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There are generally three types of longevity of dogs with diabetes injections – subcutaneous injections intramuscular injections and intravenous infusions. When in the data screen you can only do a screen print so if there is more data than shows on the screen it won’t print nursing journals on diabetes type 2 all of it. The decision to obtain consent from a given individual will be made by the ordering clinician at the time of an insulin order (see section Use of certain drugs: Biguanides for diabetes.
It is an autoimmune disorder in which body starts to destroy its own cell (beta cells of pancreas that makes insulin). 2 main factors: genetics and the environment (certain viruses, toxins which can trigger autoimmune response).
It can be managed with Exercise and change in diet but in some cases medicine or Insulin injections are needed. It will need further evaluation under guidance of child specialist or Pediatric endocrinologist.
Maintain the blood sugar level as close to normal as possible at all times to avoid complications.
Growth and Development should not be affected and child should be able to live a healthy life.
This entry was posted in acutely ill child, child growth and development, child nutrition, genetic and metabolic disorders and tagged Best Pediatrician in Indirapuram, best pediatrician vasundhara, Blood sugar in children, child specialist in ghaziabad, child specialist in indirapuram, child specialist in vaishali, child specialist in vasundhara, Diabetes in children, dr. Definition: Simplistically, Obesity results from an imbalance of caloric intake and energy expenditure. Successful intervention for obesity is challenging and is best accomplished using multimodal approaches to accomplish lifestyle change. This entry was posted in behavior and adolescent problem, child growth and development, child nutrition, feeding, respiratory problem, Uncategorized and tagged avoid junk food, best child doctor in ghaziabad, Best Pediatrician in Indirapuram, BMI, body mass index in children, child specialist in indirapuram, child specialist in vaishali, child specialist in vasundhara, Diet plan for children, dr. Recent Commentsrahulvarma on How long will this diarrhea (or loose motions) last in my child?sarjeet on How long will this diarrhea (or loose motions) last in my child?rahulvarma on Can my child have thyroid related problem at birth? Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research.
Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms on Insulin ResistanceEvrim Komurcu-Bayrak[1] Department of Genetics, Institute for Experimental Medicine, Istanbul University, Turkey1. Bianco AC, Maia AL, da Silva WS, Christoffolete MA.2005Adaptive activation of thyroid hormone and energy expenditure. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as sugar diabetes, is a growing problem globally largely associated with a more sedentary lifestyle and obesity.
Ask a Doctor Online Now!Diabetes mellitus can drastically reduce the quality of life if left untreated and eventually lead to life-threatening complications. Stimulating organs like the liver to convert glucose into its storage form known as glycogen. It is therefore the responsibility of organs like the pancreas to maintain the balance of glucose available in the bloodstream. Complications are the consequences of a disease that is either progressive, left untreated or poorly managed or has existed for a very long period of time. The complications of diabetes mellitus does not occur overnight – it develops gradually over years and decades. Diabetes mellitus can lead to nerve dysfunction and damage which is known as diabetic neuropathy.. Diabetes mellitus contributes to high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia (increased blood fats) which damages the walls of the blood vessels. Kidney dysfunction arises as the tiny blood vessels which carries blood to be filtered is damaged and parts of the filtration membranes thicken.
The impaired blood flow and nerve damage associated with diabetes mellitus, as discussed above, impacts the most on the lower limbs. Most cases of gestational diabetes (pregnancy diabetes) are mild and medication is not necessary. The signs and symptoms of untreated diabetes mellitus or poorly managed diabetes mellitus depends on the conditions that arise.
Some of the symptoms can be attributed to diabetic complications but cannot be easily differentiated from the clinical presentation of diabetes mellitus itself. Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. HI I was wondering what the sypmtoms signs were of type 1 diabetes in an infant or toddler my 31 month-old girl has multiple issues. Click the store of your choice to purchase Manischewitz Pumpernickel Bread Gestational Diabetes Diet While Taking Insulin Wisconsin Green Bay Appointment Scheduler . Eating white rice evidence for the effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy in diabetes management virginia hampton may be linked to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes researchers said today.
Eating the right kind of foods when suffering from diabetes can actually help you manage your condition. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over the period of about 24 hours.
Diabetes Insipidus Dietary Treatment glory was still a girl when Jack left home in disgrace 20 years ago.
One of the biggest advantages of insulin pump therapy is having better control of your blood glucose. To further clarify the postbinding defects of in vivo insulin action in this state, we applied the euglycemic insulin clamp technique, combined with the glucose trace infusion method According to most "studies", I should be dead by now. Initially it was supposed to be disease of western countries and affluent class, but data clearly shows that it is very rampant in middle class families.
In children we do not want rapid weight loss as child is in growing phase and adequate nutritious diet is needed. General overview of genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. IntroductionThe identification of DNA polymorphisms in human populations is an important step towards understanding the contribution of functional genetic variants to predisposition of diseases or clinical phenotypes. Dunaif, 1995Hyperandrogenic anovulation (PCOS): a unique disorder of insulin action associated with an increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Despite it being one of the more common chronic conditions in most populations, there is still widespread ignorance about the serious nature of this disease and the consequences if the condition is left untreated. The presence of diabetes mellitus even when well managed increases the risk of many other serious diseases.
The body has several ways of regulating the different levels of various substances in the body. The bloodstream is being constantly monitored throughout the day and should the glucose levels rise too high, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream. The body is in a constant need of energy to fuel all the different process that is constantly occurring including basic life processes like breathing and pumping of blood by the heart. Therefore the effects of untreated diabetes mellitus is actually the complications that arise, usually in the long term. However, severe hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels) has immediate effects known as diabetic emergencies. The onset of these conditions is largely individualistic meaning that one diabetic may experience certain complications sooner compared to another diabetic.
This may be caused by the narrowing of blood vessels supplying the nerve cells with oxygen and nutrient rich blood. It leads to plaques forming in the blood vessel wall (atherosclerosis) and increases the risk of clots forming in the vessels. This causes a host of problems in the foot in particular and is therefore known as diabetic foot.
Dietary changes and moderate exercise may be sufficient to manage the diabetes which often resolves after childbirth.
Firstly the symptoms of diabetes mellitus itself worsens so it is important to be familiar with these signs and symptoms. Neither the service provider nor the domain owner maintain any relationship with the advertisers.
Those who prefer own rice to white rice have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes a recent study from Harvard found.
3 cups fruity pebbles cereal 3 cups rice krispies cereal cup butter 1 jar marshmallow fluff (about 7oz) Start by buttering a 913 casserole dish. In a healthy individual, the pancreas releases insulin to help the body to store and use the glucose from the food; we eat.
One study done in Bruneck Italy published in the ctober 1998 issue of Diabetes found that 84% of the people diagnosed as Type 2 had insulin resistance but the other 16% did not suggesting these individuals hypoglycemia without diabetes medication diabetes hair loss causes as a former smoker I feel obliged to tell you that your tactics are fatally flawed.
I really needed to find a cleaner that would clean grout since my whole house is basically tile.
Main reason as we all know are changing lifestyle with lots of junk food and minimal physical activity. The combination of genetic predisposition (genetic polymorphisms effecting free fatty acid metabolism, insulin signalling, adipokines and cytokines) and some environmental factors such as excessive dietary intake and physical inactivity results with the occurrence of adipocytogenesis, lipodystrophy and obesity which increase the development risk of insulin resistance.
Approach to the determination of the predisposition uses polymorphisms as marker for a disease in an affected DNA population compared to a control DNA population.
Since diabetes is largely asymptomatic in the early stages and eventually presents with several mild symptoms, there is a misconception that it is not a dangerous condition.
The most severe complications in diabetes is seen in long term cases that are poorly controlled but there are several diabetic emergencies that can suddenly arise which can be equally as dangerous even in a person who has been diabetic for just a short period of time.
This is largely controlled by the endocrine system – hormones that are secreted from different glands. This means that pancreas is either not producing enough insulin (insulin deficiency) or that all the cells in the body are not responding as it normally should to insulin (insulin resistance). Even a person who has well managed diabetes mellitus is at risk of developing these complications. The main organs and structures that are affected are the eyes, nerves, kidneys, blood vessels and heart.


High quantities of glucose within the nerve cells affects the normal processes responsible for nerve function.
This can progress to a stroke or heart attack (myocardial infarction) as the blood supply to the brain and heart is compromised respectively.
Injury to the foot is often the trigger event that then progresses to more severe complications as a result of poor wound healing and weakened immune activity. In case of trademark issues please contact the domain owner directly (contact information can be found in whois).
Gestational Diabetes Diet While Taking Insulin Wisconsin Green Bay yes puffed rice is good for diabetes. See also For children with diabetes special occasions (like healthy eating diabetes type 1 inglewood california birthdays or Halloween) require additional planning because of the extra sweets. Diabetic Recipes Gluten-Free Recipes Healthier Recipes WORLD CUISINES: Asian Recipes International Recipes Holiday Recipes Pasta Gestational Diabetes Diet While Taking Insulin Wisconsin Green Bay Recipes Pet Food Recipes Pizza Recipes Pumpkin Recipes. And shhhhno need to tell anyone this easy baked bean recipe started with canned baked beans! This occurs when there is an exponential increase in lactate production caused by a greater reliance on anaerobic metabolism occurring at approximately 60-70% of Diabetes Type And Meal Plan. Its hilarious to me the people that do not understand the simple difference in pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Instead, Type II diabetes is treated with changing the diet, controlling weight, and taking medications by mouth to control the condition. Insulin resistance predates pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and plays the crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Subsequently, the polymorphisms statistically associated with the disease group may be directly informative or linked to the probable causative variant.
It damages cells in the body in various ways and by doing so it leads to several other diseases in the long term or increases the risk of developing certain diseases.
Eventually the blood glucose levels are at a higher level than is the norm (hyperglycemia) and damages different parts of the body over months and years. Should medication not be commenced in diabetes mellitus or used as prescribed, and if a person does not undertake dietary changes and start exercising, the blood glucose levels are out of control. However, these emergencies are more likely to arise in a person with poorly managed diabetes mellitus or with incorrect use of diabetes medication. The narrowed arteries and weakened veins especially to the legs leads to sluggish circulation with a host of problems that subsequently develops in the legs and feet. 2 ripe bananas mashed cup own sugar Gestational Diabetes Diet While Taking Insulin Wisconsin Green Bay not packed. Certain sweet potatoes have essentially the same protein patterns as a commercial dietary supplement known as Caiapo marketed to control blood glucose in diabetics.
Dole Extra Veggie is loaded with more fresh and flavorful veggies Gestational Diabetes Diet While Taking Insulin Wisconsin Green Bay in every bite. The most dangerous time in the life of a diabetic child is prior to diagnosis when the symptoms are often confused with the flu.
If you also test high for cholesterol this list of do-not-eat food to eat for diabetes patient pre diabetes management guidelines glucose amount systems.
Christov, 2003Testosterone supplementation in men with type 2 diabetes, visceral obesity and partial androgen deficiency.
While the pancreas produces and secretes digestive enzymes into the gut, it also has a crucial role to play in producing and secreting the hormones that control the blood sugar levels. It tends to remain high most of the time with episodes of very low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia). The National Diabetes Strategy has identified, as a key priority, the development and implementation of national evidence based guidelines for the prevention, detection and management of type 2 diabetes guidelines. We buy most kinds and the prices will vary based off the brand quantity and expiration date.
Doctor answers Diabetes Insipidus Dietary Treatment on Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment and More: Dr.
This large variant set might not represent the variants causative of disease because it was performed in genomes of only a limited number of individuals. Sacchettini, 1996A polymorphism in the human intestinal fatty acid binding proteins alters fatty acid transport across Caco-2 cells. Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have serious consequences and can lead to life-threatening complications in the short and long term.
People with type 1 diabetes, who produce no insulin at all, would not be able to stop their diabetes medications by following a paleo diet. Current models of care for children with diabetes encourage healthy eating habits that are in harmony with those of the child’s family. For this reason, the discovery genetic variation in regions of functional DNA sequence in the genomes of individuals with disease is important for disease-gene association studies. Yoon, 2001The A54T polymorphism at the intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 is associated with insulin resistance in glucose tolerant Caucasians. Nutritional calculators use your current weight age gender and other parameters to calculate how much you must eat to lose weight.
About 10 years ago we believed that people with a history of chronic diabetes mellitus, which means people who have diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years, may be at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Keeps costs and waiting times down while not actually preventing anyone from getting the care they need. Conde, 2008Influence of Lys656Asn polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene on insulin resistance in nondiabetic obese patients. Therefore, recently, genome-wide association (GWA) or candidate gene approaches are used in the understanding of the molecular genetic background of complex polygenic disease.
Maia, 2010Association of the type 2 deiodinase Thr92Ala polymorphism with type 2 diabetes: case-control study and meta-analysis. Mather, 2005Insulin and endothelin in the acute regulation of adiponectin in vivo in humans. Bouchard, 1999Linkages and associations between the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene and human body composition in the Quebec Family Study. Vicente, 2006Leptin receptor Lys656Asn polymorphism is associated with decreased leptin response and weight loss secondary to a lifestyle modification in obese patients. Soler, 1997The TNF-alpha gene Nco I polymorphism influences the relationship among insulin resistance, percent body fat, and increased serum leptin levels. Insulin resistance is caused by the reduced ability of peripheral target tissues to respond properly to insulin stimulation.
Perez-Bravo, 2004Intestinal FABP2 A54T polymorphism: association with insulin resistance and obesity in women. Insulin resistance predates beta cell dysfunction and plays the crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Ogihara, 2006Effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms on insulin resistance in a Japanese general population: the Tanno-Sobetsu study. Saruta, 2004Novel resistin promoter polymorphisms: association with serum resistin level in Japanese obese individuals. Parker, 2004Mitochondrial superoxide: production, biological effects, and activation of uncoupling proteins. Lupien, 1993Apolipoprotein E polymorphism modifies relation of hyperinsulinemia to hypertriglyceridemia. Botnia, Group, 2007Variation in GYS1 interacts with exercise and gender to predict cardiovascular mortality. Pedersen, 2007Studies of the common DIO2 Thr92Ala polymorphism and metabolic phenotypes in 7342 Danish white subjects. Kim, 2009Type 2 deiodinase expression is induced by peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists in skeletal myocytes. Ordovas, 2003Obesity modulates the association among APOE genotype, insulin, and glucose in men. Oka, 2007Involvement of apolipoprotein E in excess fat accumulation and insulin resistance.
Pedersen, 2003Mutational analysis of the UCP2 core promoter and relationships of variants with obesity.
Romero, 2010Relation of-55CT polymorphism of uncoupling protein 3 gene with fat mass and insulin resistance in morbidly obese patients. Given the crucial roles of pathways in the pathogenesis of liver and muscle insulin resistance, understanding the molecular mechanism of insulin resistance is vital for the development of new and more effective therapies for metabolic disorders.
Prochazka, 1995An amino acid substitution in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein is associated with increased fatty acid binding, increased fat oxidation, and insulin resistance. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance was calculated as the product of fasting plasma insulin (in microunits per milliliter) and fasting plasma glucose (in millimoles per liter), divided by 22.5 (Matthews et al. Bouchard, 2000Associations between the leptin receptor gene and adiposity in middle-aged Caucasian males from the HERITAGE family study. Genetic and epidemiological studies strongly suggest that insulin resistance is, at least in part, genetically determined. Matsuzawa, 1999Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity.
Boehnke, 2004Variation in the resistin gene is associated with obesity and insulin-related phenotypes in Finnish subjects. The numerous genes have been suggested as a potential candidate gene for insulin resistance, but the findings of these studies were controversial. This chapter is to provide an overview of our recent understanding of genetic predisposition to insulin resistance. It is aimed to summarize the results of the recent studies about the genetics of insulin resistance. The polymorphisms of the FABP genes Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are members of a superfamily of lipid-binding proteins. These tissue specific proteins (FABP1-4) play the physiological role in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and excretion of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) (Zimmerman & Veerkamp, 2002).
The polymorphisms of these genes have been studied in several metabolic phenotypes such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin sensitivity (Mansego et al.


Roche, 2010Gene-nutrient interactions in the metabolic syndrome: single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1 interact with plasma saturated fatty acids to modulate insulin resistance.
2012).The liver FABP (FABP1) is an abundant cytosolic lipid-binding protein that regulates lipid transport and metabolism. In this study, it has been shown that carriers of the allele A of this polymophism had HOMA index values higher than homozygotes GG. However, none of the other analyzed variants in FABP2, FABP3 and FABP4 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in this study (Mansego et al.
2012).The intestinal FABP (FABP2) plays a key role in the absorption and intracellular transport of dietary LCFA (Weiss, 2002).
Therefore, the FABP2 gene has been suggested as a possible candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the linkage analysis of the FABP2 locus with insulin resistance was also found in a study in Mexican Americans who were of a mixed American-Indian and -European ancestry (Mitchell et al., 1995).
However, sib-pair analysis failed to detect any linkage of the FABP2 locus or the Ala54Thr polymorphism with diabetes-related phenotypes in other ethnic groups.
However, the findings of this study would need to be confirmed in studies involving a larger number of subjects. A number of conflicting and inconclusive studies have investigated the possible association of the FABP2 Ala54Thr polymorphism with insulin resistance. A meta-analysis of these published studies has suggested that the Thr54 allele of the FABP2 Ala54Thr is weakly associated with a higher degree of insulin resistance, higher fasting insulin and blood glucose level. As gender and ethnicity probably were important variables in determining associative risk with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, Zhao et al.
The polymorphisms of the ELOVL6 geneElongase of long chain fatty acids family 6 (ELOVL6) is expressed in lipogenic tissues.
This enzyme specifically catalyze the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids with 12, 14 and 16 carbons. A population-based study has suggested that the genetic variations in the ELOVL6 gene are related with insulin resistance.
In this population from southern Spain, carriers of the minor alleles of the rs9997926 and rs6824447 polymorphisms had a lower risk of having high HOMA index, whereas carriers of the minor allele rs17041272 had a higher risk of being insulin resistant. The polymorphisms of the APOE geneApolipoprotein E (ApoE) is primarily involved in plasma lipid homeostasis.
ApoE is involved in excess fat accumulation and energy metabolism, including the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Therefore, excess fat accumulation via an apoE-dependent pathway might play a role in the development of insulin resistance (Kypreos et al., 2006). In a cross-sectional study, the impacts of these polymorphisms have been analyzed on lipid, apolipoprotein, glucose, and serum insulin concentrations in the TARF cohort, a representative of Turkish adults. On the other hand, a large population-based family study related with type 2 diabetes found a relationship for the polymorphisms of the APOE gene and the nearby muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene on chromosome 19 with cardiovascular mortality, independently of each other (Fredriksson et al., 2007). Other functional polymorphisms in the GYS1 gene may relate to developing insulin resistance.
The polymorphisms of the UCP genesUncoupling protein 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) play an important role in human energy homeostasis (Brand et al., 200 4) and have been considered candidate genes for obesity, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Thus, UCP2 and UCP3 are involved in regulating ATP synthesis, generation of reactive oxygen species and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic ? cells. However, Andersen et al has found an association between this variant and obesity in Danish individuals and established case-control studies. This study has shown that the -866G-allele was associated with elevated fasting serum insulin levels and insulin resistance (HOMA index) and decreased insulin sensitivity in Danish subjects (Andersen et al., 2012). Furthermore, in a study performed with a Spanish group of 193 obese children and adolescents and 170 controls, Ochoa et al. The polymorphisms of the ADRB genes?-adrenoceptors (ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRB3) in the sympathetic nervous system play a role in regulating energy expenditure and lipolysis. ADRBs gene variation is an intense area of investigation because ?-adrenoceptors are well described in organ system distribution, catecholamine-mediated physiological processes, disease states and treatment targets (Eisenach & Wittwer, 2010).
One of the most studied polymorphism (rs1801253) in the ADRB1 gene encode for arginine or glycine in amino acid 389 (Arg389Gly). In 238 healthy young Caucasians and African-Americans, Gly389 carriers had a higher level of insulin and insulin resistance than non-carriers, and this allele was more prevalent in the subjects with higher body mass index (BMI; Lima et al. In previous studies, it has been found that this polymorphism was associated with serum insulin levels and insulin resistance (HOMA index) but, no association with obesity among Swedish women (Mottagui-Tabar et al., 2008). However, there are limited number of studies evaluating the association between these genes and insulin resistance. In larger scale studies with different populations should be performed for these genes to support the association between genotype and phenotype.4. The polymorphisms of the APM1, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 genesAdiponection is an adipokine secreted by adipocytes. The polymorphisms in adiponectin (APM1,ADIPOQ, ACRP30) gene, and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes and, insulin resistance. Furthermore, administration of thiazolidinediones (TZD), an insulin-sensitising class of drugs, to insulin-resistant subjects significantly increased the plasma adiponectin levels, and this effect was correlated with the amelioration of insulin resistance in these subjects (Maeda et al., 2001). In a study from Menzaghi et al, a haplotype of the adiponectin gene was associated with several features of insulin resistance in nondiabetic individuals, including low serum adiponectin levels (Menzaghi et al., 2002). The reasons for partially discrepant results between polymorphisms in these genes and metabolic measures could be due to the different genetic background of the studied populations or environmental interactions, particularly dietary factors. The polymorphisms of the D2 and TSHR genesThyroid hormones are known to upregulate the expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle, and consequently increase glucose uptake (Weinstein et al., 1994).
Thyroxine (T4), a major secretory product of the thyroid gland, needs to be converted to triiodothyronine (T3) to exert its biological activity. Type 2 deiodinase (D2) catalyzes T4 to T3 conversion, and plays a critical role in maintaining intracellular T3 levels in specialized tissues, such as the anterior pituitary and brown adipose tissue (Bianco et al., 2005). Thr92Ala polymorphism of D2 gene showed an association with lower glucose disposal rate in nondiabetic subjects and also a higher prevalence of insulin resistance in Pima Indians and Mexican–Americans (Mentuccia et al., 2002). In addition, this polymorphism was associated with greater insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients and with lower enzyme activity in thyroid tissue samples (Canani et al., 2005). A previous study has investigated the association between serum thyroid parameters and the TSHR Asp727Glu polymorphism in nondiabetic elderly men.
Carriers of the Glu727 allele had also a significantly higher glucose, insulin, HOMA index and leptin levels, but no association with serum TSH levels (Peeters et al., 2007). The polymorphisms of the SHBG geneSome studies have suggested that the polymorphisms in genes encoding sex hormones may be effective on the development of insulin resistance.
Moreover, polycystic ovarian syndrome was associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in women (Dunaif, 1995).
The polymorphisms of the LEP and LEPR genesLeptin (LEP), a hormone secreted by adipocytes, and its receptor (LEPR) are other candidate genes for insulin resistance. However, the roles of leptin and its receptor in the development of metabolic traits in the general population are less clear. The polymorphisms of the RBP4 geneRetinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine with potential contribution to systemic insulin resistance (Yang et al., 2005). The polymorphisms of the RETN geneResistin (RETN), a hormone secreted by adipocytes, has been examined as candidate gene for obesity and type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. These conflicting findings have made it difficult to determine a role for resistin in insulin resistance. The reasons for discrepant results are not known, and may reside in the different genetic background of the studied populations or the different-designed studies.5.
Hypertension is related to insulin resistance and a number of studies have reported an association between RAS gene polymorphisms and hypertension (Sugimoto et al. However, further studies are required to confirm the impact of these candidate gene polymorphisms in the larger and different populations.6. The polymorphisms of the TNF-? gene Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine and also an adipokine produced in adipocytes. In addition, the TNF-? affects lipid metabolism and may lead to hypertriglyceridemia by decreasing hepatic lipoprotein lipase activity and by increasing hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis (Zinman et al., 1999). A meta-analysis of many published studies including different populations has suggested that -308A TNF-? gene variant is associated with increased risk of developing obesity compared with controls and significantly higher systolic arterial blood pressure and plasma insulin levels (Sookoian et al., 2005). TNF-? -857C>T polymorphism is also associated with obese type 2 diabetes (Kamizono et al.
2000) and insulin resistance in Japanese diabetic subjects with adiponectin +276GG genotype (Ohara et al., 2012). Other genetic or environmental factors may play important roles in modulating the relationships.7. ConclusionThe insulin resistance is highly heritable and originates from the interactions of multiple genes and environmental factors. Figure 1 shows the main factors contributing to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Until now, goal of many studies was to use a candidate gene approach to identify genes associated with insulin resistance and several genes have been investigated in many association-based studies.
These discrepant results might be due to differences in the study populations and design of these studies.
In addition, the candidate gene polymorphisms have been searched in a number of small-scale studies with variable results.
Limited number meta-analyses have been done to demonstrate the effect of several candidate gene polymorphisms on insulin resistance.
On the other hand, the use of genome-wide association (GWA) studies will identify novel polymorphisms related to insulin resistance.



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