Drugs that cause hyperglycemia in diabetes,natural cures for diabetes in dogs 101,how to treat diabetic foot numbness occurs - Try Out


Glipizide XL is an oral medium-to-long acting anti-diabetic drug from the sulfonylurea class. Glipizide XL is an antidiabetic medication, which is used in those patients with adult maturity onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Diabetes (diabetes mellitus): a condition characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy.
Pre-diabetes: a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes: a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Type 2 diabetes: a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by either a lack of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin efficiently. There are some other causes of diabetes, including certain diseases of the pancreas, but they are all very rare. Type 1 diabetes develops much more quickly, usually over a few weeks, and symptoms are normally very obvious. If you have a family history of diabetes, especially parents or siblings with diabetes, then you're near the top of the list in terms of risk.
Type- II diabetes also tends to run in families, but since 80 to 85 percent of all cases occur among people who are over 40 and overweight, obesity is considered more important in the development of this form of the disease. In the United States the disease is more common among African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians. When you are not properly managing your type 2 diabetes, you greatly increase your risk of diabetes-related complications.
Diabetes carries an increased risk for heart attack and stroke related to poor circulation. Diabetes can cause nerve damage (neuropathy), which can affect feelings in arms, hands, legs or feet, and cause you to lose sensitivity to pain. Diabetes can cause foot ulcers, nerve damage to the feet, infections and loss of blood flow resulting in possible amputation. Diabetes can cause a range of skin disorders, such as itching, diabetic blisters, bacterial and fungus infections. Although these conditions are serious, you can lower your risk of diabetes-related complications by managing your diabetes every day. The basic appeal of oral hypoglycemic agents is that most people would prefer a pill to an injection. However, the potential market for an oral form of insulin is enormous and many laboratories have attempted to devise ways of moving enough intact insulin from the gut to the portal vein to have a measurable effect on blood sugar. Gastrointestinal absorption of Glipizide or Glipizide XL in man is uniform, rapid, and essentially complete. Glipizide XL should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Because recent information suggests that abnormal blood glucose levels during pregnancy are associated with a higher incidence of congenital abnormalities, many experts recommend that insulin be used during pregnancy to maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. Although it is not known whether Glipizide XL is excreted in human milk, some sulfonylurea drugs are known to be excreted in human milk. Of the total number of patients in clinical studies of Glipizide XL 33 percent were 65 and over. Dermatologic : Allergic skin reactions including erythema, morbilliform or maculopapular eruptions, urticaria, pruritus, and eczema have been reported in about one in seventy patients. Miscellaneous : Dizziness, drowsiness, and headache have each been reported in about one in fifty patients treated with Glipizide.
Although these adverse experiences occurred in patients treated with Glipizide XL, a causal relationship to the medication has not been established in all cases. There have been rare reports of gastrointestinal irritation and gastrointestinal bleeding with use of another drug in this non-deformable sustained release formulation, although causal relationship to the drug is uncertain.
Note:Information and the trade-mark names used in this website is for informational purpose only.
Below is a transcript of the latest statement (December 2008) published on Diabetes Care about the role of dipeptidyl peptidase four inhibitors in the medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), the main insulinotropic peptides of intestinal origin (incretins), are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase four (DPP-4).


Another DPP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, was approved in Europe in February 2008, and several other compounds are under development. Glipizide XL works by lowering blood sugar levels by stimulating the production and release of insulin from the pancreas. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas no longer makes insulin and therefore blood glucose cannot enter the cells to be used for energy. People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and for heart disease and stroke. Occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older adults but can appear in young people.
Sometimes an accident or an illness may reveal diabetes if it is already there, but they do not cause it. Some people may not notice any symptoms at all and their diabetes is only picked up in a routine medical check up. Heredity is the most important predisposing factor for diabetes, especially for type-I diabetes. In a survey in the USA , households with the lowest income-under $15,000- was found to have the highest incidence of diabetes. Every one percent increase in your A1C level above 6 percent elevates the risk of diabetes-related complications, including stroke, heart attack, blindness and loss of limbs.
It is the mainstay of treatment in type I diabetes, in which insulin production is impaired.
They are insulin secretagogues, triggering insulin release by direct action on the KATP channel of the pancreatic beta cells.
Sulfonylureas are only useful in type II diabetes, as they work by stimulating endogenous release of insulin. The amplification of insulin release is shorter and more intense, and they are taken with meals to boost the insulin response to each meal. Although it must be used with caution in patients with impaired liver or kidney function, metformin has become the most commonly used agent for type 2 diabetes in children and teenagers.
These agents slow the digestion of starch in the small intestine, so that glucose from the starch of a meal enters the bloodstream more slowly, and can be matched more effectively by an impaired insulin response or sensitivity. Some of these are simply newer members of one of the above classes, but some work by novel mechanisms. The primary metabolites are inactive hydroxylation products and polar conjugates and are excreted mainly in the urine. Because the potential for hypoglycemia in nursing infants may exist, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some individuals cannot be ruled out. These may be transient and may disappear despite continued use of Glipizide; if skin reactions persist, the drug should be discontinued. In a comparative efficacy study of Glipizide XL and Glipizide, hypoglycemia occurred rarely with an incidence of less than 1% with both drugs. Don't consider the information provided here as a substitute of consultation with physician. DPP-4 is a member of a family of cell membrane proteins that are expressed in many tissues, including immune cells (34).
The potential for this class of compounds to interfere with immune function is of concern; an increase in upper respiratory infections has been reported (34). The most common cause of this is by taking glucocorticoid drugs, or diseases that result in excess cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or CRH levels. In type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas does not make enough insulin or the body is unable to use insulin correctly. There is a gradual increase in susceptibility, with slight peaks at puberty and during pregnancy, until we reach the age of 40. But if you are obese, you may be setting yourself up for this disease 10 or 20 years from now. However, that race alone does not predict diabetes; it must be combined with another factor, such as obesity.


There are different types of anti-diabetic drugs, and their use depends on the nature of the diabetes, age and situation of the person, as well as other factors. They work best with patients over 40 years old, who have had diabetes mellitus for under ten years. These agents are effective by themselves only in the earliest stages of impaired glucose tolerance, but can be helpful in combination with other agents in type 2 diabetes. For example, at least one compound that enhances the sensitivity of glucokinase to rising glucose is in the stage of animal research.
The half-life of elimination ranges from 2-4 hours in normal subjects, whether given intravenously or orally. If the drug is discontinued and if diet alone is inadequate for controlling blood glucose, insulin therapy should be considered. Porphyria cutanea tarda and photosensitivity reactions have been reported with sulfonylureas.
The 580 patients from 31 to 87 years of age who received Glipizide extended-release tablets in doses from 5 mg to 60 mg in both controlled and open trials were included in the evaluation of adverse experiences. DPP-4 inhibitors are small molecules that enhance the effects of GLP-1 and GIP, increasing glucose-mediated insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon secretion (83,84). The metabolic and excretory patterns are similar with the two routes of administration, indicating that first-pass metabolism is not significant. Cholestatic jaundice may occur rarely with sulfonylureas; Glipizide should be discontinued if this occurs.
All adverse experiences reported were tabulated independently of their possible causal relation to medication.
The ?rst oral DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in October 2006 for use as monotherapy or in combination with metformin or TZDs. It has been reported that total absorption and disposition of an oral dose was unaffected by food in normal volunteers, but absorption was delayed by about 40 minutes. Thus Glipizide was more effective when administered about 30 minutes before, rather than with, a test meal in diabetic patients.
Protein binding was studied in serum from volunteers who received oral Glipizide and found to be 98-99% one hour after either route of administration.
Consequently, most patients are effectively treated by carefully tapering off (and eventually stopping) the medication. The apparent volume of distribution of glipizide after intravenous administration was 11 liters, indicative of localization within the extracellular fluid compartment.
In mice no Glipizide or metabolites were detectable autoradiographically in the brain or spinal cord of males or females, nor in the fetuses of pregnant females. In another study, however, very small amounts of radioactivity were detected in the fetuses of rats given labelled drug.
Regardless of the adenoma’s location, most patients will require steroid replacement postoperatively at least in the interim as long-term suppression of pituitary ACTH and normal adrenal tissue does not recover immediately. Clearly, if both adrenals are removed, replacement with hydrocortisone or prednisolone is imperative.
In those patients not suitable for or unwilling to undergo surgery, several drugs have been found to inhibit cortisol synthesis (e.g. Mifepristone is a powerful glucocorticoid receptor antagonist has also rarely been used, but the medication faces considerable controversy due to its use as an abortifacient.
In February 2012 the FDA approved mifepristone in order to control high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) in adult patients who are not candidates for surgery, or who did not respond to prior surgery, with the warning that mifepristone should never be used by pregnant women.
Removal of the adrenals in the absence of a known tumor is occasionally performed to eliminate the production of excess cortisol. In some occasions, this removes negative feedback from a previously occult pituitary adenoma, which starts growing rapidly and produces extreme levels of ACTH, leading to hyperpigmentation.



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Comments

  1. Layla

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    09.06.2014

  2. Polat_Alemdar

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    09.06.2014

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    09.06.2014

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    Determine what your risk may be of getting which foods.

    09.06.2014

  5. AHMET

    Make up your eating regimen - protein.

    09.06.2014