Drugs used in type 2 diabetes mellitus,diabetes mellitus type 2 introduction yourself,insulin resistant diabetes mellitus wikipedia,can you get type 2 diabetes from drinking alcohol - Try Out


For patients eating substantial amounts of food, you can use that calculated amount as the total daily dose. Approximately 40-50% of the total daily insulin dose is to replace insulin overnight, when you are fasting and between meals. This is called background or basal insulin replacement. The other 50-60% of the total daily insulin dose is for carbohydrate coverage (food) and high blood sugar correction. The bolus dose for food coverage is prescribed as an insulin to carbohydrate ratio.The insulin to carbohydrate ratio represents how many grams of carbohydrate are covered or disposed of by 1 unit of insulin. The bolus dose for high blood sugar correction is defined as how much one unit of rapid-acting insulin will drop the blood sugar. Read some examples and therapeutic principles on how to calculate the carbohydrate coverage dose, high blood sugar correction dose and the total mealtime insulin dose. CHO insulin dose =     Total grams of CHO in the meal ? grams of CHO disposed by 1 unit of insulin (the grams of CHO disposed of by 1 unit of insulin is the bottom number or denominator of the Insulin:CHO ratio).
High blood sugar correction dose =      Difference between actual blood sugar and target blood sugar*? correction factor. This example above assumes that you have a constant response to insulin throughout the day. Please keep in mind, the estimated insulin regimen is an initial “best guess” and the dose may need to be modified to keep your blood sugar on target. Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the cardiovascular and possibly the cancer complications of diabetes. Abstract: Detrimental effects of drugs on nutrition status are a common occurrence but, because they usually occur over time (vs.
Investigational studies on drugs were once tested in locked metabolic wards under the watchful eye of the full range of hospital staff.
Since there is no baseline nutritional analysis in clinical trials of new medications, interactions of medication and nutritional status go undiscovered until after the drug has already been released and is in use. In the mainstream literature of pharmacology, drug-nutrient interactions are typically placed in three categories: drug-alcohol interactions, drug-food incompatibility, and drugs affecting nutritional status. For instance, when a patient placed on warfarin (Coumadin) for a few weeks does not test for a longer prothrombin (PT) time, either the doctor or the pharmacist is likely to inquire immediately whether the patient is eating large quantities of green leafy vegetables rich in phylloquinone (vitamin K).
In addition to the fact that chiropractors tend to have longer term relationships with their patients, chiropractors are trained in nutrition, and many of the nutrient depletions that can occur with different medications have significant impact on issues related to chiropractic care.
Medications may cause electrolyte imbalances, leading to muscle spasm, cramping, palpitations, headaches and muscle weakness.
Several categories of drugs deplete CoQ10, which can affect genetic expression of muscle fibers, neural integrity and energy production. Drug Induced Nutrient Depletion (DIND) can alter synthesis, storage, transport, metabolism and excretion of essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and amino acids as well as vitamin cofactors. The amount of each nutrient depleted by drug therapy is dependent on complex factors, such as gender, genetics, absorption, intake and individual lifestyle choices. Functional deficiencies may not be observed as symptoms, conditions or disease progression for a period of months or years after initiation of drug therapies.
Chronic prescription or over the counter drug use may result in single nutrient or complex vitamin, mineral and cofactor deficiencies.
I first started educating medical professionals about the ability of statin drugs to deplete CoQ10 back in 1995.
I have found that many chiropractors are already well aware of this drug nutrient depletion and have observed effects (like muscle weakness) on many occasions in their patients.
Primary care physicians almost never monitor changes in nutritional status caused by analgesics, and many patients of chiropractors have used analgesics long term.
Most of us know that severe thiamin deficiency results in beriberi, which is typically now only seen in alcoholics. Glucocorticoids and indomethacin cause depletion of ascorbic acid, magnesium, potassium, and zinc through induction of renal hyperexcretion. Furosemide (Lasix) is well known to deplete potassium, but it also depletes magnesium, thiamin (vitamin B-1), riboflavin (vitamin B-2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). These drugs are just the tip of the iceberg, but are some of the most common drugs used today, and already you can see how profoundly these drugs may be affecting your patients.
I make it a regular practice to put any patients on HCTZ for high blood pressure on magnesium and CoQ10 at the very least; however, it is best if a multi vitamin includes some zinc and that they eat a high potassium diet.
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI's) such as Prilosec (omeprazole), Prevacid (lansoprazole), Aciphex (rabeprazole), and Protonix (pantoprazole) have long been known to deplete vitamin B12 and folic acid. It has been discussed that these nutrient depletions were observed in older studies in which higher dosages of hormones were used. The contraceptive Yaz (ethinylestradiol + drospirenone) gets tremendous interest from women and huge ad dollars. These are just a few examples of how important it is to consider drug actions on metabolism. British researchers are reporting that popular thiazolidinediones like Actos and Avandia may contribute to problems with eyesight. According to the latest findings, these drugs carry a substantial risk of vision impairment.
The overall risk of developing a condition like macular edema is still low, even while taking Actos and Avandia, but the risk is nevertheless greater for users of these drugs than for the general population. If you have taken Actos or Avandia, or a related thiazolidinedione drug for type 2 diabetes, and have begun experiencing vision problems, you may be entitled to compensation.
Nadrich & Cohen, LLP is currently investigating Actos bladder cancer claims in all 50 states.
The chronic condition of diabetes that has affected roughly more than eight percent of the population in the United States is marked by an abnormal elevation in the level of glucose in the blood. Besides measures such as weight loss, following a healthy, diabetic diet and an exercise routine, there are other measures, which must be, put to use if the above fail to bring out any appreciable improvement.
Other than that, these drugs assist in reducing the assimilation of carbohydrates from the intestines and also slow the emptying of the stomach. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), these medicines became available for use as early as 1950s.
As of now, there are two generations of this medication which can be prescribed by a doctor for treating diabetes.
These anti-diabetic pills help in improving the ability of insulin to efficiently transport sugar into the cell structure. However, its use is contraindicated in the following scenarios- patients with a high level of creatinine, lung or liver disorders. Thiazolidinediones, otherwise known as Glitazones is a group of medicinal drugs, primarily constituted by Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone.
It, thus, increases the system’s sensitivity towards both, insulin secretion and action. This class consists of Repaglinide and Nateglinide which are marketed as Prandin and Starlix, respectively.
Therefore, for raised sugar levels, this group of drugs releases more insulin whereas Sulfonylureas work regardless of the blood sugar level. Glyset (miglitol) and Precose (acarbose) are the alpha-glucoside inhibitors that work by blocking those enzymes which aid the digestion of starches, thereby, bringing the spike of blood sugar within the normal range.
Commonly abbreviated as DPP-4 Inhibitors, this class of medicines consists of three drugs, namely, Sitagliptin (Januvia), Linagliptin and Savagliptin.
Both, Amylin and Incretin mimetics have the same mode of action; that is, stimulation and increase in the release of insulin. Metformin combined with glipizide and Metformin along with Pioglitazone form some of the combinations that are available in the market for treatment of diabetes. Metabolic diseases, inherited: Also called inborn errors of metabolism, these are heritable (genetic) disorders of biochemistry. Between 40% and 50% of that total dose should be administered as basal, with the rest dosed out in nutritional boluses. You should give 50% of that total dose as basal insulin about four hours before patients’ IV insulin is turned off.


This range can vary from 4-30 grams or more of carbohydrate depending on an individual’s sensitivity to insulin. Bear in mind, this may be too much insulin if you are newly diagnosed or still making a lot of insulin on your own. You will need to work out your specific insulin requirements and dose regimen with your medical provider and diabetes team.
It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in particular, in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function. It helps reduce LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels and is not associated with weight gain; in some people, it promotes weight loss. In the modern era of cost-cutting, clinical trials of new medications almost always involve short-term observations of healthy outpatient volunteers with labs drawn in a fasting state. Furthermore, since known existing drug induced nutrient depletions are not taught in medical school curriculums, only a limited number of nutrition related side effects of drugs are ever likely to be observed by a medical practitioner. The effects of nutrition on medication result in symptoms quickly and are corrected quickly.
For example, the liver may require additional nutrient(s) to clear a drug, and this extra demand for the nutrient(s) depletes them over time. While the idea was met with a lot of resistance initially, this has actually become probably the most widely known drug nutrient depletion.
Aspirin and other salicylates deplete folate and thiamin through the mechanism of competitive binding. However, since thiamin is critical for ATP production in cells, milder deficiencies can result in tiredness, irritability, and reduced appetite. Recent research has found that, not only do patients treated with any dosage of furosemide (Lasix) for any duration typically show deficiency symptoms of these B vitamins, but, providing them with just the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) did not result in improved vitamin status. In the second part of this article, I will discuss three more commonly used drugs and provide a chart that summarizes the nutrient depletions of some of these as well as other prescription and over the counter drugs. The CoQ10 is especially important to prevent the development of congestive heart failure, the very problem you are trying to prevent from the high blood pressure for which this drug is used.
The H2 blocking drugs like Tagamet (cimetidine) and Zantac (ranitidine) also deplete B12 and folate in addition to vitamin D and, because this category of drugs reduces stomach acid, it affects the absorption of the minerals, calcium, iron, and zinc. While these drugs were intended only for short-term use, many people remain on these drugs for years without monitoring vitamin D status or other symptoms.
In the past, we warned women that oral contraceptives depleted B vitamins, including folate, vitamin C, magnesium, selenium, zinc, and the amino acid tyrosine. While I have noticed the effects of lower dosage birth control are not as pronounced as they used to be in the higher hormone dosage pills, depending on the woman's nutritional habits prior to starting the pill, they can still have significant side effects.
This medication has been approved in Europe long enough that the Belgian government financed post-release impact studies. Doctors of chiropractic are in an enviable position, because they can stop the downward spiral in their patients' health by counseling on drug-induced nutritional depletions and, in so doing, can build patient trust and satisfaction. These drugs both have sordid histories, with Avandia being linked to elevated risk of heart attack, and Actos being linked to bladder cancer. They are used to regulate blood sugar levels, and are commonly recommended for use in conjunction with diet and exercise. The information was accessed from records in the British Health Improvement Network database. The study does not take into account how much of a role diabetes itself may play in vision loss, but every one of the patients analyzed in the study was a diabetes sufferer.
But in order to win your case, you will need expert legal representation from a knowledgeable Actos attorney. For more information on filing an Actos lawsuit, call 1-800-718-4658 to begin your free initial case evaluation. This blog features news stories, personal cases and analysis of current events, all of which are intended for illustrative purposes only. The key goal in the treatment and management of diabetes involves the reduction of the spiked blood sugar so that it (glucose) remains well within the normal range without heading towards a hypoglycemic state. Medicines, especially for type 2 diabetes (non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) work in either of the following ways- Drug action spruces the output of insulin by the pancreas, reduces the glucose being released by the liver and sensitize the cells towards the presence and action of insulin. Diabetic patients need to work closely with their respective doctors so as to formulate an approach which offers improvement while at the same time cuts down the risks. The mode of action of Sulfonylureas does not involve direct reduction of the glucose level in the blood; instead, it encourages an organ called pancreas to discharge more amount of insulin. Glipizide (available as Glycotrol), glimepiride (Amaryl) or Glyburide (Micronase) constitute some of the commonly used Sulfonylureas which can be taken via the oral route. The commonly reported side effects associated with its use include stomach upset with diarrhea, bloating and nausea or vomiting.
According to the American Diabetes Association, these two drugs have the following mechanism of action- They help in enhancing insulin resistance in the muscles as well as the fat tissue. These drugs are recommended for diabetic patients as they are successful in bringing the elevated blood sugar level down via pancreatic stimulation that results in an increased release of insulin.
It works well for individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and exerts its action through enhancement of pancreatic insulin secretion and also controls the production of sugar. As of today, the following types of insulins are being used; for example Rapid action insulin, such as Insulin glulisine, Regular insulin, which exert its, action for at least 3-6 hours, Intermediate and Long acting insulin.
Other than insulin release, it also helps in suppressing appetite, and favours mild to moderate loss of weight. Examples include albinism, cystinuria (a cause of kidney stones), phenylketonuria (PKU), and some forms of gout, sun sensitivity, and thyroid disease. Once patients start eating, add the rest in bolus amounts.You should also take into account how well the patient’s glucose was controlled in the ICU on the preceding day. Insulin sensitivity can vary according to the time of day, from person to person, and is affected by physical activity and stress.
Someone who is resistant in the morning, but sensitive at mid-day, will need to adjust the insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio at different meal times.
It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines. Glucophage XR extended-release tablets is a biguanide antidiabetic. It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, and has been investigated for other diseases where insulin resistance may be an important factor. Metformin is one of only two oral anti-diabetics in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (the other being glibenclamide).
When a medication is expected to be effective in a specified dosage for a specified condition and it is not, the cause is quickly investigated. If there are no other unusual demands for the nutrients, they may not be depleted while the patient is under a doctor's care.
CoQ10 is important for cellular energy production; therefore, the effects of depletion of this nutrient are very far reaching. Folate depletion can go on to influence many areas of health, but one of the most immediate is that it can cause anemia. Moderate deficiency can contribute to neuropathy symptoms like tingling or burning feet and muscle tenderness. If depleted, a person may notice bleeding gums and increased susceptibility to colds and flu. Studies have now clearly shown a link between use of these drugs and increased risk of osteoporosis. While this endeavor will require professional supervision of a carefully considered program of nutritional supplementation, appropriate care for nutritional balance will greatly enhance the ability to deliver the results patients expect and deserve.
Actos and Avandia are only available by prescription, and have been known to carry a multitude of unpleasant side effects, including painful urination, back and abdominal pain, and yes, even loss of vision.
Iskandar Idris, patients who received a thiazolidinediones like Actos or Avandia were two to three times more likely to develop macular edema, a vision impairment caused by an accumulation of fluid and protein under the macula of the eye.
This increase in secretion of insulin restores its normal level and thus, Sulfonylureas aid the diabetic patient in having a balanced level of blood sugar. Some of the concerns associated with the use of first and second generation Sulfonylureas are gastrointestinal upset, formation of skin rash, increase in body weight and hypoglycemia.


Not just that, this class of drugs also dissuades the liver from letting out the stored glucose in the system. Also, patients with heart related problems stand at a high risk of developing lactic acidosis if kept on metformin. However, this class of drugs must be used with extreme caution, particularly in patients with a past or present medical history of heart failure. Although rare in incidence, some of the side effects to watch out for are headache, lung infection or fluid retention.
Unlike Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides work in accordance with the level of glucose present in the blood.
Increased flatulence, nausea, and cramps are some of the side effects caused by alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. These are only a very few of the hundreds of known inborn errors of metabolism. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of inborn errors of metabolism have improved the outlook for many of these conditions so that early diagnosis, if possible in infancy, can be helpful.
For patients with poor control, consider factoring in another 10% to your total daily dose. Talk to your provider about the best insulin dose for you as this is a general formula and may not meet your individual needs. It works by decreasing the amount of sugar that the liver produces and the intestines absorb.
Because of this, doctors of chiropractic are in a unique position to recognize the interactions of medication and nutritional status and, if knowledgeable in the area of drug induced nutrient depletion, they have an opportunity to help their patients recover nutritional adequacy and restore metabolic homeostasis.
Any organ or tissue that is lacking proper ability to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be affected, whether it's the large skeletal muscles of the body or an organ, like the heart. In addition, folate is one of the key B vitamins needed to recycle and, therefore, to reduce homocysteine. While it is well known that young women need to replace folate after being on birth control before trying to get pregnant, to prevent neural tub defects, it has been my observation that many young women undergo mood changes after going on oral contraceptives, in addition to noticing that they are very tired.
The full report is published in the June 11th online edition of Archives of Internal Medicine. Therefore, nothing on this site should be viewed as a guarantee or prediction of a similar future outcome.
Likewise, if nutrient status of a person is compromised or marginal, but not deficient before drug therapy is initiated, it may not produce obvious symptoms until after the disease the drug is used to treat has run its course or the patient is on a maintenance dosage. CoQ10 is also an important intracellular antioxidant; and, finally, it has been found that CoQ10 is an important nutrient in blood pressure regulation. CoQ10 depletion significantly impacts energy production in cells because it is needed to shuttle carnitine into cells.
Typically, women are considered to be a greater risk of osteoporosis; but the studies found that these drugs also dramatically increased the risk in men, as well.
Several studies have reported that the B6 depletion results in depression because of the reduced synthesis of serotonin in a subset of women. Specifically, oral contraceptives frequently result in depletion of beta-carotene and gamma- (although not alpha-) tocopherol. The information on this site should not be treated as authoritative, and readers should always consult with legal counsel before making any important legal decisions. It is, in fact, the medicine of choice for type 2 diabetes cases, especially those dealing with obesity. When you have type 2 diabetes mellitus, your body does not produce enough insulin, or the insulin produced is not used properly. Since heart cells are very dependent on that constant source of energy, CoQ10 depletion can really affect the heart, in addition to other large muscles. So, it is important to be on the lookout for both men and women who are at risk of developing osteoporosis through long-term use of this category of drugs.
However, these depletions can lead to a host of problems including anemia, cervical dysplasia, bleeding gums, lowered immunity, and elevated homocysteine. Lastly, Nadrich & Cohen, LLC is not responsible for any comments contributed by visitors to this website. In most of the cases, Metformin is taken in combination with other drugs for treating diabetes.
Like other types of insulin, insulin glargine is used to keep your blood sugar level close to normal. For example, I have had patients report much more difficulty getting up off the floor or even out of their chair.
For this medicine, the following should be considered:AllergiesTell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines.
Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals.
For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.PediatricThis medicine has been tested in a limited number of children 6 years of age or older. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.Interactions with MedicinesAlthough certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary.
Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.Other Medical ProblemsThe presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine.
Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.Each package of insulin glargine contains a patient information sheet. If you have questions about this, contact a member of your health care team.Since insulin glargine lowers the blood glucose over 24 hours, it should be taken once daily at bedtimeFollow carefully the special meal plan your doctor gave you.
This is the most important part of controlling your condition, and is necessary if the medicine is to work properly. Also, patients with diabetes may need special counseling about diabetes medicine dosing changes that might occur because of lifestyle changes, such as changes in exercise and diet.
It is a good idea to:Wear a medical identification (ID) bracelet or neck chain at all times. Check and replace any expired kits regularly.Too much insulin glargine can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Low blood sugar also can occur if you use insulin glargine with another antidiabetic medicine, delay or miss a meal or snack, exercise more than usual, or drink alcohol.
Symptoms of low blood sugar must be treated before they lead to unconsciousness (passing out). Someone should call for emergency help immediately if severe symptoms such as convulsions (seizures) or unconsciousness occur.
Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.
If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
It is not a substitute for a medical exam, nor does it replace the need for services provided by medical professionals.
Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before taking any prescription or over the counter drugs (including any herbal medicines or supplements) or following any treatment or regimen. Only your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist can provide you with advice on what is safe and effective for you.The use of the Thomson Healthcare products is at your sole risk.
These products are provided "AS IS" and "as available" for use, without warranties of any kind, either express or implied. Additionally, THOMSON HEALTHCARE MAKES NO REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE OPINIONS OR OTHER SERVICE OR DATA YOU MAY ACCESS, DOWNLOAD OR USE AS A RESULT OF USE OF THE THOMSON HEALTHCARE PRODUCTS. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED.



A computational model to define the molecular causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus
January 2013 f321 mark scheme
Cure diabetes with vegetables




Comments

  1. 8km_yek

    The traditional low fats diets, but this was solely in the ear (when.

    22.07.2016

  2. devo4ka

    Think about losing those winter kilos that.

    22.07.2016

  3. 18_USHAQ_ATASI

    Blue and prescribed seasickness tablets on the.

    22.07.2016

  4. nigar

    Reversing this heart disease with a low carb from meat, eggs and.

    22.07.2016