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A1C chart on this page has A1C to BS conversion chart and calculator using the DCCT formula. The hemoglobin A1C result is an important value for long-term glucose monitoring; about three months mean value of glucose level.
DCCT (The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial) Formula: Below is the a1c chart to show a relation between A1C and BS equivalent. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors commonly used to control blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes may also reduce the risk of autoimmune diseases in these patients, according to research presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting in San Diego.
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (commonly called DPP-4 inhibitors) such as linagliptin (Tradjenta), saxagliptin (Onglza), and sitagliptin (Januvia) are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Patients taking insulin, or with pre-existing systemic autoimmune diseases, HIV or cancer were excluded. Rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases were defined with two or more diagnosis codes that were seven or more days apart and one or more prescriptions for disease-specific immunosuppressive drugs or steroids. Scientists at an Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence have discovered a new mechanism regulating the immune response that can leave a person susceptible to autoimmune diseases. Females can mount more powerful immune responses than males, but the flip side of this enhanced protection against infections is a greater risk for autoimmune disorders.
UCLA researchers have designed a portable imaging system that can diagnose gout, a condition that affects more than 8 million adults in the U.S.
The very first bony fish on Earth was susceptible to arthritis, according to a USC-led discovery that may fast-track therapeutic research in preventing or easing the nation's most common cause of disability. What began as a chat between husband and wife has evolved into an intriguing scientific discovery.
University of Queensland researchers have developed a world-first vaccine-style therapeutic approach to treat rheumatoid arthritis, a debilitating disease affecting more than 450,000 people in Australia.
The World Health Organization predicts there will be 2.3 billion overweight adults in the world by 2015 and more than 700 million of them will be obese. The increase of convenience foods, labour-saving devices, motorised transport and more sedentary jobs means people are getting fatter. The body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly-used way of classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals.
Each BMI figure is classified within a range, eg 18-25 is ideal and over 30 is reckoned to be obese. According to a survey of bodyshapes conducted in the UK in 1951, a woman's average waist size was 70cm (27.5in). There was no comparative data for men in 1951, but the SizeUK survey showed the average man in 2004 had a waist of 94cm (37in) and a BMI of 25.2, technically just outside the ideal range. But obesity is not just a problem for adults - the spread of obesity among children is also alarming experts. At least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight globally in 2005, according to the WHO.


Measuring children, aged 5 to 14 years, who are overweight or obese is challenging because there is not a standard definition of childhood obesity applied worldwide. Experts are worried that the increase in obesity will lead to more health problems as people who are overweight have a higher risk of heart disease, Type II diabetes and other diseases including some cancers.
As most data sources do not distinguish between Type I and II diabetes in adults, it is not possible to present the data separately.
Even if the prevalence of obesity remains stable until 2030, the American Diabetes Association, says that the number of people with diabetes will more than double. It says the increase may be "considerably higher" than this if, as expected, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise around the world. Okay, so you have been diagnosed with pre-diabetes or maybe you have that sneaking suspicion that you may have it. The Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) test is performed after an 8 hour fast, thus it is usually done in the morning. Thus, your pre diabetes glucose readings should look similar to the above, from a diagnosis standpoint.
This means that your doctor is trying to determine how well you are managing your diabetes or pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetics and diabetics are advised to keep their A1c below 7%, although some doctors recommend being as close to 6% as possible. While not a substitute for a doctor’s visit, there is a new home test for A1C results from Bayer Corporation.
French Pharmaceutical company Sanofi's Toujeo diabetes drug has won the United States Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval.
According to Pierre Chancel, Senior VP, Global Diabetes, Sanofi, Lantus has helped patients for more than a decade. As per the reports, the approval by FDA was based on successful results of the EDITION clinical trial program. John Anderson, MD, internal medicine and diabetes specialist, Frist Clinic of Nashville, said that lots of people live with diabetes.
The reports stated that the EDITION program's studies have successfully met the primary study endpoints.
This A1C chart is based on the DCCT formula, a randomized clinical trial designed to compare intensive and conventional therapies and their relative effects on the development and progression of diabetic complications in patients with type 1. Researchers recently studied how often people with type 2 diabetes taking a DPP-4 inhibitor developed autoimmune diseases—such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis—when compared to those not taking one. Kim's team compared two mutually exclusive groups: 58,275 patients with type 2 diabetes starting DPP4i combination therapy with patients with type 2 diabetes starting non-DPP4i combination therapy. Potential confounders such as age, sex, co-existing conditions, diabetes-related factors, medications, and health care utilization were controlled for in the analysis. Kim's team found that patients with type 2 diabetes who were starting a DPP-4 inhibitor appear to be at a lower risk of developing RA or other autoimmune diseases compared to those starting non-DPP4i drugs.


Thyroid diseases, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease are some examples.
A 3-D survey carried out by SizeUK in 2004 found the average woman had a waist measurement of 86cm (34in) and a BMI of 24.4, just inside the ideal range. Several questions that come up include what pre diabetes glucose readings are and what should pre-diabetic A1c numbers be. They test your blood glucose level at the moment of the test, not over a period of time like the A1c test. However, it is important to note that different labs can provide varying results, so work with your doctor to determine what your individual test results mean. Pre-diabetics, with proper exercise, weight management and diet can often achieve results closer to 5%. According to reports, the drug will improve glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The program had evaluated the efficiency and safety of the company's Toujeo drug in more than 3,000 patients of diabetes.
Sanofi's drug Toujeo could provide new option that will help patients to manage their diabetes, Anderson added. Seven-point capillary blood-glucose profiles (pre-meal, post-meal, and bedtime) obtained in the DCCT were analyzed to define the relationship between HbA1c and BG.
Although the overall incidence rate of RA or other autoimmune diseases was low (approximately one in 1,000), patients taking DPP4i combination therapy appeared to be 34 percent less likely to develop RA and 27 percent less likely to develop the other autoimmune diseases. Because the test is an average reading, it does not tell you what your actual blood glucose level measures on any given day or time. Again, different labs may produce different results, so all results need to be discussed with your physician.
Converting A1C to equivalent blood-glucose level (as shown by the glucometer) can be easier interpreting the result.
He recommends DCCT's formula to convert A1C to BS than the formula by ADAG recommended by ADA. Subgroup analysis comparing DPP4i to sulfonylurea showed similarly protective effect of DPP4i on autoimmune diseases, but not comparing DPP4i versus thiazolidinediones.
Goldstein, MD "Defining the Relationship Between Plasma Glucose and HbA1c, Analysis of glucose profiles and HbA1c in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial," Diabetes Care 25:275-278, 2002.



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