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As populations age and require expensive health care, we must find cost-effective ways to deliver it. By 2050, more than 32 million Americans will be over the age of 80, and the share of the 80-plus generation will have doubled to 7.4 percent. While more and more elderly people will still enjoy active, healthy lives and contribute to society, many are likely to have at least one chronic condition. Counseling, the possibility of taking a break and flexible work arrangements would help the families, employers looking for skilled and reliable workers and tax-payers who would otherwise have to finance professional health care services.
To address this challenge, countries should take a three-prong approach: They should invest more in improving the quality of care and preventing the need for care. A second strategy would be to encourage people who suffer from disabilities to continue to live in their homes, with a higher quality of life and lower costs for the health care system. And lastly, staying active as long as possible is important, but when health fails, social systems should have a responsibility to pick up the extra costs. PBS NewsHour allows open commenting for all registered users, and encourages discussion amongst you, our audience. The Rundown offers the NewsHour's unique perspective on the important events of the day with insights from the journalists you trust. 1The unprecedented aging crisis that’s about to hit China 2Khizr Khan: As candidate for the highest office, Trump needs tolerance for criticism 3Will Trump’s criticism of regular Americans hurt him with voters? Please enable JavaScript in your browser to experience all the custom features of our site, including the ability to make a purchase. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Ulcers occur when the skin breaks down allowing air and bacteria to get into the underlying tissue. Associated symptoms of a venous leg ulcer are caused by blood not flowing properly through your veins. Years of research have shown that the usual causes of leg ulcers are not a problem with the skin itself, but rather with the underlying blood supply to the skin.
Because blood supply to the skin is crucial, ulcers can occur as a result of poor circulation and so it is also mostly associated with disorders that affect circulation, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension.
Diagnosis is usually made based on symptoms, location and the way the surrounding skin of the ulcer looks.
Leg ulcers usually occur in the elderly more so than any other age group, due to poor circulation in aging limbs.
Two conditions that add to the complications of leg ulcers in the elderly are obesity and diabetes.
Venous (Varicose) Ulcers mostly occur due to improper functioning of the valves connecting the superficial and deep veins. Arterial (Ischemic) Ulcers are caused by poor blood circulation as a result of narrowed arteries or by damage to the small blood vessels from diabetes. Treatment for leg ulcers should include weight loss if you are overweight and regular exercise to promote good circulation.
Once the causes of leg ulcers are under control, (for example the blood sugar level in diabetes) the ulcer should heal by itself. If an underlying disease is one of the causes of leg ulcers, it's important that it is treated - for example hardening of the arteries.
Sit with your legs raised whenever you have the opportunity - above heart level if possible. If your work requires a lot of standing or sitting, try to vary your stance as much as possible. This disease is a result of infection by a type of small fungus referred to as Dermatophyte. Recent fossil studies indicate that early humans may have contracted this ringworm infection due to sharing carrion (dead, rotten animal body) with dogs and wolves.
Rashes usually arise as tiny, elevated red pimples and spots over the skin on face, arms, legs or other exposed region of the body.
They sweat severely and the sweat produces a wet, humid environment in the body conducive to the survival and growth of the pathogenic fungi. They suffer from a weakened immunity due to conditions like HIV Infection or intake of Immunosuppressants.
Doctors usually examine the skin and take scrapings of the epidermis for microscopic examination. Most cases of this disease are cured by topical application of antifungal creams over the infected areas of the skin.
Oral antifungal medications may be used if there are multiple ringworm lesions and the lesions are extensive. Dermatophytosis is an infection of the skin that is caused by a type of fungi known as the Dermatophyte.
This infection can also be contracted by a person if he or she lives or works in damp environment for a long time. Some oral medications used to cure this disease involve Ketoconazol, Itraconazole (Sporanox) and Terbinafine (Lamisil). Generally, when people find out that they have Seborrheic Keratoses, they tend to get nervous.  The reason as to why people are generally kept in the dark is because of the fact that this disease is not very common, and, it is definitely not life-threatening. Contrary to popular beliefs, Seborrheic Keratoses is not at all a disease that can be spread via contamination, but it is a disease that is inherent within the genetic code of a person.
Most of the women are very much fearful of the Seborrheic Keratoses, as they can turn ugly, and an attractive. An immediate check up with your general physician should be on your immediate agenda, rather than hiding your face away from the general public. Actually, I don’t think that any doctor need 2 weeks to remove (I supouse that is what you want to say with treating) the seborrheic keratosis. I’m 35 years old and starting with last year I got a lot of seborrheic keratosis growths on my leg. He also saied that the only treatment available is the surgery because I have very many growths. Seborrheic keratosis is a skin lesion, that usually appear in multiple places and occurs around age 50. If we examine more closely the skin lesion it is an outgrowth (growth exaggerated skin) or bistre brown 5 to 20 mm in diameter, which is covered with a coating fat squao-keratinocyte adheres slightly to the skin and covering a lesion is characterized by small paillome.
This information is provided to supplement the care provided by your dermatologist and is not a substitute for professional medical advice.
There are several reasons for swelling of the legs but in most instances it is due to fluid accumulation within the legs. The legs are the most prone to swelling because the return of fluid to the heart is against gravity. Venous insufficiency where the leg veins are compromised and the blood from the legs cannot return to the heart efficiently. Heart failure where the heart cannot pump blood effectively which also compromises the return of blood to the heart.
Kidney problems where the kidney’s ability to regulate the water levels in the body are affected thereby causing the retention of fluid in the body. Fractures of the leg bone which is more commonly in the elderly with age-related decrease in bone density and diseases that causes brittle bones like osteoporosis.
Joint swelling particularly in the toe, ankle or knee joints due to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout and osteoarthritis which are also more frequently seen in the elderly. Medication for conditions such as high blood pressure (hypertension) and diabetes mellitus. Although these are not the only conditions that cause leg swelling, it is among the more common and important causes of a swollen leg in an elderly person.
Herbal teas like chamomile, passion flower and lavender calm the nervous system and facilitate a good night’s sleep. A raised toenail, also known as onycholysis, is the condition that happens when the nail separates from the part of the nail bed which is pink skin. Some of the most common causes of onycholysis include local causes (such as chemicals or trauma), skin disease (such as psoriasis) or systemic diseases (such as thyrotoxicosis). The most obvious symptom of onycholysis is that the nail will detach from the nail bed at both the side and the base and this will make a space under the nail which can accumulate dirt. When the condition is combined with psoriasis, the area between the normal nail (which is pink) and the detached part (which is white) will be yellowish-brown. If you are suffering from onycholysis, your first step of action should be to trim your toenails so that they are short.
After clipping and cleaning them, you need to make sure that your nails are properly protected. If the nail in question is a toenail, you should still avoid soap and water, using a mild cleanser instead. In most cases, your doctor will recommend the same treatments as the home remedies listed above. Fungal infections are usually caused by a type of fungus called dermatophytes although molds and yeasts can also be responsible.
One of the most obvious systems of a fungal infection is when the nails separates from its nail bed, although this is not always the case.


Experts are still doing research on the effects of vinegar with fungal infections but some studies show it can help slow down the growth of some bacteria. There are still no conclusive studies for this home remedy but many people report it working.
Most of the preventative measures related to fungal infections are simply part of good hygiene. Some doctors will recommend oral antifungal medications such as Lamisil and Sporanox, especially if you have diabetes or cellulitis or are experiencing discomfort.
Some skin conditions such as psoriasis, lichen planus and certain types of eczema can cause nail lifting. It can also be caused by certain medications such as drugs derived from vitamin A and chemotherapy.
It can also be an indication of underlying medical problems such as some types of infection, pregnancy, thyroid disease or occasionally cancer.
Hypochromic anemia, which results in the red blood cells lacking the normal level of hemoglobin, is one potential cause of green skin. Those who have discolored skin that is unrelated to injury or lasts more than several days should have a complete blood count run by their doctor. Some of the most common causes of green skin are anemia and discoloration from wearing certain kinds of jewelry.
Hypochromic anemia, once commonly known as chlorosis, is one potential cause of green skin. Another potential cause of green skin is bruising, which generally involves internal bleeding into extracellular space within the skin.
Though anemia and bruising can cause greenish skin colors, they typically won't result in a very bright green hue.
Copper can really change your skin quite dramatically f it reacts badly to your particular set of chemicals. I find it interesting that anemia and wearing copper jewelry both turn your skin green; even more interesting that they thus end up in the same article.
Below, Francesca Colombo, an OECD expert on economic impact of ageing, examines the the rapid growth of the elderly population in many nations — and what might be done to help alleviate some of the looming costs. Across the 34 OECD countries, the share of people over the age of 80 is projected to grow even faster, from 4 percent today to almost 10 percent in the same time period. Today, three out of four Americans aged 65 years and older have to cope with health concerns such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer or chronic respiratory diseases. Across OECD countries, more than one in 10 adults over the age of 50 takes care of aging family members. Expensive medical services such as diagnostic procedures, treatment of chronic conditions and hospitalization, combined with the cost of care services, will further strain both government and family budgets. It is difficult to recruit workers to care for people with disabilities or chronic illnesses and even harder to keep them. Regular exercise, combined with sufficient calcium and reducing hazards in the home can mean fewer broken bones. Across OECD countries, only one-third of dependent elderly people live in residential care homes but they account for almost two-thirds of the costs. Because the pensions of even those in the middle class might not be sufficient to cover costs for care, sharing the burden is important. However, if a commenter violates our terms of use or abuses the commenting forum, their comment may go into moderation or be removed entirely. Therefore successful prevention for leg ulcers and successful treatment for leg ulcers must be directed at correcting the underlying cause, not the ulcer itself. A diagnosis is determined by the patient’s medical history, a thorough physical examination by a wound specialist or physician, and laboratory tests, which may include X-rays, MRIs, CT scans and noninvasive vascular studies to help develop a treatment plan. Ulcers in the elderly affect their quality of life, especially if they are affected by them chronically.
Since many elderly individuals spend a majority of their time sitting, one of the best remedies is to keep their legs elevated, preferably above the heart.
The failure of these valves causes blood to improper flow of the veins, causing varicose veins.
Decreased circulation from diabetes is the main reason for the development of diadetic leg ulcers. Treatment may involve wound cleansing, anti-inflammatory treatment and application of dressings. Leg and foot ulcers have a tendency to recur in elderly people, and sometimes may require years of therapy.
It is also known as a type of ringworm of the body that arises on almost any part of the body as a consequence of this infection. Ringworm commonly affects pets like cats and dogs and a fungus can be adopted while grooming or domesticating the animal.
In the later stages, they gradually become ring-like in appearance with a red, elevated border and a clearer middle. These are very easily recognizable by the enlarged, red elevated rings that have a middle section of healing.
The external skin scraps are analyzed under the microscope which helps in quick detection of fungal presence. However, systemic treatment with the aid of oral medicines may be needed to cure extensive or difficult cases of infection. Doctors usually prescribe topical application of antifungal creams over the lesion for two times every day for a minimum of 3 weeks. They can also be used if the immune system of the patient is compromised or if complications like Secondary Infection are present. Tinea Corporis is often referred to as a superficial Dermatophyte infection of the general skin surface in several parts of the skin including the scalp. In this case, the infectious agent may be transmitted through various means such as air, saliva, feces, blood, sexual contact and cough.
Check out these Tinea Corporis images to find out how the skin surface looks like when affected by this disorder. With proper treatment, it resolves within a short time and can leave no marks on the skin surface.
This disease is basically a skin condition in which there is an excess accumulation of keratin in that person.
If you happen to be diagnosed by this rare condition, then you should know that there are a lot of cures that out in the current market, and with the help of your physician, you can easily get rid of that condition.
In teenage girls, this disease can have a very big impact on their social life, and most of them are dead scared of getting such a disease. Seborrheic Keratoses is not at all painful, and the only pain that you would be feeling would be from the social stigma that you would have to face from your colleagues and peers. I see at least weekly a person that suffer of seborrheic keratosis and had late with the treatment and trust me is not a very nice image. If you have any health problems discuss that with your doctor and he will tell you if there can be any risk involved.
To be honest with you I’m afraid of blades, blood and anything that is linked with the word surgery. Sometimes excess fluid pools within the tissue spaces (edema) while at other times it may be accumulated within the blood vessels. Therefore any problem in terms of excess fluid within the body, reduced heart function, problems with the blood vessels and related dysfunction will lead to fluid accumulating in the legs first before arising in other parts of the body. It is due to conditions like varicose veins where the valves in the veins are inadequate and the veins bulge. Sometimes if there is damage of the nerves in the leg like with long term diabetes mellitus and there may be no severe pain despite a fracture. This condition can also be inherited, meaning that family members having it will increase your risk of developing it. Because of the air under the nail, it may change colors becoming gray-white although it can be anywhere from brown to yellow. When it is accompanies by the fungus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, you will notice a green color. This step will solve around half of your problem as it will shorten the amount of toenail that is raised.
The easiest way to do this is to take water that is comfortably hot and add a good amount of hydrogen peroxide.
If the nail in question is on your hand, you should wear light cotton gloves with plastic ones on top as this will stop contact with water. When selecting your shoes, be careful and choose ones that provide your toenail with room to breathe.
Because of their nature, these fungi will cause problems when your feet provide warm, moist environments which are common depending on the type of shoes you wear.
Simply make a mixture of two parts warm water and one part vinegar then soak your feet in it for between 15 and 20 minutes. You should always keep your nails dry, short and clean, select good socks, use antifungal powders or spray, protect the area from water, never pick the skin by your nails, always wear shoes in public places, never cover infections with nail polish and always clean your hands after you touch an infected nail. In some cases, this condition can also be associated with severe health problems, such as multiple organ failure.


This condition results in the red blood cells lacking the normal level of hemoglobin that normally gives them their red color. Bruises often initially appear reddish-blue or purple, which is due to the red pigmentation present in the blood's hemoglobin.
There have, however, been instances of skin taking on such a vibrant tone after multiple organ failure. It looks kind of like a bruise or dirt, but almost never goes away, and when it does, it usually comes back within a matter of days. After all, we know that people who eat very large amounts of tomatoes (or tomato soup or paste) every day slowly but surely get an orange color. If you're younger and haven't been growing a beard for that long, it might be that your hair has just gotten thicker and darker over time.
I shave everyday and recently, I start noticing that my beard and mustache area are discolored. I get iron infusions weekly, but even before the infusions started, my skin was far from ever turning even a hint of green. I don't know how else you would organize that information; I guess I just wouldn't have expected it. I have had it a couple of times, though I try very hard to maintain a healthy hemoglobin count. However, family caregivers who spend at least 20 hours per week taking care of a relative are less likely to have a paid job and hence are more likely to be poor when they retire.
In addition to public systems, most OECD countries provide help for elderly in need of care, developing a private market with simple insurance products is also important as cost pressures continue to rise. Many elderly individuals are inactive, making it very hard to treat ulcers in a traditional manner. Treatment for leg ulcers greatly depends on the factors that cause the ulcer or have prevented healing.
So long as there is no arterial disease, venous leg and foot ulcers will benefit from elevation and compression dressings. This organism may also be taken over from other animals such as ferrets, pigs, cows and horses or by contact with inanimate objects like bed linen, personal care products, hair brushes or combs. Similar appearances of this worm may also be seen on the beard area (Tinea Barbae), the groin (Tinea Cruris, known as dhobi itch or jock itch) or over the scalp (Tinea Capitis).
If fungal presence is suspected even after examination and the skin scrapings are negative, they may be sent for culture. The infection may also be spread from contact with infected animals as well as contaminated surfaces and animals. Tight vests and undergarments that prevent escape of sweat can also lead to moist environment due to sweat accumulation.
If you suspect yourself to be having this disease, start immediate treatment to make a fast recovery. Keratin is actually an insoluble fibre protein that is inherent within your skin, and protects the epidermis of the skin.
There is a social stigma that is attached to this disease, and that is the main reason that people actually fear Seborrheic Keratoses. A lot of psychological trauma can occur on the person who happens to be a victim of such a disease. After the successful treatment of this disease, you would again be able to regain your former beauty, and you should be again become very active in your social life.
If you really have seborrheic keratosis, please go to a good dermatology clinic and remove them ALL.
Leg swelling may arise with walking or standing for long periods beyond what a person is accustomed to, and also occurs more frequently in a person who is overweight or leads a sedentary lifestyle. Fluid normally flows in and out of the tissue spaces and blood vessels in order for nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide or wastes. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is one of the serious conditions that can arise in the elderly – if the clot in the leg dislodges, it can block the artery in the lungs which can be fatal.
Because the separation is not usually associated with intense pain, people with this condition do not always notice this gradual separation. In addition to trimming your nails, you should consider going to a podiatrist to clean up the toenail (you can also ask them to trim it for you to avoid making the problem worse).
They should also not irritate any area of the loose nail and should not restrict the nail bed. Some risk factors that will increase your chances of developing a fungal infection include aging (due to low blood circulation and the nails being more susceptible as they thicken), heavy perspiration, having psoriasis, certain shoe choices, minor nail or skin injuries and conditions such as diabetes. Other symptoms include nails that are dark in color (which is usually due to an accumulation of debris under then nail), dull, a distorted shape, brittle, ragged, crumbly or thickened.
It is also possible for green skin to simply be the result of bruising, though skin discolored in this way will generally be highly localized and exhibit a range of hues as it heals. Consequently, people with hypochromic anemia sometimes exhibit a green pallor to their skin. This then breaks down into compounds like biliverdin, biliruben, and hemosiderin, each of which has a different color.
In cases such as multiple organ failure, or sepsis, it may become possible for food dyes to be absorbed into the extracellular space.
Perspiration from the skin may react with the copper, in effect corroding the surface of the jewelry and resulting in the same type of copper salts that cause copper-based items, like the U.S.
However, for the last two months, I have not been getting them, as I have shifted to an iron rich diet, but without iron supplementation. There are special craft sealants you can get, like resin, but if you want a quick and easy do-it-yourself solution I'm pretty sure that clear nail polish will do it. It's not like you would mistake them for a martian with a green skin color, but I have definitely seen people go so pale from sickness that they looked faintly green. I think sometimes we get a bruise but we don't even realize it for a couple of days. I don't know about other people, but my bruises always go from purple to green to yellow and it usually takes a week for it to completely heal. I can't imagine not noticing the other symptoms, like tiredness and low appetite, long enough for your skin to turn green. They also run a high risk of developing mental health problems because of the stress of caring.
The results of skin culture take a few days to show positive results due to slow growth of the fungus. However, therapy should be carried on for one more week to make sure that there is complete removal of the fungus. The body has several efficient mechanisms to ensure that fluid does not accumulate in any part of the body. Measures such as elevating the legs and resting can reduce swelling to some extent but medical treatment is necessary. Unless the discoloration is obviously localized to a bruise or linked to wearing jewelry, only a medical professional can properly diagnose the problem. Other symptoms of the condition can include shortness of breath, headaches, and a lack of appetite, while potential causes include B6 deficiency, low iron absorption, certain types of infections, or even lead poisoning. Biliverdin in particular can have a greenish hue, and its presence in a bruise can cause the skin to appear green.
So if I don't realize I have a bruise until two or three days after I get it, I come across a green area.
With the demand for care workers set to double by 2050, pressure on wages will rise, leading to even higher costs.
Although it is is often not caused by any diseases in these situations and passes shortly thereafter, there are times when leg swelling needs to be taken as a very serious sign. While doing this, you should use extreme care so you dona€™t hurt yourself and avoid tearing open skin from the area. A bruise often has many of these compounds present at any time during the healing process, so colors such as red, blue, green, yellow, and golden brown can all be present in a bruise.
Food dyes are deemed safe for human consumption based partially on not being absorbable, but in cases where multiple organ failure or sepsis are present, they may be absorbed.
What can I do to get rid of this discoloration? Also, I have a couple of brown moles which have a slightly greenish-bluish color around them.
By submitting comments, you agree to the PBS Terms of Use and Privacy Policy, which include more details. Leg swelling that is persistent or recurrent for no apparent reason, or swelling of the legs in the elderly may be a sign of an underlying disorder.
If it doesn't go away, then it might be something else and you should see a doctor in that case.
Some of these conditions, particularly in the elderly, are very serious and potentially fatal. Is it possible to eat certain foods with green pigments in very large amounts and slowly accumulate the pigment in or under the skin?



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Comments

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