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Diabetes is considered as one of the most agonizing chronic medical conditions that starts from the pancreas but eventually affect all organs and systems of the body in a slow but intricate manner.
Very few people know that besides insulin, there is another huge category of anti-diabetic medications that are called oral hypoglycemic drugs. Oral hypoglycemic drugs are a preferred mode of therapy for Diabetes Type 2 and are superior to Insulin in most respects. However, in Diabetes Type 2 the insulin levels are fairly high but the tissues are relatively resistant to the action of insulin. Oral hypoglycemic drugs increases the sensitivity of tissues to insulin by increasing the number of insulin receptors, so that when insulin attaches to its receptor glucose can enter tissues. Oral agents make sure to increase the glucose absorption from kidney tubules to prevent renal damage as a result of seepage of glucose within urine. The most important action of some oral agents is the decrease in absorption of glucose from gut mucosa that prevents the post –meal rise of blood sugar levels. Despite the fact that oral hypoglycemic drugs are the most brilliant form of therapy in Type 2 Diabetic patients, there are a few conditions in which the use is strictly contraindicated. Nursing mothers: It is recommended to use insulin to control blood sugar levels when you are nursing your child.
Pregnant mothers: mothers who are diabetic before becoming pregnant must switch to insulin while carrying the conception.
Babies born to mothers who consume oral agents for blood sugar control normally have severely impaired glycemic indices after birth that may be life threatening.
Lastly, it has been observed that oral hypoglycemic drugs alone are not very successful in controlling blood sugar levels during pregnancy due to physiologic hormonal changes that may lead to abnormally high blood sugar levels with oral agents.
Once again, surgery is a state during which blood sugar levels are normally high due to the action of various stress hormones.
In case of any active infection, most doctors replace oral hypoglycemic agents with insulin by adjusting doses according to glycemic indices.
You cannot consume some of the oral hypoglycemic drugs in any likely situation of having a kidney disorder or active liver issue as it may affect the metabolism of oral hypoglycemic agents resulting in prolonged duration of action and life threatening hypoglycemia. The efficacy and effectiveness of oral hypoglycemic drugs vary largely according to body weight.
You should get all your medications reviewed by your healthcare provider before starting any oral hypoglycemic agent. As far as patient compliance is concerned, most diabetic patients are better compliant with oral agents than insulin.
Insulin injections at a particular site lead to fat necrosis and other skin changes that are not seen with oral hypoglycemic agents, further enhancing patient compliance towards oral agents and not towards insulin. One of the most well-known effects of oral hypoglycemic index is the hypoglycemia due to aggravated glucose uptake by tissues.
A potential risk of drug interaction that is seen with most antibiotics that interferes with liver enzymes and leads to altered metabolism of oral hypoglycemic drugs. Hypoglycemic episodes that are seen soon after starting oral drugs, which resolve eventually on their own by auto-drug and dose adjustment. For a more efficient control of blood sugar levels, it is absolutely necessary to maintain body weight under optimal range, to increase the sensitivity of body cells and tissues to insulin. With type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the body to be able take the sugar from the blood and put it into use as fuel for the cells. Uncontrolled diabetes can cause high blood pressure, heart disease, kidney failure, blindness or other life-threatening ailments, as well as a shortened life span.

Albiglutide approved as once-weekly injectable for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes as monotherapy or combined with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone or insulin. Once-weekly treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist albiglutide resulted in significantly improved glycemic control among patients with uncontrolled T2DM taking metformin, sulfonylurea. For this analysis, Home and colleagues analyzed outcomes in patients at 52 weeks of treatment. Hypoglycemia occurred in 14% of patients assigned albiglutide, 25% of patients assigned pioglitazone, and 14% of patients assigned placebo. HARMONY is the global phase 3 clinical trial program for albiglutide (Tanzeum), a GLP-1 receptor agonist administered once weekly by injection.
This patient with type 1 diabetes noted a painful erosion at the site of tattoo she had gotten several days earlier. Gestational diabetes, which can be a temporary condition during pregnancy and get corrected after childbirth, needs due treatment so that it does not prove harmful for the unborn baby or her mother. Usually, women having gestational diabetes can control their blood sugar and have healthy babies. You should aim at bringing your blood glucose levels, usually measured in terms of milli moles of glucose in one liter of blood, as close to the target as possible. Women may need medication to control their gestational diabetes and protect their babies from potential damage.
Gestational diabetes can also be treated through drugs called glyburide and metformin which are used for treating type 2 diabetes. You can enjoy healthy living even without indulging into expensive and extensive exercising or gymming.
During pregnancy, you can be advised to monitor fetal movements through kick counts, ultrasounds, baby’s heart beat and non stress test. You may need more than the usual checkups when having gestational diabetes to ensure the health of your baby including your own. It is even more terrible because there is no absolute cure of this health issue, although considerable control can be achieved by certain medications.
This is because the mechanics of Diabetes type 2 are entirely different from type 1 that deals with lack of insulin.
This post meal rise further impairs insulin action due to desensitization and thus oral agents are more preferred over insulin. This is because most hypoglycemic drugs are secreted in breast milk and can likely impair the functioning of neonatal pancreas by interfering with insulin release. Oral agents are normally less functional in maintaining normal blood sugar levels and thereby may interfere with normal recovery processes.  To say the least, oral agents should also be avoided due to the high risk of hypoglycemia. Sulfonylurea are effective in thin and lean diabetics that have less fat content; on the other hand most other oral hypoglycemic drugs are effective on obese diabetics. This is because the route of excretion of most oral agents is via liver and a number of antibiotics interfere with the metabolic capacity of your liver, by altering the level of liver enzymes leading to impaired metabolism. This is primarily due to the fact that insulin is a fairly painful method in which patients have to inject insulin in the stomach. Dietary intake also matters and diabetics must consume a diet low in complex carbohydrates and avoid simple sugars. If the body is lacking insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, leading to a number of serious diabetes complications.
Fuhrman’s book, The End of Diabetes, outlines how a high-nutrient (Nutritarian) diet is the answer for reversing diabetes.
Without any medications, her fasting blood glucose levels were consistently over 240.  So, what’s normal?
Her doctor prescribed a combination of different medications, which kept her glucose levels in the normal range. Glycemic control significantly improved with albiglutide vs placebo but failed to achieve non-inferiority compared with pioglitazone, a study comparator.
Home, DM, DPh, of the Institute of Cellular Medicine-Diabetes, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Efficacy and tolerability of albiglutide versus placebo or pioglitazone over 1 year in people with type 2 diabetes currently taking metformin and glimepiride: HARMONY 5. HARMONY 5 evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of albiglutide in obese patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on lifestyle measures and 2 oral medications. Furthermore, there is a tendency for women having gestational diabetes to later have type 2 diabetes. The risk for developing type 2 diabetes can also be controlled (reduced) by adopting some preventive measures when you have suffered from gestational diabetes. By adhering to the required concentration of glucose in blood, you can control gestational diabetes and its potential unfavorable effects. Women having gestational diabetes should adjust their diet and lifestyle to have effective control over the condition. A simple exercising as walking several times a week can go considerably in controlling blood sugar. You may adhere to the low-impact activities, like walking or swimming, or try special exercise classes for pregnant women. Healthy choices in living can show results now and later. Most of the time insulin has to be taken after a blood sugar testing, which further increases the pain of the procedure. You should maintain regular diet and regular exercise regimen when you are on these drugs to avoid any significant health related issue.
Those persons with type 1 diabetes are usually prescribed insulin therapy to help control their diabetes. You can also find a number of online resources to learn about successful meal plans for those with diabetes.
Joel Fuhrman of Eat to Live fame, believes that type 2 diabetes is a preventable, reversible lifestyle disease.
Leave a comment and let us know what medications, dietary changes and other methods have worked for you.
Treatment becomes significant owing to the complications, including the short and long term outcomes, of diabetes. When you take insulin, you may be required to check blood glucose before going to bed at night. While you should avoid dieting during pregnancy, you may have to keep a check that the recommended calories intake is not exceeded. You can start feeling more energetic and refreshing after knowing how your body benefits from eating correctly and exercising regularly. By following a healthy, nutrient-rich diet, she has been able to maintain fasting blood glucose levels between 65-80 for over two years without any medication at all. Your doctor can assist you in determining the frequency and method of testing blood glucose levels.
But before taking insulin shots, you may have to focus on controlling blood sugar through diet and lifestyle changes.
Healthy choices can help prevent gestational diabetes in later pregnancies and type 2 diabetes as well. Weight gain is an important aspect of pregnancy and pregnant women can gain anywhere from about 11kg to 16 kg.
Lastly, don’t miss out doses until advised by your doctor; even if you are not having your meals, you should still consume your drug. During gestational diabetes, you may have to test both types of blood glucose levels throughout pregnancy. You may be eating a healthy diet but having gestational diabetes can demand specific quantity and quality of foods in diet.
But overweight or obese pregnant women may have to eat less and gain less weight owing to their increased risk for high blood pressure and preeclampsia.

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