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Preeclampsia is defined as high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine after 20 weeks of pregnancy in a woman who previously had normal blood pressure. Thousands of women and babies die or get very sick each year from this dangerous and life threatening condition called preeclampsia. Women at high risk for preeclampsia include those with a previous history of the problem, women with diabetes, high blood pressure or obesity and those with immune disorders or who are pregnant with more than one baby. According to the news statement released yesterday, that single pill of so-called baby aspirin may also lower the risk of premature birth by 14 percent and cut by 20 percent the risk of intrauterine growth restriction or IUGR, a condition in which a baby grows slower than expected in the mother’s womb.
This recommendation was welcomed by Eleni Tsigas, executive director of the Preeclampsia Foundation. Tsigas lost a daughter in 1998 to the condition and developed severe preeclampsia with a son during her second pregnancy.
There are two messages: First, women really do need to control the things they can control to have a healthy pregnancy,” Tsigas said. Aspirin is an antiplatelet medicine, that is normally given to patients with a risk of heart attacks. Low-dose aspirin (75mg or greater) may be taken if you are pregnant, but only on the recommendation of your doctor.
The information on the website is for general information and it is not intended as, nor should it be considered as a substitute for seeing your own doctor or healthcare professional. The dark side of sun exposureSome safe exposure to the summer sun is important to help the body make vitamin D. To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. Neurocutaneous Syndromes are a group of rare genetic disorders that affect multiple organ systems including the CNS, skin, visual pathway & auditory system. Now that you are done with this video you should check out the next video in the Genetics sections which covers Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion, Trisomy 21 & Translocations.
Derivative of “Patient with facial angiofibromas caused by tuberous sclerosis” by Herbert L.
Disclaimer:This material is meant for medical students studying for the USMLE Step 1 Medical Board Exam. The sound of a dog constantly scratching or licking can be as irritating as nails on a chalkboard. Dogs can have allergic reactions to grooming products, food, and environmental irritants, such as pollen or insect bites. If your dog can’t seem to stop scratching an ear or licking her toes, ask your veterinarian to check for a yeast infection. Superficial bacterial folliculitis is an infection that causes sores, bumps, and scabs on the skin.
Changes in a dog’s skin color or coat texture can be a warning sign of several common metabolic or hormone problems. Also called acral lick dermatitis, this is a frustrating skin condition caused by compulsive, relentless licking of a single area — most often on the front of the lower leg.
If you notice a hard lump on your dog’s skin, point it out to your vet as soon as possible. Hot spots, also called acute moist dermatitis, are small areas that appear red, irritated, and inflamed.
In rare cases, skin lesions or infections that won’t heal can indicate an immune disorder in your dog. As if dog poop weren’t smelly enough, dogs release a foul-smelling substance when they do their business. Although most skin problems are not emergencies, it is important to get an accurate diagnosis so the condition can be treated. Chicken pox (varicella) is an acute infectious disease primarily of childhood, characterized by fever and rash on the skin and mucous membranes in the form of small bubbles with clear content.
The causative agent of chickenpox is a virus of the herpes group (identical to the causative agent of herpes zoster – herpes zoster).
The source of infection is a sick chickenpox, contagious 1-2 days before the onset of the disease, as well as during the onset of the rash, and the presence of direct contact with him for not necessarily of infection: the virus is very volatile and easily into adjacent rooms and even apartments. Transplacental transmission of the disease is possible, but only while infecting the pregnant women. The primary element of the rash – small spot or papule (nodule), which very quickly (a few hours) turn into a vesicle (bubble) with redness around it. Sometimes the disease begins with a short prodrome (subfebrile temperature, deterioration of health). For moderate form is characterized by slight intoxication, fever, is quite abundant rash and itching.
Severe form is characterized by profuse rash on the skin and mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, genitals.
To include atypical rudimentary shapes and forms with the so-called aggerverband symptoms (generalized, hemorrhagic, gangrenous).
In rudimentary form, which occurs mainly in children during the first months of life, there are sporadic eruptions – small papules with a barely incipient bubble.
Generalized (disseminated or visceral) form accompanied by fever, severe intoxication, profuse eruption of vesicles on the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs.
In hemorrhagic content bubbles form is hemorrhagic in nature, there are hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, epistaxis, hematemesis, hemoptysis, hematuria, bleeding in the internal organs. Gangrenous form characterized by the appearance on the skin along with the usual lesions are areas of necrosis or dry gangrene, scabbed, after dropout which found deep ulcers with dirty bottom and saped edges. In children during the first 2 months of life chickenpox is a little more common in mild or rudimentary form. In adults, chickenpox can be very hard, with so-called primary varicella pneumonia, encephalitis. Especially dangerous for pregnant women, since, migrated in the first months of pregnancy, it can lead to severe fetal disease or fetal death, and in late pregnancy can cause premature birth or the development of congenital varicella. Complications usually arise in connection with the accession of secondary infection (pyoderma, abscess, cellulitis, sepsis, etc.).
On our website describes the most common disease of adults and children, causes and symptoms of these diseases, as well as the most effective treatments for these diseases. The information on this health site are for informational purposes only, professional diagnosis and treatment of the disease should be done by the doctor in the clinic. Flea bites are also common around the breasts, armpits, groin, waist, or in the folds of the elbows and knees. If you have a four-legged furry animal in your home, you will probably where fleas can be found.
Relieve the symptoms of flea bites with over-the-counter anti-itch creams and antihistamine. As a rule, ulcer occurs on the background of gastritis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach) or duodenitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the duodenum) associated with infection (Helicobacter pylori). Damage to the mucosa with ulceration, erosions and inflammation associated with the prevalence of factors of aggression (hydrochloric acid, pepsin, bile acids) on the protective factors of the mucosa. Bleeding is usually manifested by staining chair in black color (blood passing through the gastro-intestinal tract is oxidized and becomes black). Complications of peptic ulcer disease is a series of life-threatening diseases, you should be aware of any patient with peptic ulcer disease.That is why one should never delay the treatment of ulcers and to discontinue therapy. The main task of the patient is the adherence to diet and neat doctor’s prescriptions. Drug therapy of peptic ulcer necessarily includes the preparations reducing secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Preventive Services Task Force suugest that beginning daily doses of 81 milligrams of aspirin after 12 weeks of pregnancy may reduce the risk of preeclampsia by 24 percent. You are advised to seek professional medical advice if you have any concerns or suspect you have a medical problem. However, the cumulative effects of sun exposure put us at higher risk of cellular damage, early wrinkling, age spots, actinic keratoses and skin cancer -- including malignant melanoma, the most serious type. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. The virus moves along the nerve fibres and affects cells of the skin, resulting in a skin rash. These videos and study aids may be appropriate for students in other settings, but we cannot guarantee this material is “High Yield” for any setting other than the United States Medical Licensing Exam . But don’t blame your pooch for these bad habits — a skin condition is probably the culprit. A dog with allergies may scratch relentlessly, and a peek at the skin often reveals an ugly rash.
In some cases, it’s a genetic disease that begins when a dog is young and lasts a lifetime. Sarcoptic mange, also known as canine scabies, spreads easily among dogs and can also be transmitted to people, but the parasites don’t survive on humans.


You may not see the tiny insects themselves, but flea droppings or eggs are usually visible in a dog’s coat. The area is unable to heal, and the resulting pain and itching can lead the dog to keep licking the same spot.
They are most commonly found on a dog’s head, hips, or chest, and often feel hot to the touch.
The substance comes from small anal sacs, which can become impacted if they don’t empty properly. See your veterinarian if your dog is scratching or licking excessively, or if you notice any changes in your pet’s coat or skin, including scaling, redness, discoloration, or bald patches. This virus spreads quickly in enclosed spaces and easily transmitted by airborne droplets through the mucous membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract, and because the disease is called chicken pox.
However, it is not resistant in the environment, so through third parties and objects rarely applies. The blood virus is stored mainly in the epithelial cells of the skin and in mucous membranes.
The disease usually begins an acute increase in temperature and almost simultaneous eruption of the skin, scalp and mucous membranes, which lasts for 3-4 days, sometimes longer. After 1-3 days, the bubble bursts and dries up, starting from the centre, gradually turning into a dense crust, after no scars which usually does not happen.
Because chicken pox appear all at once, and with intervals of 1-2 days, the skin at the same time you can see the elements of the rash in different stages of development (spot, nodule, vesicle, crust), the so – called false polymorphism rash. Before the chicken pox rash elements, and often in the maximum period of rash may appear scarlatina or morbilliform rash. A high temperature, vomiting, lack of appetite, poor sleep, anxiety of the child to severe itching. In General, in children aged 2 months to 1 year, the disease often proceeds hard, with complications (otitis, pneumonia, pyoderma, etc.).
The prognosis in these cases is very serious, as the disease is atypical, and children die from dissemination of varicella. Sometimes at 5-7-th day from the onset of the disease develops meningoencephalitis viral and allergic origin. They don’t grow much larger than the tip of a pen, and they can be range from light brown to almost black in color. Fleas prefer to live on your dog or cat and they can also take up residence on another animal. Peptic ulcer disease is common in people of any age, but most often at the age of 30-40 years, men suffer 6-7 times more often than women. This is one of the most dangerous complications of peptic ulcer disease, because it leads to getting the contents of the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity and infection of the abdominal cavity. The basis of therapeutic diet is chemical, mechanical and thermal sparing of the affected organ. Endoscopic examination confirms the presence of the ulcer, specify its location, depth, shape, dimensions, allows to evaluate the condition of the bottom and the edges of ulcers, identify related changes of the mucosa. If the ulcer is caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori eradication, the doctor will also prescribe antibiotic not less than 7 days.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.
It is caused by the herpes varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that's behind chickenpox. This material should NOT be used for direct medical management and is NOT a substitute for care by a medical professional.
Corticosteroids can help with itchy rashes, but the most effective treatment is to identify and avoid exposure to the allergens. In longhaired dogs, the most obvious symptoms may be a dull coat and shedding with scaly skin underneath.
But most dogs with seborrhea develop the scaling as a complication of another medical problem, such as allergies or hormonal abnormalities. But sometimes stress, poor nutrition, or illness can cause a dog to lose more hair than usual. To properly remove a tick, grasp the tick with tweezers close to the dog’s skin, and gently pull it straight out. Treatment includes discouraging the dog from licking, either by using a bad-tasting topical solution or an Elizabethan collar. Hot spots can result from a wide range of conditions, including infections, allergies, insect bites, or excessive licking and chewing.
Perhaps the defeat of the internal organs (liver, spleen, lungs, pancreas, etc.), which formed small foci of necrosis with hemorrhage on the periphery.
But for children of kindergarten and primary school age, the disease does not cause severe symptoms.
You will experience hives or develop a rash near the site of a bite and an excessive itching can lead to an infection.
If the population grows, fleas can branch out and begin spreading and living in bedding, carpets, or your yard. If you can notice signs of an infection at the bite area, like a white pocket or rash, immediately make an appointment to see your doctor. These microorganisms can cause inflammation of mucous membranes, destroying local protective factors and increasing acidity.
Exclude products that increase gastric secretion (acute, pickled, salted, fried, smoked products, alcoholic beverages, coffee, tea, carbonated drinks, nourishing broths).
Faggs makes it possible to take a biopsy of the wall of the affected organ, with subsequent histological examination of the material obtained to exclude malignant nature of the lesion.
SuntanTanned skin may be revered as beautiful, but that golden colour you see is the result of injury to the epidermis, the top layer of skin. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. The virus is never fully cleared from the body and shingles occurs when the virus reactivates. IF YOU ARE A PATIENT PLEASE DIRECT YOUR QUESTIONS TO YOUR DOCTOR or visit a website that is designed for patient education.
Folliculitis often occurs in conjunction with other skin problems, such as mange, allergies, or injury.
Puppies less than a year old are the most susceptible, and the infection can spread quickly between dogs in a kennel or to pet owners at home. If abnormal or excessive shedding persists for more than a week, or you notice patches of missing fur, check with your veterinarian.
Severe flea infestations can cause blood loss and anemia, and even expose your dog to other parasites, such as tapeworms. Twisting or pulling too hard may cause the head to remain lodged in your dog’s skin, which can lead to infection.
But even if you don’t have any pets, your yard can potentially play host to fleas, and you will end up with a full of mysterious bites. Less specific but common case of peptic ulcer disease symptoms are nausea, heaviness after meals, feeling of fullness in the stomach, vomiting, decreased appetite, body weight, heartburn. Exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays accelerates the effects of ageing and increases your risk of developing skin cancer. What does the shingles rash look like?Pain, itching, tingling, burning are all symptoms of shingles that may occur several days before the outbreak of the rash. Demodectic mange can cause bald spots, scabbing, and sores, but it is not contagious between animals or people. Place the tick in a jar with some alcohol for a couple of days and dispose of it once it is dead.
A vet can manually express full anal sacs, but in severe cases, the sacs may be surgically removed. Their flat and thin bodies with a hard shells mean you often need to squeeze them between finger nails or two hard surfaces to kill them.
Most cases, you will need to leave your home for several hours after the treatment is applied. Smokers are advised to stop Smoking, because experts conclusively proven that Smoking is not only hinders the healing (lengthens treatment time), but also increases the risk of a relapse (recurrence of ulcers. To prevent sun damage, use a sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher when outdoors and re-apply it regularly. Starting as small blisters on a red base, with new blisters continuing to form for three to five days, shingles is painful.
In addition to causing blood loss and anemia, ticks can transmit Lyme disease and other potentially serious bacterial infections.
That’s the time you control your flea bites and prevent further itchy and scratchy bumps. Also, cover-up with clothing, sunglasses and a wide-brimmed hat and seek the shade during the middle of the day.


If you live in an area where ticks are common, talk to your veterinarian about tick control products. Shingles symptoms: Before the rashThe first symptoms of shingles appear one to four days before the rash. Most sunburns result in redness, warmth to the touch, and mild pain, affecting only the outer layer of skin (first degree burns).
Sunburn usually appears within hours after sun exposure and may take several days to weeks to fade. The first time someone is exposed to the virus, it causes the widespread, itchy sores known as chickenpox.
Painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen, cold compresses and aloe, hydrocortisone or moisturising creams may help reduce pain and discomfort. Sunburn (second degree burns)A second degree burn - damaging deeper skin layers and nerve endings - is usually more painful and takes longer to heal. If you have shingles symptoms, seek medical advice even if you think you've never had chickenpox. Many childhood cases of chickenpox are mild enough to go unnoticed, but the virus can still linger and reactivate. To reduce the risk of complications, it's important to start treatment as soon as possible.
How long does shingles last?Shingles blisters usually scab over in seven to 10 days and disappear completely in two to four weeks. More than 80% of the signs of skin ageing in adults are the result of the tans they had as teenagers before the age of 18. In most healthy people, the blisters leave no scars, and the pain and itching go away after a few weeks or months. That’s because over time, the sun's ultraviolet light damages the fibres in the skin called elastin.
But people with weakened immune systems may develop shingles blisters that do not heal in a timely manner. When these fibres break down, the skin begins to sag, stretch and lose its ability to go back into place after stretching. Who's at risk of shingles?Anyone who has ever had chickenpox can get shingles, but the risk increases with age. The sun can also cause a permanent stretching of small blood vessels, giving your skin a reddish appearance. FrecklesFlat, pigmented spots on the skin, freckles are usually found on sun-exposed areas of the body.
However, it is possible for a person who has never had chickenpox to catch chickenpox from fluid from the blisters of someone with shingles. They’re more noticeable in the summer, especially among fair-skinned people and those with light-coloured or red hair. Can shingles cause chronic pain?In some people, the pain of shingles may linger for months or even years after the rash has healed. This pain, due to damaged nerves in and beneath the skin, is known as postherpetic neuralgia.
Seek medical advice if the size, shape or colour of a spot changes or if it becomes painful, itchy, or bleeds. Melasma (pregnancy mask)Melasma (or chloasma) is characterised by brown or tan coloured patches on the cheeks, nose, forehead and chin.
In severe cases, the pain or itching may be bad enough to cause insomnia, weight loss, or depression.
Other complications of shinglesIf the shingles rash appears around the eye or forehead, it can cause eye infections and temporary or permanent loss of vision.
If it persists, melasma can be treated with prescription creams and over-the-counter products. These complications can usually be prevented by commencing treatment for shingles as soon as possible. Age spots (solar lentigines)These brown or grey spots are not really caused by ageing, though they do multiply as you get older. Ramsay Hunt SyndromeAnother shingles complication is Ramsay Hunt syndrome, which affects some nerves in the head. Age spots are the result of sun exposure, which is why they tend to appear on areas that get a lot of sun, such as the face, hands and chest.
Symptoms include earache, hearing loss, dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, loss of taste and Bell's palsy paralysis of the face. Solar lentigines are harmless, but to rule out serious skin conditions such as melanoma, seek medical advice to confirm the diagnosis.
Actinic keratosis (solar keratosis)The small, scaly red, brown or skin-coloured patches caused by too much sun exposure commonly occur on the head, neck or hands, but can be found elsewhere on the body. Treatment: Antiviral medicationWhile there is no cure for shingles, antiviral medications such as aciclovir, valaciclovir and famciclovir may be recommended to reduce the severity and length of an attack.
Actinic keratosis usually appears on people after the age of 40, but they can appear in much younger people. Treatment: Rash reliefOver-the-counter pain killing medication and anti-itch lotions, such as calamine, can relieve the pain and itching of the shingles rash.
Early treatment is advised to stop the possible progression to squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer. Actinic cheilitis (farmer's lip)Related to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition that usually appears on the lower lips.
If the pain is severe or the rash is concentrated near an eye or ear, seek prompt medical advice. Less common symptoms include swelling of the lip, loss of the sharp border between the lip and skin, and prominent lip lines. Home care for shinglesColloidal or oatmeal baths are an old standby for relieving the itch of chickenpox and can help with shingles as well.
Actinic cheilitis may eventually evolve into invasive squamous cell carcinoma if not treated. To speed up the drying out of the blisters, try placing a cool, damp flannel on the rash (but not when calamine lotion or other creams have been applied).
Squamous cell carcinomaThis non-melanoma skin cancer may appear as a firm red nodule, a scaly growth that bleeds or develops a crust, or a sore that doesn’t heal.
It most often occurs on the nose, forehead, ears, lower lip, hands and other sun-exposed areas of the body.
The Department of Health says the Zostavax vaccination programme will prevent 38% of the 30,000 cases seen every year in people over 70.
Bowen's diseaseBowen's disease is also called squamous cell carcinoma "in situ." It is a type of skin cancer that spreads outward on the surface of the skin. Additionally, those who get the jab but still go on to develop shingles can expect to see a 55% reduction in symptoms.
By contrast, "invasive" squamous cell carcinomas can grow inward and spread to the interior of the body. Basal cell carcinomaThe most common form of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma is the most easily treatable and least likely to spread, though it can damage surrounding tissue. Basal cell carcinomas can take many forms, including a pearly white or waxy bump, often with visible blood vessels, on the ears, neck or face. The carcinoma can also appear as a flat, scaly, flesh-coloured or brown patch on the back or chest, or more rarely, a white, waxy scar.
Malignant melanomaMalignant melanoma is not as common as other types of skin cancer, but it's the most serious and potentially deadly.
Possible signs of malignant melanoma include a change in the appearance of a mole or pigmented area. Seek medical advice if a mole changes in size, shape or colour, has irregular edges, is more than one colour, is asymmetrical, or itches, oozes or bleeds. Malignant melanoma can affect the skin only, or it may spread to internal organs and bones. CataractA cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of the eye that blocks the passage of light to the retina. Cataracts are painless but may cause vision problems, including foggy vision, glare from light and double vision in one eye. Shun the sunThe best way to prevent sunburn, premature wrinkles, skin cancer and other damaging effects from the sun is to stay out of it, especially between 11am and 3pm in the UK, when the sun’s rays are strongest. Apply sunscreen liberally (don’t forget the lips and ears!), wear a hat and sunglasses and cover up with clothing when outdoors.
If you notice changes to your skin such as a mole changing appearance, a new growth, or a sore that won't heal, seek medical advice promptly.



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