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This post is an overview on calcium channel blockers, in this first part we will discuss their classification, mechanism of action as well as clinical indications.
Phenilalkylamines: verapamil is the only drug in this group, it binds to the V binding site. Dihydropyridines: the prototype agent in this group is nifedipine, a first generation dihydropyridine that binds to the N binding site. Calcium channel antagonists block the inward movement of calcium by binding to the L-type calcium channels in the heart and in smooth muscle of the peripheral vasculature.
Dihydropiridines have minimal effect on cardiac conduction or heart rate, while they have potent actions as arteriolar vasodilators. On the other hand, verapamil and diltiazem slow AV conduction and decrease SA node automaticity, they also decrease heart rate. CCB’s  effectiveness in the treatment of hypertension is  related to a decrease in peripheral resistance accompanied by increases in cardiac index. CCB are also useful in the treatment of hypertensive patients with comorbidities such as: asthma, diabetes, angina, ond or peripheral vascular disease.
Calcium channel blockers act as coronary vasodilators, producing variable and dose-dependent reductions in myocardial oxygen demand, contractility, and arterial pressure. In the presence of heart failure, the use of calcium channel blockers can cause further worsening of heart failure as a result of their negative inotropic effect.
Verapamil and diltiazem are class IV antiarrhythmics, according to Vaughan and Williams’ classification of antiarrhythmic drugs. Calcium channel blockers act as coronary vasodilators, producing variable and dose-dependent reductions in myocardial oxygen demand, contractility, and arterial pressure. In the presence of heart failure, the use of calcium channel blockers can cause further worsening of heart failure as a result of their negative inotropic effect. If you’re very patient you can answer 130 redundant questions at this site offered by UVA to help you make up your mind, or read one of the books on the subject. Then there is the general opinion among the goo-heavy specialties that you should avoid the goo you dislike the most. There is the Myers-Briggs guide to specialties which is only useful if you’re the type of person that likes astrology or other advice based on vague, general descriptions of people coached in psuedoscientific drivel. So, using these highly-scientific and time-tested methodologies, which kind of medicine would you like to practice?
This is a stage that happened to be easy for me, but at which many students make very bad choices. The classic diseases of the rich would be the presbydysaestheticoses, including facial keratoses, generalized loss of skin turgor, and sagging boobs. I think we need a second chart for people already in internal medicine to decide about their sub-specialty. But if I’m really going to guess, I need at least one further piece of information: what are your favorite and least favorite procedures? Dianne may be right– but I dunno, our MarkH just might be crazy enough to be an ER doc!
Washington, March 9 : Taking hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) could help alcoholics give up drinking, according to an analysis of studies performed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. LSD is used mainly as an entheogen, recreational drug, and as an agent in psychedelic therapy. But until now, no research has pulled together the results of these trials to document exactly how effective LSD was.
Now a new meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of the drug provides evidence for a clear and consistent beneficial effect of LSD for treating alcohol dependency. Teri Krebs and Pal-Orjan Johansen, both affiliated with the Department of Neuroscience at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway, spotted a gap in the understanding of LSD’s potential for alcoholism treatment during research fellowships at Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Krebs and Johansen set out to independently extract data from previous randomised, controlled clinical trials, pooling their results. While the experiments varied in the dosage used and the type of placebo physicians administered to patients, LSD had a beneficial effect on alcohol misuse in every trial. On average, 59 percent of LSD patients and 38 percent of control patients were improved at follow-up using standardized assessment of problem alcohol use. The positive effects of a single LSD dose - reported both in these and in other, non-randomized trials - lasts at least six months and appears to fade by 12 months. Regarding the lasting effects of the LSD experience in alcoholics, investigators of one trial noted, “It was rather common for patients to claim significant insights into their problems, to feel that they had been given a new lease on life, and to make a strong resolution to discontinue their drinking”.
LSD interacts with a specific type of serotonin receptors in the brain, which may stimulate to new connections and open the mind for new perspectives and possibilities, according to Krebs. LSD is not known to be addictive or toxic to the body, but the LSD has striking effects on imagination, perception, and memories and can elicit periods of intense anxiety and confusion. Krebs and Johansen suggest that repeated doses of LSD coupled with modern, evidence-based alcohol relapse prevention treatments might provide more sustained results. They also noted that plantbased psychedelics such as mescaline and ayahuasca which are used by Native Americans to promote mental health and sustianed soberity, merit further investigation for alcoholism treatment. Details of the study are available in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, published by SAGE. Editor’s Note: For related articles, see “Current And Emerging Treatment Options For Diabetic Neuropathy” in the March 2005 issue, “How To Diagnose Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy” in the March 2006 issue, and “Expert Insights On Painful Diabetic Neuropathy” in the March 2003 issue.


This impairs the normal functioning of the stomach muscles, thereby slowing down transportation of food from the stomach to the small intestine. Diabetic gastroparesis can be prevented by keeping the blood sugar level under control.
Although carbohydrates are the main energy source of the body, in diabetics, carbohydrates tend to push up the blood sugar level. Intake of large amounts of dietary fats tends to reduce sensitivity to insulin, thereby impairing sugar absorption.
Maintaining a normal body mass index helps to reduce the risk of developing diabetes related complications. Moderate physical activities at least for 30 minutes each day will help to keep your blood sugar level under control.
Along with the regular blood sugar tests, diabetics should check the A1C level in the blood at least twice each year. It slows the growth and spread of the herpes virus so that the body can fight off the infection. Diltiazem is used in the treatment of variant angina because of its coronary antispasmodic properties.
These combined pharmacologic effects are advantageous and make these agents as effective as beta blockers in the treatment of angina pectoris. These combined pharmacologic effects are advantageous and make these agents as effective as beta blockers in the treatment of angina pectoris. Lucky for me the fine folks at the Australian Defence Force payed my way through med school (with a shiny 90K salary on top of having no debts) So Military Medicine it was for me. Are you going to tell us or just let this thread drift off the page with the question unanswered? These included 536 participants, the vast majority of whom were male in-patients enrolled in alcohol-focused treatment programs. The most prevalent form is somatic or sensorimotor neuropathy, which is often simply referred to as diabetic neuropathy.
Accordingly, let us take a closer look at case studies involving the use of current, emerging diabetic neuropathy treatments.
The patient also felt that his sense of balance was diminished but thought it was merely a sign of aging and was reluctant to see a doctor.
The patient had no open lesions on either foot and had intact protective sensation for both feet. The medical history of the sedentary accountant includes congestive heart failure, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease of bilateral lower extremity, DPN, diabetic foot ulcers, Charcot foot deformity, a partial fifth ray amputation, and a kidney transplant from a non-matched donor.
However, within the past three months, he has felt persistent pain to both feet and has had to take Tylenol #3 to help alleviate the pain. Common side effects included mild to moderate dizziness, somnolence, peripheral edema, headache and dry mouth. Through dietary changes, physical activities and diabetes medications you can prevent damage to the vagus nerve. To keep the blood sugar level under control, diabetics should select sources of carbohydrates that are gradually digested. Limiting intake of saturated fats and maintaining appropriate balance in unsaturated and saturated fat consumption help to maintain a healthy lipid profile. A healthy body weight also helps to keep the blood sugar level under control by improving sensitivity to insulin. Your doctor may consider changing the medicine or the dosage of the drug to normalize the blood sugar level. Diabetic gastroparesis can be prevented as long as your blood sugar level is in the normal range. Valacyclovir will not cure herpes, but it can lessen the symptoms of the infection.Valacyclovir is used to treat infections caused by herpes viruses in adults and children. They also decrease cardiac contractility (negative inotropic effect) ,automaticity at the SA node and conduction at the AV node.
They are indicated when beta blockers are contraindicated, poorly tolerated, or ineffective. Their ability to inhibit the AV node is employed in the management of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, such as: atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.
They are indicated when beta blockers are contraindicated, poorly tolerated, or ineffective. Symptoms often exhibit a distal symmetric pattern, beginning distally at the base of the toes and ascending proximally up the lower leg as the disease progresses. A complete blood count, lipid panel, liver screening and a renal profile were all normal as was a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test.
The patient reported that his burning and tingling sensation started going away after taking the medication for only two days.
The patient denied fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, shortness of breath or changes to his medication. He was hoping for topical alternatives so we utilized a 5% lidocaine patch (Lidoderm, Endo Pharmaceuticals).
Prevention remains the foundation of clinical intervention and the prerequisite of adequate treatment. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science in Chicago.


The goal of a blood sugar management diet is to provide the essential nutrition and meet the calorie requirement without elevating the blood sugar level and boosting the body weight. Complex carbohydrates present in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes are best suited for diabetics. Fats in the diet of a diabetes patient should comprise of monounsaturated fats primarily found in olive oil, avocado, vegetable oils and nuts and polyunsaturated fats present in fish oil, flaxseeds and walnuts. Healthy sources of proteins such as fish, legumes, poultry and lean meat are suitable for diabetics. When the results of the blood tests show that your blood sugar level is higher than the target level, necessary changes should be made in the diet and medications to restore the normal blood sugar level and reduce the risk of developing gastroparesis. If you have genital herpes, it is very important to prevent herpes lesions during your pregnancy so that you do not have a genital lesion when your baby is born.Valacyclovir will not prevent the spread of genital herpes.
These symptoms are often described as burning, tingling, stabbing and a pins-and-needles sensation in a stocking and glove distribution.
Other medical problems include hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, which are treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a statin respectively. We also noted the patient’s serum levels of B12, T3, T4 thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were within normal limits.
He has been taking duloxetine for almost four months now and reports no side effects from taking the medications.
After using the 5% lidocaine patch twice daily for five weeks, the patient states the patch alleviates 80 percent of his pain and discomfort.
With advances in technology and ongoing research, we hope to one day elucidate the ideal treatment of this debilitating disease process.
The patient states the medication helped reduce the uncomfortable sensations down to about 10 percent of the original presenting pain.
The patient also denied resting tachycardia, orthostatic lightheadedness, early satiety, early morning nausea, changes in bowel habits or postprandial sweating. He is very happy that his wife urged him to seek medical attention for what he thought was normal signs of aging.
This loss of protective sensation can lead to the formation of foot ulcerations, infections, even amputations, and cause significant morbidity and mortality. He was referred for diabetes education, learned home glucose monitoring, and followed a diet and exercise program suggested by the diabetes educator. The patient also better understands the importance of maintaining proper blood glucose levels. Role for nitrosative stress in diabetic neuropathy: evidence from studies with a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst. Loss of pain perception in diabetes is dependent on a receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily.
Point of NO return for nitrergic nerves in diabetes: a new insight into diabetic complications. Erythrocytic sorbitol contents in diabetic patients correlate with blood aldose reductase protein contents and plasma glucose levels, and are normalized by the potent aldose reductase inhibitor fidarestat (SNK-860).
The development and validation of a neuropathy- and foot ulcer-specific quality of life instrument.
Pain severity in diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with patient functioning, symptom levels of anxiety and depression, and sleep. Painful diabetic neuropathy: a cross-sectional survey of health state impairment and treatment patterns. From mechanisms to management: translating the neuropathic pain consensus recommendations into clinical practice.
The North-West Diabetes Foot Care Study: incidence of, and risk factors for, new diabetic foot ulceration in a community-based patient cohort. Efficacy of duloxetine, a potent and balanced serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor in persistent pain models in rats.
A double-blind, randomized multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.
Pregabalin relieves symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial.
Pregabalin for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Efficacy of pregabalin in neuropathic pain evaluated in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of flexible- and fixed-dose regimens. Relief of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy with pregabalin: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Effectiveness of the lidocaine patch 5% on pain qualities in three chronic pain states: assessment with the Neuropathic Pain Scale. Introduction: chronic pain studies of the lidocaine patch 5% using the Neuropathic Pain Scale. An open-label study of the lidocaine patch 5% in painful idiopathic sensory polyneuropathy.




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