Etiology of diabetes type 1,gastric bypass surgery cures type 2 diabetes quizlet,set m form documents,diabetes 1 and 2 wiki - 2016 Feature

Answering the question of what causes diabetes is not as simple and straightforward as most people think.
As previously mentioned, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is primarily caused by cells of the immune system attacking the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin (beta cells).
The GOOD NEWS in the case of T2DM is that you can control many of the risk factors for the disease with proper diet, nutrition, and exercise programs. Diabetes Introduction It is important to begin the section on diabetes by emphasizing just how dangerous the disease truly is. Tufts OCW material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
Type I (also often referred to as juvenile onset or insulin-dependent diabetes) is most common to present in childhood, although it can occur at any age.
Disclaimer: This site offers general reference information about diabetes, its symptoms and treatments. Hypoglycaemia: A major adverse effect of the oral hypoglycaemics, or injecting too much insulin is hypoglycaemia. Drug interactions with the oral hypoglycaemics can also occur due to displacement of the hypoglycaemic agent from plasma proteins binding by other drugs (e.g. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia are: nervousness, sweating, tremor, palpitations, intense hunger, tingling of the lips and tongue, confusion and ultimately loss of consciousness. Treatment of hypoglycaemia: 2-4 small lumps of sugar or glucose tablets are taken immediately at the first signs of a reaction, together with rest for 10-15 min until symptoms disappear. Ketoacidosis and diabetic coma: Ketoacidosis can develop over a period of days (in type 1 diabetics only), when too little (or no) insulin is being injected, or brought on by an acute infection, illness or sudden stress.

This can occur at any age but is most commonly diagnosed in adolescents in their mid to late teens and early 20’s.
The etiology of a disease is the "cause" of the disease, the pathological factor or process which leads to the symptoms and signs associated with that disease. While their resulting features have much in common, such as hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), they have many differences and their underlying cause is probably quite different. You should still be able to navigate through these materials but selftest questions will not work. Patients should be warned about hypoglycaemic symptoms and advised to carry glucose tablets or sugar with them at all times, together with a diabetic identity card. If the patient is unconscious, an intramuscular injection of glucagon may be given to raise the blood glucose levels.
Diabetics should continue to inject their normal or a slightly increased insulin dose during an illness.
Emergency treatment requires immediate intravenous infusion with soluble insulin and correction fluids (sodium chloride, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate). Unfortunately, T1DM is a genetic disorder and cannot be prevented by lifestyle modifications or any medical treatments that are currently available. While we do not understand all the details of how or why diabetes develops in most people, we do understand some of the features of the etiology of diabetes, the basic pathological processes that occur in the body and result in the disease as we know it. What is known about the etiology of Type I diabetes is that it appears to be due to an autoimmune disease.
On the one hand, some patients appear to have decreased levels of insulin secretion, similar to Type I.

An autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system (which normally fights disease) goes haywire, attacking and damaging cells and tissues of the body.
Others have relatively normal insulin levels but the body's peripheral response to insulin is lower than normal (termed insulin resistance).
Every patient is different, and only their own personal physicians can counsel them about what is the best course of management for their particular situation and condition. There are many types of autoimmune diseases (from multiple sclerosis to Graves' disease) and the factor that sets them off in the first place is generally poorly understood. These both appear to be important etiologies in the development of Type II diabetes, either alone or in concert.
However, once the autoimmune attack starts in diabetics, the cells of the pancreas that normally produce insulin are damaged. It is unclear what causes these problems in the first place but, because family history and ethnicity are strong risk factors of diabetes, there may be a strong genetic component.
The body is no longer able to produce insulin in adequate levels and high blood sugar and all the symptoms and effects of diabetes follow. Also, obesity is though to alter the way that fat cells responde to insulin and this may play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Although this is fairly well agreed upon as the etiology of Type I diabetes, the initial inciting factor or factors that determines if someone is going to develop the disease is not understood.

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