Diabetes mellitus cats treatment,type 2 diabetes recipes free ebook,type 2 diabetes liquid diet ideas - PDF Books


Insulin is a hormone secreted from ß-cells of the pancreas (specifically, the portion called the Islets of Langerhans). IDDM*: (Insulin-Dependent-Diabetes Mellitus) refers to a clinical need for insulin therapy in the management of Diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance: refers to a subnormal response of suseptible cells to the physiological effect of normal amount of secreted insulin. Receptor Level: There is an alteration ( decrease) in the specific affinity of a cell surface receptor for the the insulin molecule. A relative or absolute insulin deficiency impairs the ability of insulin-dependent tissues to utilize glucose, amino acids (building blocks of proteins) and fatty acids (building blocks of fat). With the inability to utilize the glucose that is present and the ever-demanding need for energy and substates for normal homeostasis (i.e. Better control is attained with weight reduction (obesity is risk factor for onset of diabetes). However, one may need to add some minerals, protein and a little fat with a high fiber diet because high fiber also reduces the digestability of protein and some minerals, and very low fat may reduce the absorption of certain vitamins. Insulin Glargine, from Lantus, is a very long acting "peakless" insulin in humans, meaning that the results of a glucose curve (below) do not generally show the marked peaks and valleys of blood glucose values that change throughout the day on most other insulin regimens, but that glucose levels are more or less stable over a longer period of time.
Obtaining a glucose curve usually requires hospitalization and repeated pokes with a needle to obtain samples for measuring blood glucose levels. Hospitalization can be (and often is ) stressful for the patient; it is known that stress results in elevated blood cortisol and that circulating cortisol results in elevated blood sugar.
In certain instances of type 2, NIDDM (most likely cats), where there are minimal clinical signs, and no concurrent illnesses, weight loss (may be obese!) or ketosis, oral hypoglycemic medications may be considered. SIDE EFFECTS: liver toxicity, hypoglycemia, rash, amyloid (a harmful protein) deposition in the pancreas and subsequent exacerbation of pancreatic destruction.
MOA: inhibits glucose synthesis by the liver and increases the sensitivity of tissues to the action of insulin.
SIDE EFFECTS: can not be used when there is concurrent kidney disease or impaired liver function.
MOA: slows the absorption (post-prandial) of glucose from the intestine and is most effective when patients exhibit persistent post-prandial hyperglycemia that is not responsive to dietary modification regimens. MOA: supposedly increases sensitivity of tissues to insulin and decreases glucose release from the liver.
The efficacy and safety of many oral hypoglycemic drugs for veterinary patients have not been completely established.
Like humans, cats may suffer from diabetes mellitus (sometimes known as simply 'diabetes'), with around 2 in 500 developing the disease. In the normal cat, carbohydrates are broken down by digestion into the simple sugar glucose. In the diabetic cat, this process is impaired, either due to the pancreas producing insufficient insulin or a failure of the body to respond to insulin. Diabetes can be diagnosed in cats of any age but is most prevalent in those of 10 years or over. Your vet will perform a thorough physical examination of your cat and will recommend blood tests to check the glucose level and screen for concurrent problems that could complicate treatment. It is usually possible to treat a diabetic cat but you should never underestimate the commitment required in terms of time, cost and emotion. The frequency of administration and dose and type of insulin required vary from patient to patient.
Diabetic cats benefit from a high ratio of protein to carbohydrate, so your vet may recommend a diet change. Despite the high degree of commitment involved, diabetes can be an extremely rewarding condition to treat, with many cats returning to a great quality of life. Although any cat has the potential to develop diabetes, there are things you can do to reduce the risk. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet lowers the risk of diabetes in cats - logical, as cats have evolved to eat a diet of meat, with minimal amounts of carbohydrate. Type II diabetes mellitus is non-insulin-dependent and occurs when the body is not able to utilize the insulin that is produced in an efficient fashion. Learn where to find local adoption resources, online adoption options, and how you can help animals in need, even if you can't adopt at this time. Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in older cats, and is especially prevalent in kitties fed dry food diets. Symptoms of feline diabetes include increased thirst and urination, urinating outside the litter box, increased hunger, weight loss, sweet-smelling breath, lethargy, dehydration, poor coat condition, urinary tract infections, muscle weakness, and diabetic neuropathy. There is a relatively new kind of insulin available called glargine that shows promise in treating intractable feline diabetes. If your cat seems to be thirstier than usual, is urinating frequently, is hungry all the time but also losing weight, you should have him checked by your veterinarian for feline diabetes. Other signs to watch for include urinating outside the litter box, unusually sweet-smelling breath, lethargy, dehydration, poor coat condition, and urinary tract infections. Left untreated, diabetes can cause your kitty to lose his appetite and a significant amount of weight, and develop muscle weakness.
Diabetes mellitus is unfortunately a too-common disease in older cats, and is especially prevalent in kitties fed dry food diets. When there is not enough insulin being released from the pancreas, or there is an abnormal release of insulin coupled with an inadequate response of the body’s cells to the insulin, diabetes mellitus is the result. In addition, the glucose builds up in the bloodstream and is eliminated through urination.
As I discussed in an article last year about one of my patients, Biddie, a 15 year-old kitty who suffered with seemingly unmanageable diabetes, I tried a relatively new kind of insulin called glargine.
A recent study published in the Journal of Veterinary and Emergency Critical Care2 evaluated glargine as a treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis in cats and showed that the drug successfully treats the condition. According to the study, glargine also achieved remission of diabetes in one-third of patients. In addition, a diet deficient in high quality protein will force a cat’s body to metabolize its own muscle, which contributes to muscle loss and the rear limb weakness characteristic of diabetic neuropathy. The ideal nutrition for cats is whole, fresh, unprocessed animal meat, organs and bones, with a small amount of veggies. With proper treatment (which almost always includes dietary changes), many diabetic cats can achieve remission. OverviewDiabetes mellitus is a common condition in people and relatively common in cats as well.
Symptoms The most common symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urination (polyuria). DiagnosisYour veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam and take a detailed history of your pet’s health. Your veterinarian may recommend diagnostic tests to identify the underlying cause of your cat’s symptoms.
While your cat’s diet and genetics certainly play a role, feline obesity is the biggest risk factor for feline diabetes. It has been shown that for each kilogram of extra body weight, your cat has a 30% reduction in his sensitivity to insulin.


To evaluate obesity in cats, body condition scores have been developed for veterinarians and cat owners to evaluate and track their feline friend’s weight. The most common contributing factors for feline obesity are age, whether they are desexed, frequency of treats, and how much the cat is fed. If your cat already has diabetes, then weight loss can make it easier to regulate his diabetes and increase the chances of him going into remission.
If your cat is overweight and at risk of developing diabetes, it’s important that he loses weight.
A 6-year-old spayed female mastiff dog was presented with a 2-week history of inappetence and diarrhea. Clinician’s Brief provides relevant diagnostic and treatment information for small animal practitioners. All Type 1 and some Type 2 patients require the administration of insulin to control metabolic abnormalities and clinical signs associated with the disease.
There is no single test to a priori classify an incidence of Diabetes mellitus as IDDM or NIDDM.
This can occur via degradation or complexing of insulin molecules with antibodies in blood, rendering the insulin inactive.
Hence, insulin is less likely to bind to it; OR, there is a reduced number of receptors on the cell surface.
In fact, because they may increase blood sugar (as seen in some humans), one should evaluate the clinical benefit vs risk if omega-3 fatty acids are used in the diabetic dog where there are concurrent conditions responsive to omega-3 fatty acids. In some cats (but not in dogs) recently diagnosed with diabetes, the initial use of glargine, rather than one of the other insulin preparations, in conjunction with a high protein, low carbohydrate diet, can result in markedly reduced need for insulin. Sometimes several glucose curves separated by 10-14 days are required to achieve optimization of insulin type, dose and frequency, and to avoid the Somogyi phenomenon*. Hence, getting an truly reflective sampling of a patient's response to insulin can be clouded by spurious effects of blood sugar levels that are the direct result of stress.
Some of the early evidence suggests that single drugs or some combinations of these, with or without concurrent insulin administration, may be useful in the treatment of diabetic cats. Glucose is absorbed through the intestines into the blood and provides a vital source of energy for cells.
The cells cannot absorb glucose and the level of this sugar within the blood becomes too high. Cats can also develop a condition called diabetes insipidus, which also causes increased thirst and urination, but other than this it is completely different from diabetes mellitus.
A fresh urine sample from your cat's litter tray can be checked by your vet for evidence of diabetes using a simple dipstick test for glucose.
A feature peculiar to cats is that stress may cause elevated blood glucose levels, so high glucose on a single blood sample does not necessarily mean that your cat is diabetic. If you are unable to do so then sadly it will be necessary for your cat to be put to sleep.
They require once or twice daily insulin injections to control their symptoms and this will usually be for the rest of their life. Cats are normally started on a relatively low dose of insulin (to minimise risk of over-dosage) and given a blood test every 1 to 2 hours for a period of 12 to 24 hours to make sure the glucose level isn't dropping too low at any point. Many of these patients are either over- or underweight, so your pet may need to be put on a special weight-loss or weight-gain plan and checked regularly.
Obesity can predispose a cat to diabetes (as well as cause a multitude of other problems) so you should aim to keep your cat at a healthy weight. If the disease is diagnosed early and proper treatment is given, it’s possible to normalize blood glucose levels and put the diabetes into remission.
Glargine is a DNA-recombinant long-acting insulin analogue that has also been studied for use in treating diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal complication of diabetes. A study published a few years ago concluded that high-protein, low-carb diets are at least as effective as insulin in causing remission of feline diabetes.
The best way to prevent diabetes in your cat is to keep your pet lean and provide balanced, species-appropriate nutrition in controlled portions. In fact, a study published in 2006 in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery1 concluded that high-protein, low-carb diets are as or more effective than insulin at causing remission of diabetes in cats.
But unfortunately, in cats that have been diabetic for a significant period of time, the cells in the pancreas may be worn out and unable to secrete insulin any longer.
Ketones are waste products that result when the body burns fat rather than glucose as fuel. These foods typically contain a small amount of rendered protein and a tremendous amount of fiber.
The important thing is to ensure your kitty is eating well each day, and if that means continuing to feed dry cat food, that’s what you should do. Pets become overweight through a combination of an inappropriate diet, lack of portion control, and not enough calorie-burning physical activity.
This content may be copied in full, with copyright, contact, creation and information intact, without specific permission, when used only in a not-for-profit format. It is a chronic condition in which the body either isn’t making enough insulin or isn’t responding to the insulin being produced.
The first type occurs when your cat’s body can’t produce enough insulin; this is called type 1 diabetes. The symptoms of diabetes mellitus are very similar to other diseases, such as liver or kidney disease, pancreatitis, and hyperthyroidism.
This condition is characterized by a decreased production of insulin, as well as a poor response to insulin by the body.
Indoor cats can often become sedentary and overweight, even while being fed a low calorie cat food. We don’t often think of fat as an organ, but it is – it produces the hormones adiponectin, resistin and leptin which can affect how the body regulates glucose.
This results in the pancreas producing more insulin but if it can’t keep up this increase, the result is diabetes. For example, the nine-point body condition score provides a simple and reliable method of determining body composition in cats. Food for diabetic cats should be low in carbohydrates, and canned food is preferable to dry kibble. Whether type 2 diabetes is applicable to veterinary patients is debatable, according to some endocrinologists, because almost always, veterinary patients require some form of insulin or other hypoglycemic agent to regulate the diabetes (i.e. In a large number of these cases, cats may go into complete remission over the course of months on Glargine, and then no longer are diabetic! Left untreated, diabetes will greatly affect your cat's quality of life and will ultimately be life-threatening. The kidneys try to compensate by excreting the excessive glucose and as a consequence the cat will urinate and drink more. Diabetes insipidus is a relatively rare condition, so when you hear someone mention 'diabetes' they are usually referring to diabetes mellitus.
Both sexes, and both neutered and 'entire' cats may be affected, but it is most common in castrated males.
Obviously you will need to remove any litter or newspaper from the litter tray or use special non-absorbent litter obtained from your vet.


It is important to note that, unlike in people, the aim of treatment for diabetes mellitus in cats is to control the symptoms rather than cure the disease, so long-term complications occasionally occur. If you are not sure whether your cat is overweight then your vet or vet nurse will be happy to discuss this with you (many will do this free of charge). There is currently some controversy amongst veterinary experts as to whether feeding wet food is better than feeding dry food in terms of diabetes prevention - but feeding wet food certainly won't do any harm in this respect.
When the pancreas is unable to produce insulin in adequate amounts or the body is unable to properly use that insulin, the blood glucose level increases above normal levels and diabetes mellitus results.Classification of Diabetes MellitusEssentially, there are three different classifications of diabetes mellitus. Since most dry cat food is high in carbs and deficient in high-quality protein, it makes sense that a lifetime of eating kibble could cause diabetes in middle-aged and older kitties. In most situations, insulin injections are needed to control elevated glucose levels, but there are some cats that do better with oral hypoglycemic medications. I gradually increased Biddie’s glargine dose over a three-month period until we were able to get his blood sugar under control. The theory behind these formulas is that low-fat diets force carnivores to burn excess body fat. Just make sure to also encourage him to eat some canned food as well for the added protein and moisture it provides.
If you want to do everything possible to prevent diabetes in your pet, you should focus on keeping your kitty lean.
The second type of diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t respond to insulin; this is called type 2 diabetes.
Additionally, sometimes underlying diseases or conditions can cause transient diabetes, and once the primary disease or condition is treated, the diabetes resolves. Feline diabetes symptoms include increased thirst, increased urination and increased risk of urinary tract infection. For example, resistin causes the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream even if there are high levels of insulin present. Another simple and easy way to evaluate body condition in the cat is to take photographs (from the front and side) every year.
Rapid cat weight loss can lead to hepatic lipidosis, or fatty liver, which is in itself dangerous. However, with veterinary advice and a highly committed owner, many cats can successfully be treated. Transfer the urine sample to a clean and dry container such as a jam jar, or ask your vet for a special pot. Your vet will probably recommend another blood test to measure levels of a value called fructosamine - this indicates how high the glucose has been on average for the preceding three weeks, so if this is also high it is consistent with diabetes. Your vet or nurse will teach you to do this (often getting you to practise on an orange first!) and you won't be 'let loose' until you are confident and happy. If there are no problems the cat is kept on this dosage for the next 7-10 days and the glucose curve is repeated, once the body has had time to adapt to the insulin. To be honest, most owners don't realise their cat is overweight (as we are so used to seeing chubby animals!), so a check-up will be of benefit to all.
Type I diabetes mellitus is insulin-dependent, meaning that the pancreas of the diseased animal (or person) can no longer produce adequate amounts of insulin. If ketones build up in the bloodstream, they can lead to significant energy problems in the body, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis. The problem is that most cats with serious diabetes don’t have any excess fat to burn.
Feed a portion-controlled, moisture-rich, species-appropriate diet and make sure she gets some exercise each day. Glucose is a by-product of the food our cats eat; it provides energy to the cells in their bodies. It’s possible for untreated diabetics to suffer from a life threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. They also aren’t aware that excess weight can be extremely harmful to their pet’s health. Adiponectin slows the production of glucose in the liver and increases uptake by cells, and levels of this hormone are lower in obese cats. The body weight and body condition score should be recorded at least yearly, so you can identify changes easily. It’s best to measure portion sizes using recommendations from the food manufacturer and your vet. Weight loss that is slow but steady is the key to keeping him healthy; however prevention is better than cure. As in humans with type 2 diabetes, obesity does play a role in the development of feline diabetes, however. Blood acidity increases, altering normal metabolism, and continued breakdown of fat and muscle exacerbates the existing derangements, adversly affecting levels and availability of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus . This article will inform you about the nature of diabetes, the symptoms to look out for and how the condition may be managed. The high levels of glucose can cause complications such as cystitis, or a more severe life-threatening disorder called diabetic ketoacidosis. In the interim you will need to monitor your cat closely to make sure there are no signs that the glucose level is dropping too low ('hypoglycaemia') as this can be very dangerous. This condition is a medical emergency that can progress rapidly, cause severe illness, and if not treated promptly, can be fatal. Cats are also more difficult to exercise; they’re not very keen on wearing a leash and going for a walk. If you can keep your cat trim, taut and terrific as he is growing up, you’re much less likely to have to deal with symptoms of cat diabetes. Sometimes it is necessary to mix (or purchase pre-mixed) insulin types in order to obtain the desired onset and duration properties for a particular patient.
If you go on holiday then you will need to find someone who can do this on your behalf, although fortunately many cattery staff are used to medicating these cats. If the glucose levels remain appropriate then the cat can be kept on this dose, but if they are too high or low at any point then the dose will need to be adjusted. Depending on response, the type of insulin or frequency of administration may need to be changed. Some cats can be controlled quite quickly, but it often takes a while to find the right dosing regimen and because of this the costs can quickly mount up. Water is thus lost along with important electrolytes, the liver continues to accumulate fat for metabolism to ketones and ketoacids, and more glucose; the liver enlarges and is painful, the animal is sick from all the imbalaces, including the toxins generated from inadequate processing of metabolic substrates, and vomiting, often protracted in nature, results. If your pet is showing any signs of illness, please consult a veterinarian as quickly as possible.



How to avoid sore muscles after lifting weights
Ideal blood sugar levels for type 2 diabetes




Comments

  1. Selina

    Everything else is so simple, just follow the.

    03.02.2014

  2. 101

    About 6%, if both parents – this seminar to learn.

    03.02.2014

  3. SCORPION

    From about half an hour of direct article.

    03.02.2014

  4. BIZNESMEN_2323274

    Low-carb diet with vegetables may help to control have acquired their share of criticism, however.

    03.02.2014