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Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as sugar diabetes, is a growing problem globally largely associated with a more sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Diabetes mellitus can drastically reduce the quality of life if left untreated and eventually lead to life-threatening complications. Stimulating organs like the liver to convert glucose into its storage form known as glycogen. It is therefore the responsibility of organs like the pancreas to maintain the balance of glucose available in the bloodstream.
Complications are the consequences of a disease that is either progressive, left untreated or poorly managed or has existed for a very long period of time.
The complications of diabetes mellitus does not occur overnight – it develops gradually over years and decades. Diabetes mellitus can lead to nerve dysfunction and damage which is known as diabetic neuropathy.. Diabetes mellitus contributes to high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia (increased blood fats) which damages the walls of the blood vessels. Kidney dysfunction arises as the tiny blood vessels which carries blood to be filtered is damaged and parts of the filtration membranes thicken. The impaired blood flow and nerve damage associated with diabetes mellitus, as discussed above, impacts the most on the lower limbs. Most cases of gestational diabetes (pregnancy diabetes) are mild and medication is not necessary. The signs and symptoms of untreated diabetes mellitus or poorly managed diabetes mellitus depends on the conditions that arise.
Some of the symptoms can be attributed to diabetic complications but cannot be easily differentiated from the clinical presentation of diabetes mellitus itself.
Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. Even though various studies have suggested that subepicardial fat may play a role in the development of coronary heart disease, the exact mechanism requires further study. For several years it was believed that obesity could cause heart failure only via intermediary mechanisms such as hypertension or coronary heart disease, but recent studies have demonstrated that other factors could be implicated in the origin of obesity-associated cardiomyopathy. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation and obesity has significantly increased in recent years.
Other physiopathological mechanisms could also be implicated in the association between obesity and sudden death or ventricular arrhythmias. There is a direct and J-shaped relationship between BMI and the incidence of coronary heart disease.
Several studies have compared the use of the BMI to determine body fat with techniques known to accurately measure body composition.
The waist-to-hip ratio has been used as a proxy measure of body fat distribution to assess health issues associated with obesity. Although the word obesity is defined as excessive fat, in clinical practice obesity is not diagnosed by measuring fat or body composition. The main aim of obesity therapy is weight loss and maintenance by dietary interventions and increased physical activity. Apart from weight loss, these drugs also reduce abdominal circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Although several studies have demonstrated abnormalities in cardiac structure and function in obese patients, few studies have assessed the effect of bariatric surgery on cardiac morphology.
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has a too high blood sugar, the body does not produce enough insulin or cells do not respond to insulin. People with diabetes do not have enough insulin, are not able to use insulin properly and as a result the blood sugar increases while the cells starve of energy. There is a high number of other types of diabetes which are less common and where naming is not standardized. Diabetes is treatable and to some extend diabetes type 2 is curable, especially in early stages. In this state also called pre-diabetes the blood glucose levels are higher but not yet high enough to confirm diabetes. Diabetes type 2 is the most common type of diabetes, over 90 % of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.
Over time the high blood sugar levels in a diabetes patient damages nerves and blood vessels.
Undiagnosed diabetes can have major medical implications up to the amputation of a leg or a stroke. Taking medications is not a substitute for eating right, exercising, and maintaining a healthy weight.
Limiting carbohydrates will help keep your blood sugar levels in check but it’s also important to be sure that your total calorie intake is appropriate. One study reports that today there are an estimated close to 10 million cases of diabetes in Russia today. According to the Russian Diabetes Federation by 2025 as many as 10 million people will be diagnosed with diabetes which means practically a doubling of the diabetes rate. The cost of diabetes are direct costs for the treatment as well as all the indirect cost such as the reduced ability to work etc.
It is estimated that the healthy cost of an individual with diabetes are three times higher than without diabetes.
According to one estimate the cost of diabetes in Russia are between 3,6 billion and 6,6 billion international dollars per year. There is also a state program in Russia to fight diabetes between 2007 to 2011 of 6 billion rubles. There are a high number of statistics which document that weight loss and the right diet, healthy nutrition and physical activity can reduce the risk of diabetes type 2. Up to 80% of the diabetes type 2 occurrence can be avoided in Russia though healthy nutrition, the right diet and the right food and also an increase amount of physical activity. When you change to the right diet though key is to work with an experienced dietitian who can also adjust your daily nutrition right and support you in monitoring your blood sugar. If you luckily do not yet have diabetes but due to family history, or obesity you are in a high risk group you should immediately act to reduce your likely hood to become diabetic. When your are diagnosed as diabetic your endocrinologist will prescribe you the relevant medicine and advise you to lose weight though a regime of healthy nutrition. In the experienced shared by our clients endocrinologist do not have the necessary time and provide rather general advice like not to eat bread, potatoes or pasta. Most frequently given advice on nutrition rather generally, for example, are advised not to eat bread, potatoes, pasta. In special classes about diabetes you will be taught about important grains are for you but you will most likely not be taught which grains to select, how much grain to eat and how to cook grains. For all the questions around your new diet endocrinologist usually do not have enough time or enough in detail experience to tailor it to your individual needs. Only a healthy lifestyle including the right nutrition helps you to live a decent life with diabetes, medicine alone does not help. Taking the time and to work with a dietitian will allow you to reduce severe complications that might arise such as vascular lesions, hypertension, gangrene, ulcers, reduced vision and amputations. Only an experienced dietitian has the time and the know how to analysis on a weekly basis your dietary habits. Working with the doctors at the Personal Dietology Center Palitra Pitania you can reduce your diabetes risk by a big percentage (big is larger then 50% so some studies show) if you are in one of the at risk groups. If you are in a risk group for diabetes you should be concerned and undertake the right steps to protect your health.
One studies showed a reduction of 58% of the risk to incur diabetes in a group of patients with a body mass index of 34.
Even only a 5 to 10 kgs reduction of weight are reported to have a very positive impact on the blood sugar levels. And do try to reduce your weight alone without the supervision of an experience doctors and dietitian. At the Personal Dietology Center work experience doctors who additionally are trained as dietitians. Our doctors can read the blood test you have already done or can advise you where to do a qualified blood test for your blood sugar levels. Good blood sugar control today will reduce the risk of damage to kidneys and other organs tomorrow. Early detection of kidney damage is important, but there might not be noticeable symptoms in the early stages. Keeping blood sugar as close to normal as possible is the first step to preventing kidney disease. Educating individuals on best ways to avoid this and other diabetes complications is a goal of self-management courses.
Whether you have already planned a summer vacation or still in the process, incorporate your pump or CGM needs into your travel plans instead of treating your needs as an afterthought or an overwhelming fear. You can obtain a Transportation Security Administration Card to print out and bring with you to notify TSA of your diabetes can be found online. Always have Plan B in place in case something goes wrong with your current device, such as carrying syringes or pens to give injections and carrying extra supplies in case you run low.
Be sure to carry some form of prescription or letter from your physician that treats you for your diabetes. Carry all of your medicines, such as insulin, and all related supplies in your carry-on baggage. If you wear an insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring device, it is OK to continue to keep them on as you go through security at airports or terminals.
A printed checklist might help elevate stress and keep your plan in your hands, front and center.
Learning how to handle life’s challenges like traveling and treatment plans is a covered topic in diabetes self-management courses.
Although the calendar says the influenza season should be over, cases of the flu are increasing into March 2016 instead of winding down to a close.
A sick day plan should include these elements of good blood sugar control.  Monitoring, meals and medications are key while exercise or physical activity is usually halted during the illness. The sick individual needs to follow a schedule for monitoring that gives the diabetes care team information to direct the modifications for the patient’s needs.
Recording temperature, blood sugar, medication amount and time, fluid and food intake and the presence of ketones are highly important on sick days. A log to monitor the sickness over time, glucose meter, lancets, lancing device, test strips, control solution, and a bottle of Ketostix should be included in a sick day management tool kit.
The start of each year is a prime time to consider your life, health and ways to improve both.
Timely – I will make an appointment with my care team every three months in 2016 to evaluate my A1C with hopes to start 2017 near 7.5.


Other goals that will impact blood sugar control include getting regular and sufficient exercise, gaining or losing weight, following a diabetes nutrition plan, and being more compliant to medication schedules. The National Diabetes Education Program, a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), offers an online resource for making a plan for success. The CGM reads blood sugar levels every one to five minutes and shows whether a person’s blood sugar is rising or falling.
The diabetes educators at Diabetes Management & Supplies can help take the guess-work out of your monitoring needs.
Insulin pumps and Continuous Glucose Monitoring devices work best when insertion sites and parts and accessories are changed as recommended. Insertion site management refers to choosing the best locations on your body to place insertion sets and sensors, but it also involves the frequency in which the site is changed and new supplies are put in place.
John Wright, Diabetes Management & Supplies Director of Sales, wears an insulin pump and stresses that site management can affect the level of blood sugar control. Insulin pump wearers will experience poorer blood sugar control when a site has been used too long before rotation. It is recommended that CGM sensors be changed every six to seven days, but infusion sets should be changed every two to three days.
Insulin pump use will require supplies that include insertion sets, reservoirs, tubing, cartridge caps, batteries, dressings and adhesives.
CGM devices will require supplies that include sensors, receivers, transmitters and batteries.
To ensure the best results, keep an eye on your supplies on hand and always place reorders enough in advance that you don’t run out of supplies or over use your insertion sites. The holiday season may help bring attention to a rarely-discussed diabetes symptom: depression.
The American Diabetes Association explains that people with diabetes are at a greater risk to depression and the complications of poorly controlled blood sugars are very similar to the symptoms of depression.
Spotting depression in yourself or someone you love is an important step to countering depressions effects. Change in sleep patterns: You have trouble falling asleep, you wake often during the night, or you want to sleep more than usual, including during the day.
Change in appetite: You eat more or less than you used to, resulting in a quick weight gain or weight loss. This month (November) is Diabetes Awareness Month, a time set aside to education and inspire those living with a form of diabetes and those who can take steps to reduce their risk of the preventable conditions associated with diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes accounts for only 5 – 10 percent of all cases, and used to be called juvenile diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90 – 95 percent of all cases. The causes of Type 2 Diabetes are not completely understood, but it almost always starts with insulin resistance. The causes of Gestational Diabetes have not been determined, but the many hormonal changes during pregnancy contribute to what is called insulin resistance – which is your body not using the insulin that your pancreas produces. For more on these forms of diabetes, visit the Diabetes Management & Supplies Learning Center.
Despite it being one of the more common chronic conditions in most populations, there is still widespread ignorance about the serious nature of this disease and the consequences if the condition is left untreated. The presence of diabetes mellitus even when well managed increases the risk of many other serious diseases. The body has several ways of regulating the different levels of various substances in the body. The bloodstream is being constantly monitored throughout the day and should the glucose levels rise too high, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream. The body is in a constant need of energy to fuel all the different process that is constantly occurring including basic life processes like breathing and pumping of blood by the heart.
Therefore the effects of untreated diabetes mellitus is actually the complications that arise, usually in the long term.
However, severe hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels) has immediate effects known as diabetic emergencies. The onset of these conditions is largely individualistic meaning that one diabetic may experience certain complications sooner compared to another diabetic. This may be caused by the narrowing of blood vessels supplying the nerve cells with oxygen and nutrient rich blood. It leads to plaques forming in the blood vessel wall (atherosclerosis) and increases the risk of clots forming in the vessels. This causes a host of problems in the foot in particular and is therefore known as diabetic foot. Dietary changes and moderate exercise may be sufficient to manage the diabetes which often resolves after childbirth. Firstly the symptoms of diabetes mellitus itself worsens so it is important to be familiar with these signs and symptoms. Its prevalence has increased in almost every continent and has probably increased in all the developed countries.
A positive association has been observed between BMI and CRP in adults and children.27 The mechanisms by which obesity leads to elevated CRP have not been fully explained.
Outline of subepicardial fat by two-dimensional echocardiography in the parasternal long-axis view.
Longitudinal studies that have evaluated the incidence of cardiovascular disease and studies that have assessed the effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy have suggested a causal association between OSA and several cardiovascular disorders. This cutoff was selected because the mortality curve in several epidemiological studies increased at this value. The results of these studies have varied, but the majority demonstrated that the standard BMI cutoff values used to define obesity appear to underestimate body fat. Measures of central obesity are very useful in improving the assessment of obesity-associated risk.
In fact, there is no consensus on the percentage of body fact considered to be normal. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, risk factors and history of cardiovascular disease in normal-weight individuals by percentile body fat.
However, maintaining the weight loss using these interventions is difficult and relapse rates are high.
Obesity is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and is not only linked to coronary heart disease, but also to abnormalities in heart rate and ventricular function.
In a normal situation the body breaks down food after a meal to glucose and then transports it by the blood though the body. It seems that genetics and an environmental trigger have to come together to result in a patient developing diabetes type 1.
Looking at the diabetes situation in the US allows to forecast the situation in Russia in the future if no active steps are taken by the relevant bodies and the society. Obesity rates are rising all over the world but especially strong in countries which so far had lower rates.
With the increase in the obesity rates over time the diabetes rates will increase rapidly in Russia. The healthy diabetic nutrition should be discussed with a nutrition specialist and doctor understanding nutrition and diabetes.
It is key if you want to avoid diabetes to eat the right food, eat at right times and also correctly prepared food. But usually the will not tell you which types of bread and pasta you can still eat with diabetes.
But usually did not specify what kind of bread can still be included in the diet or any pasta will not adversely affect the body. Living with diabetes is only possible with a lifestyle change and not just by taking medicine. Only an experienced dietitian can explain you what to eat, how to eat it, when to eat it and how to cook right. Early weight loss in our programs is always very fast and in the first two to three weeks up to 2 kgs per week is not unusual.
This activity gives you the opportunity to raise the public awareness about the importance of a healthy lifestyle in preventing diabetes.
Having diabetes puts you at a greater risk for developing kidney disease also called diabetic nephropathy. It’s important to have regular urine tests to find kidney damage early because early kidney damage might be reversed. Control your blood pressure by checking it on a regular basis and following your doctor’s recommendations for acceptable levels.
If you need help developing a strategy to avoid complications or face other challenges, Diabetes Management & Supplies can assist with diabetes self-management and education services. There’s nothing new under the sun and you can also reap the benefits of those who have traveled the vacation path before you. If you need help developing life and treatment strategies, Diabetes Management & Supplies can assist with diabetes self-management and education services. Avoiding illness is a prime goal, but people living with diabetes should be aware of the special needs presented by sick days caused by the flu and other conditions. Meals and eating will play an important role as medication will need to be adjusted to match rising or falling blood sugar levels. This log or report will give insight to the diabetes care team of current health status and allow them to help adjust medication or intake to prevent dehydration or ketoacidosis.
Certain foods, testing equipment and testing supplies need to be handy before a sickness occurs.  The phone number of the doctor or diabetes care team should be readily available.
The food pantry should contain: broth, both sugar-free and regular Jello, both diet and non-diet soft drinks, both sugar-free and regular popsicles, both thin and creamy soups, regular and sugar free pudding, yogurt, juice and milk.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that across the country, this flu season was significantly less severe than in the last few years, though number of cases have been increasing since early January. Motivation and method are both key to setting new goals and ending your year with a sense of accomplishment. SMART Goals provide a road map to success because those goals are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Timely.
Beyond those faceless figures, one should focus on goals that bolster your diabetes control. Your diabetes care team should be consulted about ways to reduce your A1C and risk of complications. Lowering one’s blood sugar is a great goal, but drastic drops can increase changes of hyperglycemia. Diabetes Management & Supplies offers diabetes self-management and diabetes education services. A CGM automatically takes several blood sugar readings throughout the day, sends alerts for extreme readings and feeds those levels to the insulin pump.


Combining CGM with insulin pump therapy can provide a method to monitor and manage blood glucose levels.
For more information on specific monitoring or insulin delivery needs, call our Education Department at 1-888-738-7929. Resolving to make “a healthier you” in 2016 can start with a good understanding of your device and its disposal parts and ensuring you are always equipped with adequate supplies. Click HERE for our efficient reorder form or call 1-888-738-7929 to place an order by phone. Whether emphasized by SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) or just noticed in contrast to the festive season, depression may be one sign of diabetes or a flag that one’s diabetes is not in good control. Treat yourself to your favorite stuffing or homemade pie on these days.  Keep these treats to the holidays. These foods fill you up, but will not affect your blood sugar. Chicken, turkey and cheese are often on party trays. Just a 15-minute walk before or after a holiday party can help to keep your blood sugar in control when you are celebrating. It is group of similar conditions that fall into the same category because the symptoms and effects on the body may be similar.
Three-quarters of people who develop type 1 are under the age of 18, and most others are under 40 years old, but older adults develop it as well. Most experts believe it is an autoimmune disorder, which is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue.
In studies that followed relatives of people with Type 1 Diabetes, researchers found that relatives who later developed diabetes had certain auto-antibodies in their blood for years. It used to be called adult-onset diabetes, but, unfortunately, both children and adults develop this kind of diabetes. Gestational diabetes is still diabetes, which means your blood sugar levels are abnormally high. Since diabetes is largely asymptomatic in the early stages and eventually presents with several mild symptoms, there is a misconception that it is not a dangerous condition. The most severe complications in diabetes is seen in long term cases that are poorly controlled but there are several diabetic emergencies that can suddenly arise which can be equally as dangerous even in a person who has been diabetic for just a short period of time. This is largely controlled by the endocrine system – hormones that are secreted from different glands.
This means that pancreas is either not producing enough insulin (insulin deficiency) or that all the cells in the body are not responding as it normally should to insulin (insulin resistance). Even a person who has well managed diabetes mellitus is at risk of developing these complications. The main organs and structures that are affected are the eyes, nerves, kidneys, blood vessels and heart.
High quantities of glucose within the nerve cells affects the normal processes responsible for nerve function. This can progress to a stroke or heart attack (myocardial infarction) as the blood supply to the brain and heart is compromised respectively. Injury to the foot is often the trigger event that then progresses to more severe complications as a result of poor wound healing and weakened immune activity. The different physiopathological mechanisms by which obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease are complex and are not limited to factors such as diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension or dyslipidemia. It is a multiple-action hormone, whose possible effects include increased sympathetic activity that promotes thrombosis and increases blood pressure and heart rate. Other studies have shown that subepicardial fat supplies free fatty acids for energy production and cytokine synthesis. OSA causes acute and chronic stress that could predispose to myocardial ischemia during sleep. Since BMI cannot differentiate between muscle mass and fat, individuals who have coronary heart disease and are moderately overweight or obese may have more preserved muscle mass. All these methods correlate well with the total quantity of visceral fat in grams as measured by more accurate techniques such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Abdominal circumference has shown reasonable reproducibility in research studies, but variability could be a significant issue in clinical practice. Sibutramine and rimonabant reduced triglyceride concentrations and increased HDLc concentrations. This association is due to multiple mechanisms and not only to hypertension, diabetes mellitus or dyslipidemia.
In a US group of pre-diabetes patients 11% of the group developed full diabetes per year (such a total of 33%) for the following three years.
Medical complications which can arise are kidney disease, blindness, nerve problems or amputations. At the Personal Dietology Center Palitra Pitania we ask our clients to do a blood test, especially if they are in a high risk group for diabetes.
Even if you are currently using insulin or anti-diabetic medications to manage your Type 2 diabetes, you may be able to reduce or even eliminate your need for drugs by losing weight, exercising, and sticking to your diet plan. Fruit contains valuable nutrients and fiber and has a milder effect on blood sugar than other types of sweets. An experience nutritionist can also provide relevant insight how to adopt the diet be healthy. All these questions around food are a core competency of a dietitian or nutritionist and not of an endocrinologist. In the United States as stated earlier over 23% of the over 60 year old population has diabetes. This because you can not know all the metabolism effects of food on your blood sugar level. We had several clients here in high risk groups, and one already with diabetes, who lost after one meeting 5 kgs!
In type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia starts in the first decades of life and is usually the only recognized cause of nephropathy.
Finally, don’t use tobacco because it narrows your blood vessels including the already tiny ones working deep inside your kidneys. Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has a helpline number to assist patients with medical conditions who want to prepare for the screening process prior to flying.
It will help to remove this bag from your luggage so that the TSA officials can clearly see what is inside.
Please notify the TSA officials as you move through the checkpoints that you are wearing a pump or CGM. The purpose of a sick day management plan and more vigilant testing has to do with limiting hyperglycemia and dehydration. Medications are to be taken on the usual schedule or may be modified to meet the patient’s needs by the doctor or a member of the healthcare team. The most common types of diabetes in our presence society are Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes. With Type 1 Diabetes, an infection or some other trigger causes the body to destroy the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Such factors appear to be more common in whites, who have the highest rate of type 1 diabetes. That excess sugar crosses the placenta and can make your baby grow too large and lead to problems with your pregnancy and delivery. It damages cells in the body in various ways and by doing so it leads to several other diseases in the long term or increases the risk of developing certain diseases. Eventually the blood glucose levels are at a higher level than is the norm (hyperglycemia) and damages different parts of the body over months and years. Should medication not be commenced in diabetes mellitus or used as prescribed, and if a person does not undertake dietary changes and start exercising, the blood glucose levels are out of control.
However, these emergencies are more likely to arise in a person with poorly managed diabetes mellitus or with incorrect use of diabetes medication. The narrowed arteries and weakened veins especially to the legs leads to sluggish circulation with a host of problems that subsequently develops in the legs and feet.
Endothelial dysfunction induces chemotaxis of adhesion molecules and the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages.
On the other hand, studies on postoperative cardiac patients have not demonstrated any increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in obese patients. Hip circumference is measured at the level of the major trochanters or at the greatest circumference at the level of the buttocks. The diagnosis of obesity should include measurements of total body fat content and its distribution. This year, we hope to welcome even more participants, so bring your friends, family and colleagues along for an early morning run or walk through the French Quarter.
It is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that are used to filter waste from the blood. With type 2 diabetes, to the contrary, hyperglycemia starts near middle-age, usually when the kidneys have already suffered the long?term consequences of aging and of other recognized promoters of chronic renal injury such as arterial hypertension, obesity, high cholesterol, and smoking. Also, in case your checked luggage is lost, you will still have your insulin and supplies with you in your carry-on bag. The goals are to prevent DKA in the Type 1, avoid dehydration of the Type 2 individual and avoid potential hospitalizations for either individual.
Understanding what they have in common, how they differ and the associated risk factors is crucial to raising awareness and encouraging prevention, when possible. While the pancreas produces and secretes digestive enzymes into the gut, it also has a crucial role to play in producing and secreting the hormones that control the blood sugar levels.
It tends to remain high most of the time with episodes of very low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). Although the management of obesity is difficult, a comprehensive management program can lead to favorable outcomes.
This is because the pancreas produces less and less insulin over time, so it must be injected to meet the body’s needs.
Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have serious consequences and can lead to life-threatening complications in the short and long term. These findings also support the idea that measures of central obesity are better markers of fat-related cardiovascular risk, particularly in patients with coronary heart disease. Romero-Corral A, Somers VK, Sierra-Johnson J, Thomas RJ, Collazo-Clavell ML, Korinek J, et al. Lau DC, Douketis JD, Morrison KM, Hramiak IM, Sharma AM, Ur E, Obesity Canada Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Panel.



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Comments

  1. 00

    With high protein and moderate carbs confirmed a small whereas slicing or is that extra.

    04.04.2016

  2. Kavkazec

    These diets are healthier than the Standard American Diet (SAD.

    04.04.2016

  3. BOYFRIEND

    Shows how their arteries opened right.

    04.04.2016

  4. noqte

    There are also low sugar ??advanced as a result of they're contained article is not intended.

    04.04.2016