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Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. The most common form of diabetes is Type II, It is sometimes called age-onset or adult-onset diabetes, and this form of diabetes occurs most often in people who are overweight and who do not exercise. The causes of diabetes mellitus are unclear, however, there seem to be both hereditary (genetic factors passed on in families) and environmental factors involved.
In Type II diabetes, the pancreas may produce enough insulin, however, cells have become resistant to the insulin produced and it may not work as effectively. Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease requiring lifelong behavioral and lifestyle changes. Several blood tests are used to measure blood glucose levels, the primary test for diagnosing diabetes. Random blood glucose test — for a random blood glucose test, blood can be drawn at any time throughout the day, regardless of when the person last ate. Fasting blood glucose test — fasting blood glucose testing involves measuring blood glucose after not eating or drinking for 8 to 12 hours (usually overnight). Oral glucose tolerance test — Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosing diabetes and pre-diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance testing is routinely performed at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy to screen for gestational diabetes; this requires drinking a 50 gram glucose solution with a blood glucose level drawn one hour later.
When diet, exercise and maintaining a healthy weight aren’t enough, you may need the help of medication. The most widely used form of insulin is synthetic human insulin, which is chemically identical to human insulin but manufactured in a laboratory.
Advice patient about the importance of an individualized meal plan in meeting weekly weight loss goals and assist with compliance. Assess patients for cognitive or sensory impairments, which may interfere with the ability to accurately administer insulin. Review dosage and time of injections in relation to meals, activity, and bedtime based on patients individualized insulin regimen. Instruct patient in the importance of accuracy of insulin preparation and meal timing to avoid hypoglycemia.
Advise patient to assess blood glucose level before strenuous activity and to eat carbohydrate snack before exercising to avoid hypoglycemia. Assess feet and legs for skin temperature, sensation, soft tissues injuries, corns, calluses, dryness, hair distribution, pulses and deep tendon reflexes. Advice patient who smokes to stop smoking or reduce if possible, to reduce vasoconstriction and enhance peripheral flow. Your pharmacist will conduct a free Diabetes Medscheck with you to review your needs and discuss the best ways to manage your Type 2 diabetes.  We can contact Diabetes Australia and your local doctor or diabetes educator to coordinate a diabetes medication treatment program that suits you and your lifestyle.
As a National Diabetes Scheme agent, Pharmacy First provides free insulin needles and glucose testing. We can also provide free downloads from your Abbott blood glucose monitor (Optium and Freestyle) to take to your GP or specialist. In store screening now available for those wanting to know how to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 2.1The Licensed Material may not be used in any final materials distributed inside of your company or any materials distributed outside of your company or to the public, including, but not limited to, advertising and marketing materials or in any online or other electronic distribution system (except that you may transmit comps digitally or electronically to your clients for their review) and may not be distributed, sublicensed or made available for use or distribution separately or individually and no rights may be granted to the Licensed Material.
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Type II is considered a milder form of diabetes because of its slow onset (sometimes developing over the course of several years) and because it usually can be controlled with diet and oral medication.
Symptoms of Type II diabetes can begin so gradually that a person may not know that he or she has it. It is best managed with a team approach to empower the client to successfully manage the disease.


The body’s primary energy source is glucose, a simple sugar resulting from the digestion of foods containing carbohydrates (sugars and starches).
It is used to monitor blood glucose control in people with known diabetes, but is not normally used to diagnose diabetes. However, the OGTT is not routinely recommended because it is inconvenient compared to a fasting blood glucose test.
The person then drinks a 75 gram liquid glucose solution (which tastes very sweet, and is usually cola or orange-flavored). For women who have an abnormally elevated blood glucose level, a second OGTT is performed on another day after drinking a 100 gram glucose solution.
These medications, such as repaglinide (Prandin), have effects similar to sulfonylureas, but you’re not as likely to develop low blood sugar.
Metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR) is the only drug in this class available in the United States. These drugs block the action of enzymes in your digestive tract that break down carbohydrates.
These drugs make your body tissues more sensitive to insulin and keep your liver from overproducing glucose. By combining drugs from different classes, you may be able to control your blood sugar in several different ways. A wide range of insulins and diabetes glucose test strips are available to suit your needs. Except as specifically provided in this Agreement, the Licensed Material may not be shared or copied for example by including it in a disc library, image storage jukebox, network configuration or other similar arrangement. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin.
The consequences of uncontrolled and untreated Type II diabetes, however, are the just as serious as those for Type I. In Type I diabetes, the immune system, the body’s defense system against infection, is believed to be triggered by a virus or another microorganism that destroys cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.
As part of the team the, the nurse plans, organizes, and coordinates care among the various health disciplines involved; provides care and education and promotes the client’s health and well being. Glucose from the digested food circulates in the blood as a ready energy source for any cells that need it. The blood glucose level is measured before, and at one, two, and three hours after drinking the solution. Everyone with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes must take insulin every day to replace what their pancreas is unable to produce.
One of its chief failings is that it doesn’t mimic the way natural insulin is secreted. It works by inhibiting the production and release of glucose from your liver, which means you need less insulin to transport blood sugar into your cells. That means sugar is absorbed into your bloodstream more slowly, which helps prevent the rapid rise in blood sugar that usually occurs right after a meal. Side effects of thiazolidinediones, such as rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone hydrochloride (Actos), include swelling, weight gain and fatigue. Upon download of any film Licensed Material, you will be invoiced a non-refundable access service fee of one hundred fifty dollars ($150) USD or such other local currency amount as Getty Images may apply from time to time. This form is also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes, a term that is somewhat misleading.
Other symptoms may include sudden weight loss, slow wound healing, urinary tract infections, gum disease, or blurred vision. Insulin is a hormone or chemical produced by cells in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. Unfortunately, insulin can’t be taken in pill form because enzymes in your stomach break it down so that it becomes ineffective.


But newer types of insulin, known as insulin analogs, more closely resemble the way natural insulin acts in your body.
Second-generation sulfonylureas such as glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase) and glimepiride (Amaryl) are prescribed most often.
One advantage of metformin is that is tends to cause less weight gain than do other diabetes medications.
Most doctors prescribe two drugs in combination, although sometimes three drugs may be prescribed.
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Many people with Type II diabetes can control the condition with diet and oral medications, however, insulin injections are sometimes necessary if treatment with diet and oral medication is not working. It is not unusual for Type II diabetes to be detected while a patient is seeing a doctor about another health concern that is actually being caused by the yet undiagnosed diabetes. Insulin bonds to a receptor site on the outside of cell and acts like a key to open a doorway into the cell through which glucose can enter.
For that reason, many people inject themselves with insulin using a syringe or an insulin pen injector,a device that looks like a pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin. The most common side effect of sulfonylureas is low blood sugar, especially during the first four months of therapy. Possible side effects include a metallic taste in your mouth, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting, abdominal bloating, or pain, gas and diarrhea. Although safe and effective, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors can cause abdominal bloating, gas and diarrhea. The thiazolidinedione troglitzeone (Rezulin) was taken off the market in March 2000 because it caused liver failure. Newer medications, such as Glucovance, which contains both glyburide and metformin, combine different oral drugs in a single tablet. Some of the glucose can be converted to concentrated energy sources like glycogen or fatty acids and saved for later use. Others may use an insulin pump, which provides a continuous supply of insulin, eliminating the need for daily shots. You’re at much greater risk of low blood sugar if you have impaired liver or kidney function. These effects usually decrease over time and are less likely to occur if you take the medication with food. If your doctor prescribes these drugs, it’s important to have your liver checked every two months during the first year of therapy. When there is not enough insulin produced or when the doorway no longer recognizes the insulin key, glucose stays in the blood rather entering the cells. A rare but serious side effect is lactic acidosis, which results when lactic acid builds up in your body.
Contact your doctor immediately if you experience any of the signs and symptoms of liver damage, such as nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, dark urine, or yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice).
These may not always be related to diabetes medications, but your doctor will need to investigate all possible causes. Lactic acidosis is especially likely to occur if you mix this medication with alcohol or have impaired kidney function.



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