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The mechanosensors of bone orchestrate bone formation and bone resorption in accordance to external mechanical laoding. Our recent study indicated that subchondral bone pathogenesis in osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with osteocyte morphology and phenotypic abnormalities. Abstract (provisional)IntroductionOur recent study indicated that subchondral bone pathogenesis in osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with osteocyte morphology and phenotypic abnormalities. PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE.
Author: Aviral Vatsa PhD MBBS This is the first post in a series of posts on mechanosensation and mechanotransduction and their role in physiology and disease. Bone mineralization is elevated and less heterogeneous in adults with type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis compared to controls with osteoarthritis alone.
Advances in understanding the biology of osteoblast cells during these processes have been enabled through the use of various in vitro culture models from different origins.
Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.

Deletion of GsIĀ± in osteocytes induces severe osteopenia and a dramatic expansion of cells of the myeloid lineage.
A scanning electron microscope was used for quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) analysis of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck. In an era of intensive bone tissue engineering research, these cell models are more and more often applied due to limited availability of primary human osteoblast cells. The process of bone formation, remodelling and healing involves a coordinated action of various cell types. In this study we investigated the effect of extracellular matrix (ECM) produced from normal and OA bone on osteocytic cells function.MethodsDe-cellularized matrices, resembling the bone provisional ECM secreted from primary human subchondral bone osteoblasts (SBOs) of normal and OA patients were used as a model to study the effect on osteocytic cells. While they are a helpful tool in developing novel therapies or biomaterials; concerns arise regarding their phenotypic state and differences in relation to primary human osteoblast cells. Osteocytic cells (MLOY4 osteocyte cell line) cultured on normal and OA derived ECMs were analyzed by confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell attachment assays, zymography, apoptosis assays, qRT-PCR and western blotting. The role of integrinbeta1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signalling pathways during these interactions were monitored using appropriate blocking antibodies.ResultsThe ECM produced by OA SBOs contained less mineral content, showed altered organization of matrix proteins and matrix structure compared with the matrices produced by normal SBOs.

Differences between groups were assessed using the Student's t-test for normally distributed data and Mann-Whitney U-test for non-normally distributed data.
Through this, we provide suggestions on the selection of the appropriate and most relevant osteoblast model for in vitro studies, with specific emphasis on cell-material based studies.
Culture of osteocytic cells on these defective OA ECM resulted in a decrease of integrinbeta1 expression and the de-activation of FAK cell signaling pathway, which subsequently affected the initial osteocytic cell's attachment and functions including morphological abnormalities of cytoskeletal structures, focal adhesions, increased apoptosis, altered osteocyte specific gene expression and increased MMP-2 and -9 expression.ConclusionThis study provides new insights in understanding how altered OA bone matrix can lead to the abnormal osteocyte phenotypic changes, which is typical in OA pathogenesis. These microscopic alterations in bone mineralization, which may be mediated by suppressed bone remodeling, further elucidate higher fracture risk in adults with type 2 diabetes.

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