Diabetes medication type 2 injections,type 2 diabetes soup recipes 2014,type 2 diabetes gastrointestinal problems 5th - Reviews


Use these free images for your websites, art projects, reports, and Powerpoint presentations!
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Insulin itself is ineffective orally, but several groups of medications given orally can lower the blood glucose levels of some clients with type 2 diabetes. Four major mechanisms cause blood glucose levels to elevate in clients with type 2 diabetes. Several major categories of oral antidiabetic agents act to interfere with one or more of these mechanisms (Fig.
The actions of the sulfonylureas (Diabinese, Glucotrol, DiaBeta, Micronase) are not fully understood. Nursing Alert Advise clients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin about the use of alcohol; alcohol can exaggerate the hypoglycemic effect of these drugs.
FIGURE 79-5 · Oral hypoglycemic drugs use various mechanisms to lower blood glucose levels. Metformin (Glucophage), a biguanide, works by preventing the liver from overproducing glucose. Acarbose (Precose), an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, blocks enzymes that break down dietary starches so that starches can be absorbed more slowly in the small intestine. Clients can use oral antidiabetic medications alone or in combination with each other or with insulin.
Experimentation with pancreas transplantation in clients with diabetes has been under way for many years.
Doses of insulin (or oral diabetes medications) are calculated to control blood glucose levels. Key Concept All persons with diabetes who use insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications should wear a MedicAlert tag at all times.
Nursing Alert Avoid chocolate bars and whole milk as treatment for a hypoglycemic reaction because the high fat content prevents quick release of glucose.
Hypoglycemia requires emergency treatment, followed by adjustment of the client’s carbohydrate intake and insulin dosage to regulate the disturbed metabolism. If medical assistance is unavailable, the client may use a substance called Instant Glucose, which contains 25 g of pure glucose and is packaged in a tube for squeezing into the client’s mouth. The Somogyi phenomenon occurs when hypoglycemia is followed by a compensatory period of rebound hyperglycemia as the body attempts to correct the initial problem by increasing glucose production. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from a lack of effective insulin, causing hyperglycemia. Continuous IV infusion of low-dose regular insulin, with a controlled-flow mechanism, is used. Following the initial emergency, test blood specimens for sugar hourly and keep a record of fluid I&O.
Nursing Alert If you are outside the healthcare facility and do not know whether a person is having a hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic reaction, give sugar Rationale: If you give sugar, and it is incorrect, an already high blood glucose level will only increase slightly.
Type 2 Diabetes can be controlled by diet and exercise, without having medication or insulin shots. The key is to find what food is good in test and good for your health along with Diabetes treatment.
Loaded with high-quality lean protein and low in carbohydrates, egg white is an added healthy choice for controlling type 2 diabetes.
Crowded of vitamins, minerals, and fiber, non starchy vegetables (such as broccoli, spinach, mushrooms, and peppers) are best source of high-quality carbohydrates.
Wild Salmon is rich in Omega-3s which help reduce heart disease risk, and also important for Type 2 diabetes treatment, which otherwise elevates the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Fat-free yogurt of course contains both high-quality carbohydrates and protein, which makes it an excellent food for preventing harmful rise in blood sugar levels.
A Non-salted almond provides a healthy, low-carb mix of monounsaturated fats plus magnesium, which helps in carbohydrate metabolism. Beans (including black, white, navy, lima, pinto, garbanzo, soy, and kidney) are a charming combination of high-quality carbohydrates, lean protein, and soluble fiber that helps maintain the body blood-sugar levels and keeps hunger in check. It is proved that eating a diet rich in whole grains and high-fiber foods may reduce the risk of diabetes development by 35 to 45 %. The objects on this web site is provided for educational purpose only, website does not suggesting to any of to be used as medicine or treatment. These agents are not oral forms of insulin and are not to be regarded as insulin substitutes.
These medications are thought to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin, to improve the use of insulin at the cell’s receptor sites, or to increase the effectiveness of endogenous insulin.
There are several categories of oral hypoglycemic agents: sulfonylureas, biguanides (metformin), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose), and thia-zolidinediones. However, when they are combined with drugs that do, dramatic lowering of blood glucose levels can occur.
Success has been limited because of the high rate of transplant rejection, but with new antirejection medications, results are improving. In hypoglycemia, the client experiences symptoms of excess adrenaline, which the body releases in response to a low blood glucose level. Hypoglycemia can develop so rapidly that a client may be having seizures or may become unconscious before anyone knows what is wrong.
If the client is conscious, give sugar in some form (4 oz orange juice, 4 oz regular soft drink, 6 to 8 Lifesavers, honey, or Karo syrup). Glucagon is not glucose; it is a hormone that causes the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream. Adjusting these factors is difficult in the first 24 hours after the reaction; the client requires close observation for symptom recurrence. If a client is unconscious, place the glucose between the lower lip and front teeth to prevent aspiration. By lowering the body’s production of ketones, insulin makes more carbohydrate available to the tissues and builds up the liver’s glycogen supply. Monitor blood levels of potassium, chlorides, and bicarbonates hourly and sodium levels every 8 hours. However, if you give insulin and the blood glucose is already too low, the reaction is faster, more severe, and more long lasting. Managing type 2 diabetes with diet does not mean that you have to provide your preferred foods, though. Although all foods should be healthy diet when eat in moderation, even there are some foods which are especially helpful in treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and preventing later diabetes complications. Normal egg white contains on 16 calories and 4 grams of high-quality, rich protein, making egg whites a perfect food to maintain blood sugar level and control diabetes. Because these low-calories, nutrient-dense veggies could have low influence on blood sugar, they’re an integral part of your food for diabetes. Studies also proved, the diet high in calcium from yogurt is associated with reduced risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. A study of Harvard University found that daily intake of magnesium reduces the risk of developing diabetes by 33%.
A versatile source of both these is heart-healthy oatmeal: is packed with soluble fiber, which slows the absorption of glucose from the food that digested in stomach and keeps blood sugar levels in control. These categories include sulfonylureas, biguanides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones. Because they stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin, they are useful only for people with type 2 diabetes who still produce their own (endogenous) insulin.


The client’s participation through self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) level is important in determining which pills or combinations to use and how effectively the medication regimen controls blood glucose levels. Research has also shown some success in implanting only the beta cells from the islets of Langerhans.
Individually packaged glucose tablets are available in pharmacies; give such glucose to individuals who use Precose. During this time, the body continues to absorb insulin from the injection site, although not sufficient glucose is available for the insulin to act on it. To make up for the loss of sugar as a source of energy, the body uses more fats and proteins, which it breaks down into ketones and sends to the muscles. The client experiences weakness, drowsiness, vomiting, thirst, abdominal pain, and dehydration. While laboratory examination of blood and urine specimens is being completed, apply blankets to the unresponsive client to support warmth and combat shock. Greek nonfat yogurt could be the best choice because it has double protein as of regular nonfat yogurt. Thus, including more magnesium-rich foods like almonds, pumpkin seeds, spinach, and Swiss chard in diet plan makes it healthy.
Another category is the insulin secretagogues or nonsulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents (meglitinides), which help the pancreas to make more insulin. Rationale: The enzymatic action of Precose blocks the absorption of sucrose, which is found in table sugar and fruit juice. If the client shows no response within 5 to 10 minutes after the injection, administer 50 mL of 50% glucose IV.
As a result, the body secretes glucagon, norepinephrine, and corticosteroids to correct the hypoglycemia, but exceeds the necessary amounts.
If too many ketones accumulate (ketosis), body fluids become imbalanced, and a condition called ketoacidosis follows.
All these tests are necessary to evaluate the client’s progress and to assist the physician in determining how much insulin to prescribe and which electrolytes to replace. An injectable medication in a class of drugs known as incretin mimetics called exenatide (Byetta) is available; it is designed to lower blood glucose levels primarily by increasing insulin secretion. The client trembles and perspires and may also experience headache, drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. In ketoacidosis, the body produces a volatile substance called acetone, which has a characteristic sweetish odor (like nail-polish remover) that can be detected on the client’s breath in late stages of ketoacidosis. The breath may have the sweetish odor mentioned earlier; breathing and pulse may become rapid and deep and blood pressure low. When the client’s metabolism is in balance again, the physician prescribes a regimen specifically designed for that client.
Without treatment, other symptoms develop, such as dizziness, confusion, combative behaviors, and speech loss. Sometimes, the unresponsive client who is admitted to the healthcare facility is unaware that he or she has diabetes. Vision is double or blurry; if the condition is still untreated, seizures, loss of consciousness, and permanent brain damage may develop, sometimes causing death. Or, a person may have a diabetic condition that is hard to control, even when he or she follows the regimen faithfully.



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    19.08.2014

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