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Type 2 diabetes is a growing concern, but a healthy diet can be very helpful for low blood sugar. The first characteristic of diabetes is increased sugar level in the body and intake of carbohydrate foods leads to rise in blood sugar. An association on diabetes control suggests taking whole grains like brown bread, brown rice, whole grain pasta, barley and quinoa as they are rich in fiber.
Fruits should be taken in moderate quantity as they are a rich source of carbohydrates which raises the sugar levels in the body. You can take benefits of yogurt, cream, milk and acquire the necessary calcium and phosphorus by taking low fat dairy products with non fat milk. The sugar should be very limited and depending upon your blood sugar levels it should not be more than two spoons in a day.
Alcohol intake should be limited and that too when the blood sugar level is controlled.Alcohol should be taken with food and water and not alone as taking it alone will lead to negative side effects. Living with diabetes is difficult, but the illness is highly manageable if you know how to take care of yourself with the proper diet, treatment and lifestyle. When the body does not produce insulin, as in the case of Type 1 diabetes, the body is unable to convert sugar to provide the body with the energy it needs to carry out its physiological function. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90% of diabetes cases and it is a chronic condition involving the abnormal process of metabolizing sugar in the body to convert sugar into energy. While diabetes is a lifetime chronic disease, there are different ways to manage the condition. Reversing the negative effects of diabetes in the body is highly manageable with medications. An exercise of 30 minutes three to four times a week will keep the body strong and helps the body to produce and utilize more blood sugar.
Diabetics need to be conscious about maintaining their weight to reduce the risk of more severe symptoms of their diabetes and to prevent its progression. Learn how to reverse and manage diabetes more effectively with this eBook for diabetes management. Diabetes and Stroke are Related in Women But Not In Men Diabetes is becoming more of a common condition nowadays.
Auto-suggest helps you quickly narrow down your search results by suggesting possible matches as you type. It turns out that the A1C, fasting plasma glucose, and the oral glucose tolerance test each catch slightly different groups of people, but any one of them is sufficient for diagnosis, regardless of what the others may indicate. If you have diabetes, you have an increased chance of developing foot sores, or ulcers, also called diabetic ulcers. Pathology leading to amputation - Physiopedia, universal access to physiotherapy knowledge. Worldwide prevalence estimates of amputation are difficult to obtain, mainly because amputation receives very little attention and resources in countries where survival is low[1]. Peripheral Vascular Disease is also known or referred to as Peripheral Artery Disease or lower extremity occlusive disease.
The peripheral vascular system consists of the veins and arteries beyond or distal to the chest and abdomen supplying the arms, hands, legs and feet. Atherosclerosis, which is the process of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), affects several arterial beds including the coronary and peripheral circulation[5]. Diabetes is also another condition that has an effect on the pathology that may lead to lower limb amputation.
Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2)  Diabetes mellitus is also present in almost half of all cases, and people with diabetes mellitus have a 10 times higher risk of amputation[6]. Patients who suffer from Diabetes Mellitus are at a high risk of developing ulcers and associated complications.[9] Studies indicate that diabetic patients have up to a 25% lifetime risk of developing a foot ulcer[10].
Neuropathy in diabetic individuals affects the motor, sensory and autonomic components of the the nervous system. In the case of peripheral circulation where the the arteries of the lower limbs are affected, pain and tissue damage develop which may eventually lead to amputation in some cases. Peripheral arterial disease is one contributing factor to ischaemia involving the lower limbs.
Tissue viability is affected not only by internal factors such as PAD or Diabetes Melllitus but also by external stimuli such as smoking. Lower limb amputation can also occur due to systemic infections such as bacterial infections. Learn about the shoulder in this month's Physiopedia Plus learn topic with 5 chapters from textbooks such as Magee's Orthopedic Physical Assessment, 2014 & Donatelli's Physical therapy of the shoulder 2012.
The patients suffering from this type of diabetes are not able to produce adequate insulin in the body as the cells of the body are not capable to produce enough insulin in the body. Carbohydrate counting is a diet in which a person takes control on the amount of the carbohydrate consumed at each and every meal. Vegetables that are low in calories but high in vitamins, minerals, fiber and other antioxidants should be taken. Take moderate amount of unsaturated fats from liquid vegetable oils like avocado and sunflower as obesity complicates the problem of diabetes. Substitute sugar with artificial sweeteners that are low in calories and helps to control the blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease affecting about 380 million of the worldwide population and the incidence continues to grow.
As a result, the person will experience the symptoms of fatigue, weakness, blurred vision and extreme hunger.
The body cells resist insulin or it may not produce enough insulin for the proper sugar maintenance in the body. Individuals who are overweight or have a high body mass index are more at risk to the condition.
Sometimes the condition can be overwhelming, especially to a person who understands that they have to deal with their condition throughout their lifetime. By taking your medication regularly, exactly as prescribed by your doctor, you can control your blood sugar level to maintain the adequate level of sugar metabolism that the body needs. By exercising, you decrease the fat storage in the body and keeps the body in its ideal weight. Smoking can double the risk of a person of getting diabetes or it can cause their diabetes to become worse with more serious complications. Diabetic ulcers are often painless, so paying attention to your feet every day is very important.


It affects the peripheral vascular system, mostly the arteries, and is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and atherothrombotic conditions which may include stenotic, occlusive and aneurysmal disease[4]. It may be referred to as hardening of the arteries where there is generalised degeneration of the elastic tissue and muscles composing the arterial system. It is characterised by chronic compensatory hyperglycaemia that results from progressive insulin resistance especially in muscle tissue together with insufficient pancreatic secretion of insulin to aid glucose uptake in tissues [7].
Peripheral neuropathy and ischaemia from Peripheral vascular disease are two contributing factors to the development of foot ulcers.
Autonomic neuropathy causes the reduction in sweat and oil gland function with the foot loosing its natural ability to moisturise the overlying skin. Patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease present with pain referred to as Intermittent Claudication. The latter is one of the causal factors when amputation of the affected lower limb may be considered. Smoking is considered to be another or an added risk factor for lower limb amputation due to its effect on the circulation and potential for healing. Previously healthy individuals when affected by such infections are at a risk of amputation of limbs not only as a treatment of choice but also as a life saving measure. In order to facilitate scientific communication the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed a system of accurate classification. 2005, Major lower limb amputations in the elderly observed over ten years: the role of diabetes and peripheral arterial disease. Physiopedia is not a substitute for professional advice or expert medical services from a qualified healthcare provider. Diet is an important factor that affects the type 2 diabetes.You need to consult with your physician before resorting to any diet change. The foods that are rich source of carbohydrates are the foods that contain starch, fruit and milk. It divides different food items on the basis of carbohydrates, fat and protein content in them.
You should also eat legumes and nuts every week as they are a rich source of protein and fiber.
It is also common for the individual to experience frequent urination, unintended weight loss, mood changes and irritability. The condition occurs during adulthood and the person does not require insulin injection as in the Type 1 diabetes.
With a normal functioning metabolic process going on, you can control the occurrence of diabetes symptoms.
Different kinds of exercise are beneficial in helping control the blood sugar level in the body and reverse the adverse effect of diabetes. Keeping a record of the ideal meal plan helps one control their diabetes and to potentially reverse the disorder. Smoking can result in an increases blood glucose level and it can also constrict the blood vessels, increasing the potential complications of nerve damage, kidney disease and infection.
The earlier you seek treatment, the more likely it is that we can help you avoid more serious complications. Peripheral Vascular Disease is the most common cause of limb loss overall[2], with the rate of dysvascular amputation being nearly 8 times greater than the rate of trauma related amputations, the second leading cause of limb loss[3].
This tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue and the elastic vessels become harder with stretching of collagen and calcium depositing in the walls of the arteries causing them to become hard and tortuous. Diabetes Mellitus usually has an insidious onset and presents as persistent hyperglycaemia.
Once a foot ulcer develops there is a high risk of wound progression that may lead to complications and amputation. The innervation of the intrinsic muscles of the foot is affected and damage leads to an imbalance between the flexors and extensors of the affected foot and therefore causing anatomic deformities.
The skin becomes dry and susceptible to tears or breaks with subsequent development of infection. Neuropathy (with alterations in motor, sensation, and autonomic functions) plays the central role and causes ulcerations due to trauma or excessive pressure in a deformed foot without protective sensibility. It has a detrimental effect on wound healing due to the local and systemic processes that nicotine has[15].
Infections include: Meningococcal Meningitis, Staphylococcus and MRSA infections and Necrotizing Fascitis. Whereas no other treatment but surgery is currently available for chondrosarcomas, osteosarcomas show an approximately 50–80% response rate to adjuvant chemotherapy. The mentioned classification is constructed on an anatomical bases due to a failure of formation.
So check the label on the food to check the amount of carbohydrates before eating anything. Exchange is defined as the serving of a food from different groups of food that give a similar amount of carbohydrates, protein and fat.The foods are exchanged with each other in one group.
There are Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the type 2 diabetes accounts to about 90% of diabetes cases. This condition is most common among children and the young adults, hence Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also called as juvenile diabetes.
Hence, type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called as non-insulin dependent or adult onset diabetes. Medication treatment or regular insulin injection can help you live a normal life without the risks of developing heart disease, neuropathy, visual problems and other possible complications of diabetes. Learning about your eating pattern will help you control your appetite better and a meal plan will give you better food choices that are ideal for your condition.
Alcohol in drinks contains calories, which can also result in repercussions in the body weight that increases the risk of worsening your condition. Remember, even though some ulcers do not hurt, every ulcer should be seen by a foot care specialist right away. On analysing causal pathways for diabetic lower-limb amputation foot ulcers preceded around 84% of amputations[11]. Such deformities include the toes being pulled up into a hammer toe or claw foot flexion deformity. Minor trauma is also a contributing factor to ulcers that may eventually lead to amputation.
Once the protective layer of skin is broken, deep tissues are exposed to bacterial colonization.


It is the first method of choice for arterial stenosis and occlusion, and for venous incompetence[14]. Nicotine being a vasconstrictor reduces the blood flow to the skin and thus causes tissue ischaemia together with an impairment in the healing process. Examples of traumatic injuries include: compound fractures, blood vessel rupture, severe burns, blast injuries, stab or gunshot wound, compression injuries and cold trauma[16]. Surgical removal of these tumours is currently mostly performed with limb salvage, but amputation may be required in some cases.
A Review of Pathophysiology, Classification, and Treatment of Foot Ulcers in Diabetic Patients.
Diabetes involves changes in the blood sugar level in the body owing to the inadequate production of insulin (Type 1 diabetes) or the body cells fail to respond to insulin (Type 2 diabetes). About 10% of cases of diabetes are Type 1 and patients with this condition need to take insulin injections to help the body sustain its normal function in utilizing the blood sugar. Start with low intensity exercise and progress in performing high intensity resistance exercise to help the body adapt to more intense physical activity. Doctors, however, advise that starving yourself will not help and preventing your cravings will tend to make you eat more instead. By quitting your bad habits, you can improve your chances of living healthier with the ability to control your diabetes symptoms. He has 8 siblings and a huge extended family, and no one has ever had diabetes (not even Type 2), cancer, etc. Challenges are part of life's lessons, to teach us to grow in all aspects, and to learn what we need to learn, to make it in this world.
Foot ulcers are considered to be reasonably common and they not only affect the patient's funtional status and well being but can also identify individuals who may be at a higher risk of amputation. These will cause abnormal bony prominences and pressure points, such as on the tops of the toes or under the metatarsal heads, which may eventually lead to skin breakdown and ulceration.
Individuals suffering from peripheral vascular disease and diabetic peripheral neuropathy experience a loss of sensation that may exacerbate the development of ulcers. Infection is facilitated by DM-related immunological deficits, especially in terms of neutrophils, and rapidly progresses to the deep tissues. In individuals suffering from PAD the blood flow in the lower limbs is reduced due to processes causing stenosis. Ultrasonic imaging is non-invasive and can provide clinical information about the site and severity of narrowing of arterial vessels or of any blockages of main vessels. Nicotine also promotes an increase in the level of platelet adhesiveness which in result raises the risk of thrombotic microvascular occlusion leading to further tissue ischaemia[15]. In cases of traumatic injury amputation of the limb is considered either as a life saving procedure or where the limb is so severely injured that reconstruction will be less functional than amputation. In addition, the tumours have a risk of local recurrences adversely affecting the prognosis compared to the primary tumour".[17]. Transverse Deficiencies resemble an amputation residual limb, where the limb has developed normally to a particular level beyond which no skeletal elements are present. The best way of managing your diet is to allow yourself to enjoy eating even the forbidden foods in small servings only. If he isn't showing any signs of being T1, I wouldn't be too concerned about it, especially with what his A1c is currently.
In peripheral arterial disease there is build up of fatty deposits in the walls of the arterial system. Many times diabetic individuals are unable to detect trauma to an affected area such as the foot.
Blood circulation is usually sufficient when one is at rest, however when one starts walking and the demands are greater the blood supply is not sufficient to the lower limb muscles causing cramps and pain. Where multiple stenoses are present such imaging can determine which stenosis is causing more restriction to blood flow[14]. In the case of trauma limb amputation can also take place months or years after the actual trauma when reconstructive procedures or healing hava failed.
A further study on how many exchanges to take from different food items can be made with the help of a dietician. This will help satisfy your cravings without causing you to go through a crash diet that can produce a more disastrous effect to your condition.
These fatty deposits, also known as atheromas, cause a reduction in the lumen of the arteries. In diabetic individuals the hyperglycaemic-induced metabolic abnormalities cause a conversion of intracellular glucose to sorbitol and fructose. This may result in injury with wounds either going unnoticed or progressively worsen when the affected area is exposed to repetitive pressure or forces such as shear forces during ambulation[12][11].
Thus such pain gets worse with greater demands example: when walking uphill and improves or is relieved after a short rest[13].
The reduction in the lumen causes stenosis and restricts the blood flow and supply to the particular area affected.
The accumulation of these sugars cause a reduction in the synthesis of products required for normal nerve conduction and function.
Poor healing of such wounds, due to compromised circulation, will eventually lead to amputation of the involved limb.
If he is noticing that he gets very sleepy after eating, that is a red flag.I went through this period for months and the doctor recognized the symptoms and kept cheking my fasting glucose and it was always normal.
The chemical conversion of glucose will also increase the oxidative stress on nerve cells and lead to further ischaemia and thus causing further nerve cell injury and death. The skin surface is located at the top of the image whilst markers on the right indicate depth in cms. Be sure to smile at a stranger when out and about, that may be the only smile they get that day. T1's and T2's cross post on these forums, and it is imperative that we all know which type one is. Type 1 and Type 2 are two totally absolute different diseases with different causes, thus making self-management very different.



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Comments

  1. NURIYEV

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    16.10.2014

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    16.10.2014

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    16.10.2014