be able to build the wall on the floor, tilt it into place, shim the bottom plate and secure the wall frame in place.
If you left a space behind the frame for batt insulation, you can now add the insulation between the studs and the wall in a horizontal layer.
The first alternate method is to use polyamide sheeting, a breathable membrane also known as Nylon-6 vapour retarder film or smart barrier. Leave enough of either the polyethylene or smart barrier at the top to connect to the air barrier in the joist header space. The second alternate method is to use an air and vapour barrier system known as the airtight drywall approach (ADA). Frame airtight boxes for plumbing, water and drain line penetrations with gasket on the face of the box and caulk the pipe penetrations (see Figure 3-6 and Figure 6-16).
Use special airtight electrical switch and plug boxes that include a gasket on the face of the box and caulk all wire penetrations. Do not run wiring or plumbing from exterior walls into interior walls unless all holes are caulked (see Figure 6-16).
Air seal all window and door frames using expanding foam and appropriate caulking (see Figure 7-7). Install foam gaskets and caulk the upper edge of the top plate and all other framing members that are in direct contact with floors, slab, interior walls and ceiling. Air seal all edges and perforations of obstructions such as stairs that are against the exterior wall. Frame in and air seal separately any electrical panels that are not surface mounted on the finish and then air seal all penetrations. This method involves gluing rigid board insulation to the foundation wall and then covering it with a frame wall incorporating batt insulation. Using rigid board insulation with at least RSI 1.76 (R-10), secure and seal it to the foundation by applying foam-compatible adhesive around the perimeter of the foam board before fastening it to the wall. Do not use a polyethylene air and vapour barrier with this approach, as there is a risk of creating a double vapour barrier with the foam board. If you are using smart barrier, leave enough of the film at the top to connect to the air barrier in the joist space.
If you are using the ADA method, pay strict attention to proper air and vapour sealing, including a layer of vapour barrier paint. The primary limitation of this approach is higher cost, although its use reduces the need for additional materials and labour (see Figure 6-17). Discuss with the spray foam contactor on site what should be done before starting the spraying.


Install the wood frame wall at a distance from the foundation as directed by the contractor, including both sides of the corner studs. Once the contractor has installed the foam, the frame wall can be roughed in for wiring and plumbing and insulated.
The joist header space is also called the rim joist space, foundation header space or simply the joist space.
If it is not possible to extend the exterior foundation insulation to cover the full header joist area, the space will have to be insulated and sealed from the inside. If the foundation walls are insulated from the interior, the air and vapour barrier must be continuous for the wall and header space.
For fully-embedded joists, do not exceed a maximum of 25 mm (1 in.) of foam board insulation as the concrete below the floor may make the floor above uncomfortably cold and prone to damage. For all the approaches illustrated in Figure 6-18 and Figure 6-19, building codes may mandate levels of insulation, so check with your local authorities as to the recommended levels and practices.
Polyurethane spray foam installed by a certified contractor offers excellent air sealing and insulation of this space. Move water lines away from the wall or install the insulation and vapour barrier behind the pipes so that they are on the warm side.
Using low-expansion spray foam caulk, seal the point where the window frame adjoins the wall. An irregular basement is usually made of stone or rubble and is rarely waterproofed on the outside (see Figure 6-2). First, cover the interior wall with cement-based parging to smooth the surface and to protect the existing mortar.
In general, do not go with higher insulation values as there is a risk that the wall may be subjected to damaging freeze-thaw cycles. Closed-cell spray polyurethane foam has been used successfully to reduce dampness problems for rubble walls while offering some thermal protection value. For very wet basements prone to flooding and high moisture problems, it may be best not to insulate the basement walls.
Apply the insulation to the cold cellar or garage wall separating the heated basement from the unheated space, as if it were an external wall.
If you insulate your cold cellar, check on the winter temperature so you can make adjustments to prevent freezing.
A pony wall consists of a short wood frame wall sitting on top of a conventional concrete foundation. In some cases, a layer of rigid board insulation with protective outer finish can be applied to the underside of the overhang, but the space should still be air sealed and insulated. As most heat is lost through the upper part of the foundation walls, basement floor slabs are seldom insulated. If you are installing or replacing a concrete slab floor, this offers an excellent opportunity to have in-floor heating installed or to have it made radiant-ready. Medium- and high-density polyurethane foams are sometimes used in basements and crawl spaces that have poured concrete, concrete block, brick or rubble walls and are not intended to be living space. The walls of the crawl space can be insulated on the inside or the outside, resulting in a heated area.
The house floor above it can be insulated to keep heat from getting into the crawl space in the first place. As a general rule, treat heated crawl spaces as short – sometimes very short – basements and renovate them as described earlier in this chapter. Fix any water leaks and remove sources of water infiltration as noted in Section 2.4, Control of moisture flow.
Insulating the walls is recommended to avoid having to insulate and protect all plumbing pipes and heating distribution systems. Mechanically fasten the moisture barrier to the walls and all obstructions that it cannot go over such as floor support posts. Insulate the outside wall exactly as described previously for the outside basement wall (see Figure 6-22 and Section 6.1, Insulating the basement from the outside). If the crawl space does not open into a full basement, it should have some form of ventilation. If the foundation footings are above the frost line, insulate on the outside of the crawl space walls.
If using rigid board or spray foam insulation, follow the approach as outlined for the inside of a basement (see Section 6.2, Insulating the basement from the inside). It is possible to insulate between and under the joists, and create an unheated crawl space. Batt insulation may be held in place with breathable building wrap stapled to the joists, chicken wire, sheets of polystyrene bead board (Type I or II) or a commercially available insulation-support system. Place the insulation tightly against the underside of the floor above, filling the joist cavity to the insulation support system. Tape the seams in any heating ducts and insulate all ducts and water pipes in the crawl space. If the ground level inside the crawl space is lower than the ground level outside, there is a risk that frost heave can damage the walls by pushing them inward. As an added safety precaution, you may want to install a thermostat attached to a small heater in the crawl space.
If the joist space is already covered, consider having the floor space blown with dense-pack fibre insulation so that there is no air space between the insulation and the floor above. Insulation is applied to houses with slab-on-grade foundations exactly as you would insulate the outside of a full basement (see Section 6.1, Insulating the basement from the outside). The whole-class teaching software gives you everything you need for front-of-class teaching and the 100% decodable readers, interactive games and fun activity sheets consolidate children’s learning and provide plenty of opportunities for active participation. Fun animations and songs help ensure they remember what they’ve learned and they’ll love learning with their favourite CBeebies presenters!
With online reading games, worksheets for writing practice and books and eBooks to read, there’s plenty for your children to enjoy independently. With familiar characters, including the hugely popular CBeebies Alphablocks, and fantastically motivating artwork, your children will love learning to read with Phonics Bug.
But sometimes, with so many competing distractions, more hesitant readers need a little encouragement to carry on reading at home. They can be accessed at home as well as at school, so parents can easily support the learning that goes on in the classroom by encouraging their child to read Phonics Bug eBooks at home too.
Many houses have been built with partial depth foundation walls that create a crawl space under the house. As concrete contains large amounts of moisture, it is best to let it dry before insulating and finishing unless the renovation method to be used can handle this entrained moisture. These foundations were rarely damp-proofed; some have an interior drainage path and all have a high mortar content, which can absorb water from the soil. Often the solution requires excavating, damp-proofing or waterproofing the basement, adding a drainage system and insulating from the exterior. Minor dampness may be corrected from the interior; more serious problems should be corrected from the outside.
Condensation formed under the plastic indicates moisture movement from the ground into the home as well as the possibility of radon emissions. If you must, take corrective measures to eliminate the moisture before adding insulation or your new walls will rot. If part of the basement wall is already finished, this too may prove troublesome, although wall paneling may be easy to remove and re-install. Flashing must be attached to keep water from getting behind the insulation and a protective covering installed on exposed sections of insulation. Rubble or brick foundations and foundations with water leakage, dampness or other moisture problems should be insulated from the outside. Plan for extra time if you need to excavate, repair cracks, waterproof the exterior foundation walls and install a drainage system.
This will reduce the excavating required while still offering substantial thermal protection, and can be coupled with further interior insulating.
Protect the trench from running water and the elements, and ensure that people and animals cannot fall in.
The insulation is held in place at the top edge by the flashing and by using corrosion-resistant fasteners and washers. Start installing the insulation at one corner, overlapping at the corners and keep the insulation sheets as tight to the wall as possible (see Figure 6-6). The type and flexibility of the insulation will determine the smoothness of the parging required. There are two major considerations: the location of the flashing, which defines how far up the wall the insulation extends, and the type of flashing used. Wood flashing should be sloped with an overhang of at least 20 mm (? in.) and have a drip edge on the underside. In poor draining soils such as expansive clay, it would be better to bring in free-draining backfill. Some additional settling may take place, so it is better to wait before undertaking any expensive treatments such as paving. Some penetrations (gas lines, electrical conduits) should be sealed with a compatible and flexible sealant.
Allow at least 610 mm (24 in.) of overlap to provide continuous coverage and reduce the heat loss through the thermal bridge.
Also, some regions have particular problems such as frost heave due to expansive clay soils, which you should consider before beginning work. In addition, because powder-activated concrete fastening tools are often used in basement renovations, carefully follow usage directions.
Foil-faced insulation board may deteriorate in contact with cement and mortar, so check with the manufacturer before using.
Alternatively, insulation can be held in place with special wood or metal fastening strips that fit within grooves or notches factory-cut in the insulation panels.
Consider installing insulation in overlapping layers to minimize heat loss through any fastening strips.
If the lumber is not dry, allow the framing to dry for at least two weeks before adding insulation and covering the wall with the air and vapour barrier. Plastic was once the material of choice, but in some cases where air and moisture entered the insulated wall, condensation formed on the plastic and caused wetting and mould issues within the wall. The building paper should start at or just above the grade line and extend down to the basement floor and under the bottom plate of the frame wall. The bottom plate should sit on top of the extension of the house wrap and on a continuous impermeable membrane such as a sill gasket (see Figure 6-14).
Where the wall runs parallel to the joists you will have to build in a nailing support for the top plate (the approach you use will depend upon your particular house). When installed on the warm side of an exterior wall, smart barrier has a water vapour permeance that changes with the conditions within the wall. Seal all edges, seams and penetrations with acoustical sealant or other approved materials.
The ADA method uses rigid materials, typically drywall, very carefully and thoroughly sealed to the framing and all other component connections by using adhesive-backed foam tape and flexible caulking. The ADA method works only if it is completely sealed and tied into the air and vapour barrier system in the rest of the house.
This area is particularly prone to air leakage and must be properly sealed and insulated as part of any basement retrofit. The result is higher insulation values with less loss of interior space, a very good reduction of thermal bridging and no need for an additional moisture barrier. Major issues such as active structural cracks and frequent and major water leaks must be addressed first. This is the area where the floor joists intersect and are supported by the foundation walls in both basements and crawl spaces.


However, the foam must be covered with fire-resistant material if it is not covered by the basement ceiling.
While an exterior retrofit is always recommended, it may be possible to insulate on the inside if there are no water or moisture problems. Check with your local building authorities for more information on how to deal with this potential problem. Instead, consult your building authorities and an experienced general contractor about the potential to treat the floor joist space as an exposed and insulated floor. If the room is still too warm or the floor above is cold, you may want to insulate the ceiling of the cold room (see Section 6.4, Open foundations). In this case, the wood frame section is insulated between the studs, and the concrete section is insulated on the interior (assuming there are no moisture problems). It is usually possible to remove the finish underneath the overhang and air seal the space between the joists above the foundation with polyurethane foam or with caulked, low-permeability rigid insulation. Alternatively, a contractor can spray foam into the cavities or blow in dense-pack fibre insulation though holes drilled to the underside. For improved comfort, moisture control and radon reduction, apply a moisture barrier to the floor or seal the floor to prevent moisture accumulation between the insulation and the slab. Radiant-ready is where insulation and heating lines are installed before pouring the new slab, allowing for future use of radiant heat (including solar-generated) in this area. In these cases, spray foam is installed directly on the foundation wall and then sprayed with a non-flammable covering to meet local code requirements. Walls can be insulated externally to reduce the internal moisture problems that can develop in damp crawl spaces and to keep the soil below the footings warm. The minimum barrier should be 0.10 mm (4 mil) clear or opaque polyethylene overlapped, caulked and taped at the seams. In general, do not use vents that open to the exterior, as there is a risk of condensation increasing during the summer. By insulating on the outside, the walls will be kept warmer, avoiding the possibility of frost heave. However, this can lead to problems of freezing pipes, frozen ground and possible rot at the joist ends. Remember, even insulated water pipes may freeze if the temperature of the crawl space is allowed to fall below freezing.
For full basements with a section of crawl space where a part of the floor above has been insulated, insulate the wall separating the basement from the crawl space. They should be insulated between the joists in the same way as crawl spaces, with the vapour barrier placed above the insulation (always on the warm side) instead of below. Alternatively, medium- or high-density foam can be used as the vapour barrier, air barrier and primary insulation layer.
Some older homes, cottages or mobile homes are built up on posts and piers, leaving the space below the house open or walled off.
This type of foundation can be insulated from the outside or inside if no serious water or structural problems exist. Condensation can also form on the foundation walls in the summer when the air is very humid and the foundation is cool. Repairing the foundation, parging, waterproofing and installing a drainage system can be done at the same time. An optional horizontal rigid insulation skirt can also be added to reduce heat loss to the surface, which can mitigate frost-related problems (see Figure 6-4).
Smooth or replace deteriorated surfaces and old parging with an appropriate type of new parging. The below-grade portion of the insulation will be held in place by the backfill, but may require some fasteners to hold it in place during the process.
There are also special clips and fasteners for applying the rigid board to the wall; check building-supply stores. The correct parging material will also act as a sacrificial surface material to help protect the mortar in the foundation wall. If you cannot insert flashing behind the siding (such as with brick), then either a metal J-channel must be installed prior to the insulation or a wood flashing installed after the insulation. If the insulation is carried up only to the header area or lower, then air seal and insulate the header area from the interior.
Caulk the joint between the frame and parging, and inspect it periodically to make sure it is still sealed.
Air sealing the foam board to the wall creates an air and moisture barrier somewhat equivalent to spray foam.
In either case, screw or nail the drywall to the strip that has been secured to the concrete with corrosion-resistant concrete fasteners.
Fit the insulation snugly to eliminate air circulation at the edges and use foam caulking and technical tape to seal all joints and intersections.
Temporary bracing may be tacked on to the framing to keep the wet studs from twisting as they dry. Next, fill the frame wall with a vertical layer of batt insulation fitting it snugly between the studs, allowing no gaps, air spaces or over-compression. However, if you have any doubts or there is a risk of dampness in the basement, there are two alternate methods that may be better suited. If the relative humidity in the wall cavity increases, the smart barrier will allow the wall to dry out toward the interior unlike other sheet-type vapour barriers.
All joints should overlap over a stud and be sealed with a continuous bead of sealant that is run between the layers of material at the lapped joints.
Any pipes that pass through the air and vapour barrier should pass through a plywood box sealed to the main air and vapour barrier and the gaps around the pipes caulked. This product must be installed by a certified installer and be covered by an appropriate fire-resistant material. Insulate the ceiling as described in Section 6.4, Open foundations, as well as Figure 6-11. The insulation on the concrete is extended up about 200 mm (8 in.) to overlap with the frame section. Insulate the joist space with batt or blanket insulation and add an air barrier before re-installing the finish. It is also usually easier to insulate the walls than the ceiling above, especially in tight crawl spaces or where joist spacing is uneven. Although more difficult to find, white opaque polyethylene brightens the space, shows areas of leakage or vermin entry more readily, and hides moisture or mould that may be on the other side of the plastic. To prevent the plastic from billowing, as may happen occasionally, hold it down with a few old boards or some smooth scrap material. Overlap interior and exterior insulation coverage by at least 610 mm (24 in.) See Figure 6-11. Instead, try to incorporate the crawl space with a whole-house ventilation approach or consider using a dehumidifier. Shallow footings can be kept warmer by placing a layer of horizontal insulation sloping away from the foundation.
Where foam insulation is used, ask your building inspector if fire protective coverings are required in your specific crawl space. For these reasons, use floor insulation only when combined with foundation-wall insulation to create a partially heated crawl space. Consider installing energy-efficient, self-regulating electric heat trace to protect the plumbing pipes. There should be a good air seal and the insulation should be protected from the wind, insects and animals.
Pay special attention to sealing the bag around the water service line, the sewer connection, gas or oil service and the combustion air inlet for the furnace.
There is also a lot of air leakage through basement windows and penetrations (including cracks in these areas) and at the top of the foundation wall (sill area). Other houses are built on a slab-on-grade where there is no basement or crawl space at all. This can lead to long-term mould exposure as people are less likely to fix a moisture problem if they have to remove finishing that they have erected.
Under some circumstances, such as in soils that are particularly frost-susceptible in extreme climates, there could be a problem caused by some construction techniques. If you are doing this yourself, consult local building authorities for advice on proper shoring and trenching practices. If drainage insulation is used, the gravel should extend at least 100 mm (4 in.) up the side of the insulation. Make sure that the studs are perfectly vertical and accurately spaced so that the insulation will fit snugly and the finish can be installed without problems.
Alternatively, if using fibreglass blown-in insulation, fill all cavities to the manufacturer’s recommended density and RSI level. If you are using smart barrier, carefully follow manufacturer’s directions and installation requirements, though its application is similar to polyethylene sheet with a few important exceptions. This area is prone to air leakage and is seldom properly insulated, resulting in unwanted drafts, dust and pollen entry and vermin access. Similarly, do not insulate if you cannot maintain the proper clearances between furnaces, wood stoves and the wall. If there is likely to be any traffic, protect the polyethylene with a length of plastic floor mat. Any existing vents should be sealed permanently if you are performing a full renovation where the space will be heated. The solid materials of the floor can serve as the air and vapour barrier, but be sure to locate and seal any air leaks (e.g. Inspect and monitor the crawl space humidity levels and condition every month, at a minimum. It may be possible to build an insulated skirt around the foundation to create a heated crawl space. Many basements have little or no insulation, so this means there is much potential for improvement.
Check with your local building authorities or find out if your neighbours have experienced any difficulties with frost action on their foundation. The excavated dirt can be stored on a tarp or sheet of polyethylene at least 610 mm (24 in.) away from the excavation.
Use only moisture-resistant board insulation such as extruded polystyrene or Type IV expanded polystyrene. To avoid a ledge, install a frame wall from floor to ceiling and fill the cavity with insulation. Insulating can often be tied in with other repairs or renovation work such as waterproofing, radon remediation or finishing the basement.
This will encourage drainage away from the insulation, as will the addition of eavestroughs and downspouts that direct excess surface water away from the foundation by at least 2 m (6 ft.). Extra framing is needed around doors in the foundation, but window openings only need a single stud, as the wall is non-load bearing. Use urethane foam sealant and technical tape to seal all joints and intersections of the foam board. The air tightness at the rim joist area is critical and can be sealed with polyurethane foam.



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