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What is shoulder dystocia?Shoulder dystocia can happen after your baby's head has been born. During birth your baby moves from your womb (uterus), down through the cradle of bones that make up your pelvis.
Normally when you start pushing, your baby is facing away from your pubic bone towards your sacrum. If this happens, your baby needs to be born fairly quickly to make sure she continues to get enough oxygen (Allen 2014, RCOG 2012), particularly if there have already been signs of problems with her heart-rate (RCOG 2012). While your baby is stuck, the umbilical cord may be squashed, which means less oxygen is reaching her. This may all sound alarming, but be reassured that your doctor and midwife will be on hand to help your baby out in good time, while avoiding injury to you or your baby.What causes shoulder dystocia?Shoulder dystocia is unusual. It isn’t possible to predict shoulder dystocia (RCOG 2012, Revicky et al 2012, Rodis 2015). If you’re obese you’re more likely to develop gestational diabetes (NICE 2015, RCOG 2013b). Interventions in your labour, once it’s underway, can also increase the risk of shoulder dystocia, such as the use of ventouse or forceps (Allen 2014, Revicky et al 2012).
Shoulder dystocia often affects women with no risk factors at all (RCOG 2012, Rodis 2015), so you wouldn’t normally be offered a caesarean section to prevent shoulder dystocia unless you had a combination of strong risk factors, such as diabetes, an anticipated large baby and a history of shoulder dystocia (RCOG 2012, Rodis 2015). If you’re having a big baby, some experts recommend lying on your side or kneeling on all fours to give birth (Simkin and Ancheta 2011).
If you’re planning on giving birth at home or in a birth centre, your midwife will still be able to deal with shoulder dystocia by getting you into a position that helps to free the shoulder (RCOG 2013a, Kallilanidis et al 2016, Simkin and Ancheta 2011).
If you want any reassurance before you give birth at home or in the hospital, talk to your midwife. She will immediately call for more help and the room may quickly fill up with a lot of people. Often, a different birth position can give your baby more room to be freed up (Crofts et al 2016, Draycott et al 2008, Tower 2011). A midwife or midwifery assistant will usually stand on each side of you and help you to pull up your legs (RCOG 2012, 2013a). If your baby is still not born your doctor or midwife may need to ease a hand inside your vagina to help your baby out.
An alternative approach after McRoberts is for you to go on your hands and knees (RCOG 2012, 2013, Simkin and Ancheta 2011). On very rare occasions, the doctor may have to take a further emergency measure to help your baby, which involves breaking your baby's collar bone to free her stuck shoulder (RCOG 2012). These last two procedures really are a last resort and are not followed unless absolutely necessary (RCOG 2012).How will my baby recover after having shoulder dystocia?Most babies born following shoulder dystocia are absolutely fine (RCOG 2012). Shoulder dystocia can cause damage to the bundle of nerves in your baby's shoulder and arm, which is called a brachial plexus injury (BPI). Your baby might have a condition called Erb's palsy, as a result of the injury, which means her arm is numb and paralysed.
If your child has Erb's palsy she may benefit from early physiotherapy and you should be given guidance on how to handle your baby to prevent further harm (Semel-Concepcion 2014). If your baby has a bone fracture or nerve damage, you may need extra advice about breastfeeding positions or pain relief for your baby, so do ask your midwife for help.


Approximately one quarter of emergency caesarean sections performed for failutre to progress are second stage caesarean sections. Study the Effect of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hyperglycemia on the Outcome of Pregnancy in Diabetic and Nondiabetic women.
Prostaglandin E2,intravaginal misoprostol and intracervical balloon catheter for induction of labour at term,a randomised controlled trial. CareLink Personal Software reports make it easier to track blood glucose and sensor glucose levels, and to compare any changes in those levels with your patients’ daily activities, such as meals and exercise routines. The Sensor Daily Overlay Report shows 7 days of glucose sensor readings in a single chart, allowing you to identify recurring patterns from day to day or at specific times of day . The Sensor Daily Overlay by Meal Report shows the effects of food, bolus insulin and pre-meal glucose levels on postmeal control.
The Daily Summary Report shows glucose readings, basal and bolus insulin delivery, and carbohydrate and exercise levels for one day.
If you continue without changing your settings we will assume you are happy to receive all cookies on this site. If one of her shoulders becomes stuck, and you need extra help for her body to be born, it’s called shoulder dystocia (RCOG 2012, 2013a, Simkin and Ancheta 2011). However, if you’re having a big baby, don’t panic as most big babies don’t get stuck at all.
This allows her shoulders and body to pass comfortably through your pelvis on the next contraction. Uncontrolled diabetes slightly increases the chance of your baby getting stuck because your baby is more likely to put weight on across her torso (NICE 2015, Rodis 2015). A very quick or very slow first stage of labour (Allen 2014, Revicky et al 2012), as well as a long second stage of labour (RCOG 2012), have both been associated with shoulder dystocia. Can shoulder dystocia be prevented?There isn’t much that can be done to prevent shoulder dystocia, because it’s so unpredictable. Whilst there’s no firm evidence that certain positions or manoeuvres help to prevent shoulder dystocia from happening (Athukorala et al 2006), there are other advantages to avoiding lying on your back for the pushing stage. She’ll be able to tell you what measures are in place to make sure your baby will be born safely. More midwives, obstetricians, an anaesthetist and a paediatrician to look after your baby once she's born may be called upon (RCOG 2012). You may be asked to lie flat on your back with your knees bent and your legs pulled up as far as they will go. Another midwife or doctor will press on your tummy just above your pubic bone to help release your baby's stuck shoulder (RCOG 2012, 2013a). She may need to perform an episiotomy at this point to help get hold of your baby (Allen 2014, RCOG 2012, 2013). Turning onto all fours may be enough to release your baby’s shoulder, or the doctor or midwife can try to free your baby in this position too (Tower 2011). Although this sounds alarming, your baby's bone should heal well afterwards (Allen 2014, RCOG 2013a). The damage happens when the nerves are stretched too much during birth and can affect about one in 10 babies after shoulder dystocia (RCOG 2012, 2013a). In most cases, the palsy gets better on its own within hours or days (RCOG 2013a, Semel-Concepcion 2014).


If she has lasting nerve damage, physiotherapy and other support will continue to help her, although it won't fix the problem. CareLink Personal Software complies with the strictest privacy regulations including HIPAA guidelines. Charts and graphs allow them to see the changes graphically, while tables provide the actual numeric values.
It is an unusual complication that can happen during the end of the second stage of labour (RCOG 2012, Simkin and Ancheta 2011). With shoulder dystocia, one of her shoulders gets stuck, preventing her body being born (Tower 2011 ). For this reason, shoulder dystocia is an emergency complication that needs resolving calmly but swiftly. However, if you have a risk factor like diabetes, good control of your condition can reduce your risk (Alwan et al 2009). What will happen if my baby has shoulder dystocia?If the midwife or doctor helping you to give birth suspects your baby's shoulder is stuck, she has to act fast. It can be frightening for parents, especially if there is no time for the medical team to explain to you what is happening. Sometimes, if the birth has been very difficult your baby might need to spend some time in the hospital's neonatal unit. As your child grows, she'll have support with learning how to manage everyday activities. Potential maternal complications include extension of the uterine incision , broad ligament hematoma, ureteric and bladder damage and higher risk of pst partum haemorrhage. The system also uses Secure Socket Layer (SSL) technology, a data encryption method which helps ensure that patient information remains unreadable during the transfer.
Together, these charts, graphs and tables help you and your patients discover patterns and problems more easily than with meter software and logbooks alone.
It's all to do with how your baby moves down through your pelvis and out into the world. Changing position may increase how much room your baby has to move through your pelvis (Reitter et al 2014).
It's usually the front (anterior) shoulder that gets stuck behind your pubic bone, although it is also possible for the back (posterior) shoulder to get stuck on the sacrum. Storing data in CareLink Personal software is often safer than storing it on a home computer system that is connected to the Internet. Becoming familiar with CareLink Personal reports allows patients to take steps to better control their glucose levels. We report our institutional experience of both Patwardhan technique and conventional  technique in second stage caesarean sections.



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