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Type 2 diabetes: What is it?Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the body's ability to convert sugar into energy. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements.
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The first drug people take is usually metformin, an oral medication that is found in the brand-name drugs Glucophage and Glucophage XR. Now that multidrug therapy is common practice among endocrinologists, more drugs are available in a single pill. Daytime activity can increase the body's sensitivity to insulin, so an oral drug, such as metformin, may control the fasting blood sugar. In time, they may also need a short-acting insulin, which is taken just before eating, to control blood sugar after meals.
The primary challenges are making sure the blood sugar doesn't get too low from all the medications, a condition known as hypoglycemia, as well as preventing weight gain. The material in this site is intended to be of general informational use and is not intended to constitute medical advice, probable diagnosis, or recommended treatments. See the Terms of Service and Privacy Policy (Your California Privacy Rights) for more information.
Wearing flip-flops to the beach can spell disaster for an uncontrolled diabetic with a small puncture wound. When Rick Maina was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes 10 years ago, he was in total denial about the seriousness of the diagnosis.
For the first five or six years, he took medications based on his doctor’s recommendations.
Without health insurance, Maina’s two-month ordeal wound up costing him $200,000 in medical bills. Just because your doctor prescribes it does not necessarily mean it is safe for you to take.
But this important information is often shrouded from public view, which intentionally perpetuates the myth that the benefits of FDA-approved drugs far outweigh any risks. Millions of Americans take PPIs to alleviate the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition marked by food and acid in the stomach leaking back into the esophagus and causing damage.
The top-selling class of drugs for several years in a row, statins are hailed by the medical system as a type of miracle cure for high cholesterol and heart disease. The leading cause of antibiotic-resistant “superbugs,” antibiotics are another class of drugs that can cause long-term health problems without providing much, if any, benefit.
One of the deadliest drug classes, antipsychotics are commonly prescribed for conditions like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe major depression, as well as for many “off-label” conditions such as mild mood disorder and everyday anxiety.
But even more concerning is the long-term neurological and brain damage that can result from taking antipsychotics, not to mention the greatly elevated risk of metabolic syndrome, which can include major health conditions like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Pharmaceutical drugs have officially been declared a leading cause of death in America today, and leading the way are opioid-based painkillers like Vicodin (hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen), OxyContin (oxycodone HCI), Percocet (oxycodone and acetaminophen), codeine, and morphine. According to a study out of Brandeis University in Massachusetts, prescription painkillers are now responsible for causing more fatal overdoses than both heroin and cocaine combined. Antidepressants like Prozac (fluoxetine), Zoloft (sertraline), Paxil (paroxetine), and Lexapro (escitalopram) have been around for years, but their dangers typically receive far less attention than they deserve. A range of injectable insulins and oral antidiabetic medications are used in the treatment of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Researchers are testing ways to delay or prevent the onset of Type 1 diabetes, a disease that requires intensive, lifelong management.
Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. For other people, these serious warning symptoms may be the first signs of type 1 diabetes. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can develop quickly in people with diabetes who are taking insulin. Because type 1 diabetes can start quickly and the symptoms can be severe, people who have just been diagnosed may need to stay in the hospital. If you have just been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may need to have a checkup each week until you have good control over your blood sugar. By testing your blood sugar level, you can learn which foods and activities raise or lower your blood sugar level the most. The American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association have information for planning healthy, balanced meals.
Checking your blood sugar level yourself and writing down the results tells you how well you are managing your diabetes. Get a foot exam at least twice a year with your doctor, and learn whether you have nerve damage. With type 1 diabetes, you are also at risk of developing conditions such as hearing loss, gum disease, or yeast infections (in women). The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
This allows sugar levels to build up in the blood, which can lead to heart disease, blindness and other serious complications. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Most people still produce at least some of their own insulin, a hormone that converts sugar into energy.
These drugs work in different ways to help lower blood sugar to safe levels and are often more effective when used in combinations. As time goes on and diabetes progresses (natural insulin production can decline over time), their doctor often adds another type of oral medication, insulin, or some other injectable drug to the regimen.
If it's not controlling blood sugar on its own, doctors might add a sulfonylurea, which stimulates the pancreas to make more insulin. For example, metformin has been combined with sulfonylureas (called Metaglip and Glucovance) and sitagliptin (called Janumet). But since people are sedentary at night, they may need long-lasting insulin shot before bedtime.
Then, his window contracting business took a nose dive during the recession and he lost his health insurance.

The doctor recommended that they try a daily antibiotic infusion for six weeks to kill the infection. He anticipates getting coverage this month under the Affordable Care Act and reports that his outlook is beginning to brighten.
These infections also represent the most common reason for diabetics to wind up in hospitals. We also recommend daily foot inspections to make sure there are no cuts or aberrations that can become infected.
Many popular prescription drugs, it turns out, come with the potential for serious side effects, including everything from short-term nausea and headaches to chronic inflammatory myopathy and heart disease — or worse. But PPIs like Nexium (exomeprazole) and Prevacid (lansoprazole) have been shown to both block nutrient absorption and inhibit the production of necessary stomach acid, which can cause a host of other health problems. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued at least a dozen warnings about the dangers of PPIs, which include an increased risk of bacterial diarrhea, magnesium deficiency, and bone fractures. But popular statin drugs like Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium) and Crestor (rosuvastatin calcium) have been shown to greatly increase users’ risk of diabetes, liver disease, brain damage, muscle atrophy, and even early death. Beyond this, more than a dozen studies have shown that taking statins for primary prevention does little, if anything, to prevent heart attack or stroke, which means the drug class is medically useless for the millions of otherwise healthy people who are prescribed it. Insanely overprescribed for conditions that often do not even respond to them, antibiotics and their long-term abuse by the medical system has made many infections more virulent and untreatable. Ellison also lists quinolones, the most commonly prescribed class of antibiotics, as dangerous as well, noting that antibiotics like Cipro (ciprofloxacin), Avelox (moxifloxacin HCL), and Floxin (ofloxacin) can cause severe and permanent disability.
But popular antipsychotic drugs like Seroquel (quetiapine fumarate), Abilify (aripiprazole), Risperdal (risperidone), and Zyprexa (olanzapine) have been shown to increase blood sugar levels, elevate lipid and cholesterol levels, and promote weight gain. Antipsychotics are so dangerous that a study published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) declared them to be more deadly than terrorism. Side effects like suicidal tendencies, sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal bleeding, and heart disease are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the many side effects of SSRIs.  In some cases, SSRIs can actually make depression symptoms worse, leading some individuals to become violent. Visiting your doctor is very important so you can monitor any long-term problems from diabetes. Your doctor will choose the best type of insulin for you and will tell you at what time of day to use it. This helps you adjust your insulin doses to specific meals or activities to prevent blood sugar from becoming too high or too low. People with type 1 diabetes must take special steps before, during, and after physical activity or exercise. Usually, you prick your finger with a small needle called a lancet to get a tiny drop of blood. This is very important when you already have nerve or blood vessel damage or foot problems.
A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.
In addition, doctors might consider adding the injectable medications Byetta (exenatide) or Symlin (pramlintide acetate), to a patient's metformin, says Dace Trence, MD, an endocrinologist and director of the Diabetes Care Center at the University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle. However, uncontrolled diabetes can lead to coronary heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, limb amputations, and premature death. The diabetic foot infection persisted to the point that a specialist recommended a partial amputation of his foot.
Nearly everyone who suffers an infection has some degree of peripheral neuropathy nerve damage and peripheral arterial disease. You’ll also want to keep your socks washed and your shoes sanitized from bacteria, fungus, and viruses with a SteriShoe UV shoe sanitizer.
Long-term consumption of PPIs has also been linked to increased risk of pneumonia and unhealthy weight gain. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has actually declared an epidemic in response to this elevated number of prescription painkiller deaths. He is committed to spreading the word about natural healthcare and the benefits of regular chiropractic care for the whole family. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue.
Some types of insulin may be mixed together in an injection to get the best blood glucose control. You and your doctor should set a target goal for your blood sugar level at different times during the day.
The affected limb may need to be amputated if these skin ulcers do not heal or become larger, deeper, or infected. Diabetes UK estimates that over 600,000 people with type 2 diabetes don't know they have it. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. Then, on Labor Day weekend, he wore a pair of flip-flops to the beach and noticed that his previously injured foot began to swell up. People who undergo amputations suffer a poor quality of life and often die within five years. With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. When he was admitted to the hospital, health care practitioners were alarmed to see high blood pressure and out-of-control blood sugar levels of 550 ml per deciliter (instead of the ideal range of 135 to 140).
The tendency to develop autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, can be passed down through families. Diabetes may not have symptomsIn most cases type 2 diabetes doesn't cause any symptoms, or the symptoms are mild, which is why many people have it for years without knowing it, and why it's important to get tested.
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Warning sign: ThirstOne of the first symptoms of type 2 diabetes may be an increase in thirst.
This true story shows how diabetic foot infections can quickly spiral into serious trouble. This is often accompanied by additional problems, including dry mouth, increased appetite, frequent urination – sometimes as often as every hour -- and unusual weight loss or gain.

Warning sign: Blurred visionAs blood sugar levels become more abnormal, additional symptoms may include headaches, blurred vision and fatigue.
Warning sign: InfectionsIn most cases, type 2 diabetes is not discovered until it takes a noticeable toll on health.
Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerve endings in the genitals, leading to a loss of feeling and making orgasm difficult. Risk factors you can controlYour habits and lifestyle can affect your odds of developing type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for womenHaving gestational diabetes when you're pregnant puts you seven times at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on. Having a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also cause insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes in childrenAlthough older people have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, the condition is affecting more young people. Diabetes UK says around 35,000 children and young people in the UK have diabetes, with around 700 of these having type 2 diabetes. The leading risk factor for children is being overweight, often connected with an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity.
Once children are overweight, their chances of developing type 2 diabetes more than doubles. Often a urine test is carried out first, and if it contains glucose, or a person is at risk of diabetes, one or more blood tests to check levels of glucose in the blood are performed. How does insulin work?In healthy people, after a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body.
Cells use the hormone insulin, made in the pancreas, to help them process blood glucose into energy. People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver and fat cannot use insulin properly, called insulin resistance. Type 2 Diabetes: Metabolism mishapsIn type 2 diabetes, the cells cannot absorb glucose properly.
If you've developed a condition called insulin resistance, the body makes insulin, but the muscle, liver and fat cells cannot use insulin, or do not respond to the insulin, properly. With long-standing, uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, the pancreas will reduce the amount of insulin it produces.
Managing diabetes: DietFortunately, people with type 2 diabetes can significantly reduce the risk of damage to their bodies, including damage to the heart, kidneys, eyes and feet.
People with type 2 diabetes should carefully monitor carbohydrate consumption, as well as total fat and protein intake and reduce calories. Managing diabetes: ExerciseModerate exercise, such as strength training or walking, improves the body's use of insulin and can lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
Being active also helps reduce body fat, lower blood pressure and protect against heart disease.
Try to do at least 150 minutes of exercise a week, with some exercise on most days of the week. It can also increase glucose levels in your blood as part of your "fight or flight" response.
Instead of letting stress take its toll, try relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation or just talking to a friend or relative. Managing diabetes: MedicationWhen people with type 2 diabetes are unable to control blood sugar sufficiently with diet and exercise, medication can help. There are many types of diabetes medicines available and they are often used in combination. Some work by stimulating the pancreas to make more insulin, while others improve the effectiveness of insulin, or reduce the liver's production of glucose, or block the digestion of starches.
Managing diabetes: InsulinMany people with type 2 diabetes eventually develop 'beta-cell failure'. This means the cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin in response to high blood sugar levels.
In this case, insulin therapy – injections or an insulin pump – must become part of the daily routine. Whereas insulin pulls glucose into the cells, these medications cause the body to release insulin to control blood sugar levels. Glucose testingTesting your blood glucose level will let you know how controlled your blood sugars are and if you need to take action to change your treatment plan. How often and when you test will be based on how controlled your diabetes is, the type of therapy used to control your diabetes and whether you are experiencing symptoms of fluctuating sugars.
Your diabetes team will suggest how often you should use a glucose meter to check your blood sugar.
Common testing times are first thing in the morning, before and after meals and exercise and before bedtime. Long-term damage: ArteriesOver time, untreated type 2 diabetes can damage many of the body's systems. People with diabetes are likely to develop plaque in their arteries, which reduces blood flow and increases the risk of clots.
People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke.
Long-term damage: KidneysThe longer you have untreated diabetes, the greater the risk of developing kidney disease or kidney failure. Long-term damage: EyesHigh blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the retina, a critical part of the eye. This is known as diabetic retinopathy and it can cause progressive, irreversible vision loss.
People with diabetes are up to 20 times more likely to go blind than those without diabetes. Long-Term Damage: Nerve PainOver time, uncontrolled diabetes and elevated blood sugars create a very real risk of nerve damage.
Symptoms can include tingling, numbness, pain and a pins and needles sensation -- often in the fingers, hands, toes or feet. Preventing type 2 diabetesOne of the most astonishing things about type 2 diabetes is that such a life-altering condition is often preventable.

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