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When the rate of synthesis of ketone bodies exceeds the rate of utilization, their concentration in blood increases, this is known as ketonemia.
The most commonly diagnosed form of type 1 diabetes is juvenile diabetes, or, insulin-dependent diabetes.
A person with two fasting plasma glucose levels of 126 mg per dL (7.0 mmol per L) or greater is considered to have diabetes mellitus. Daily concerns of type 1 diabetes include watching for, and dealing with, hypoglycemia (low blood glucose), and hyperglycemia. The picture above shows damage to the nerves in the eye from neuropathy caused by high blood sugars. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, commonly called type 1 diabetes, is a lifelong disease characterised by a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is a metabolic disease where the body still produces insulin but is not able to use it properly.
Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease where, in certain genetically susceptible individuals, the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues, specifically the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.
Looking at family histories demonstrates an important part in determining who is likely to develop type 1 diabetes. For the child of a parent with type 1 diabetes, the risk varies according to whether the mother or the father has diabetes.
Environmental factors, such as foods, viruses, and toxins, may play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes, but the exact nature of their role has not been determined. A virus cannot cause diabetes on its own, but people are sometimes diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during or after a viral infection, suggesting a link between the two.
Some studies have suggested that dietary factors may raise or lower the risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
A global rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents has been reported over the past decades.13, 16, 17, 18 A statistically significant increase of incidence has been identified in 65% of the examined populations. While there is no clear explanation for the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes, certain contributing factors have been proposed and possible mechanisms developed in the hope of better understanding the condition.
Genetic variations likely explain some of the differing incidence and prevalence rates among people worldwide.
While genetic factors are thought to explain some of the geographic variability in type 1 diabetes occurrence, they cannot account for its rapidly increasing frequency. Many of the countries with high incidence are located closer to the polar areas of the globe, both to the north and the south.21 Even within countries, latitude can make a difference.
Another possibility is that persistent organic pollutants play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Dahlquist GG, Blom LG, Persson LA, Sandstrom AI, Wall SG: Dietary factors and the risk of developing insulin dependent diabetes in childhood.
Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Garland FC.The association between ultraviolet B irradiance, vitamin D status and incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in 51 regions worldwide.


Subscribe To Messages From SuperPharmacyEnter your email address, choose your preferred message format and press Subscribe. Both can present dangerous situations immediately, on unchecked, can also present possibility of long-term complications as well.
The exact cause of the immune system malfunction is unknown but certain risk factors for the disorder have been proposed including hereditary predisposition, environmental factors and dietary practices.
Children whose mother has type 1 diabetes have a 2-3% risk of developing the disease, whereas those whose father has the disease have a 5-6% risk. Some theories suggest that environmental factors trigger the autoimmune destruction of beta cells in people with a genetic susceptibility to diabetes. Also, the onset of type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently during the winter when viral infections are more common. One Australian study, for example, found that type 1 diabetes was three times more common (prevalent) in more southerly regions of that country than in northerly regions.22 Like all rules, however, there are exceptions. Persistent organic pollutants evaporate and migrate to the polar regions of the earth; some can even interfere with vitamin D synthesis. In fact, an inverse relationship was found between age at diagnosis and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis and at 12 months after diagnosis, as well as weight at diagnosis and weight change since birth. Enterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational molecular studies. Respiratory Infections in Early Life and the Development of Islet Autoimmunity in Children at Increased Type 1 Diabetes Risk: Evidence From the BABYDIET Study. Effect of cow’s milk exposure and maternal type 1 diabetes on cellular and humoral immunization to dietary insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Worldwide increase in incidence of Type 1 diabetes – the analysis of the data on published incidence trends.
Signs of beta-cell autoimmunity in nondiabetic schoolchildren: a comparison between Russian Karelia with a low incidence of type 1 diabetes and Finland with a high incidence rate.
HLA class II alleles and haplotypes in Lithuanian children with type 1 diabetes and healthy children (HLA and type 1 diabetes). Ecologic analysis of some immune-related disorders, including type 1 diabetes, in Australia: latitude, regional ultraviolet radiation, and disease prevalence. Clustering of cases of type 1 diabetes in high socioeconomic communes in Santiago de Chile: spatio-temporal and geographical analysis. The accelerator hypothesis: weight gain as the missing link between Type I and Type II diabetes. The great weight gain experiment, accelerators, and their implications for autoantibodies in diabetes. Testing the Accelerator Hypothesis (1): the relationship between body mass and age at onset of type 1 diabetes. Changing Prevalence of Overweight Children and Adolescents at Onset of Insulin-Treated Diabetes.


Viruses possibly associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus include enterovirus,6 coxsackievirus B, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, rubella, and mumps. For example, Finns have a six times higher incidence in type 1 diabetes than Russians living across the border. For example, Sardinia, Italy’s high incidence of type 1 diabetes does not fit the rule. Essentially, the age at diagnosis becomes younger as children become heavier; suggesting that being overweight accelerates insulin resistance, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes in genetically-predisposed individuals. Incidence of childhood diabetes in children aged less than 15 years and its clinical and metabolic characteristics at the time of diagnosis: data from the Childhood Diabetes Registry of Saxony, Germany. Spatiotemporal trends and age-period-cohort modeling of the incidence of type 1 diabetes among children aged < 15 years in Norway 1973-1982 and 1989-2003.
The ‘accelerator hypothesis’: relationship between weight, height, body mass index and age at diagnosis in a large cohort of 9,248 German and Austrian children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Testing the accelerator hypothesis: body size, beta-cell function, and age at onset of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes. Although the immune system normally only attacks disease-causing organisms like bacteria or viruses, in the case of type 1 diabetes, it malfunctions and attacks its own pancreatic beta cells. Unlike the lifelong nature and constant insulin delivery required by type 1 diabetes, type 2 can often be managed with diet and lifestyle changes. The genes that confer a high risk of type 1 diabetes, however, are the same in these populations, implying that environmental factors contribute to the differing incidence rates.19 As another example, type 1 diabetes incidence is much higher in Sweden and other Nordic countries than in Lithuania and other Baltic states. Variations within countries also do not always correspond to latitude.21 Vitamin D, which is produced by the skin when exposed to sunlight, is a possible explanation for this pattern.
Levels of most persistent organic pollutants have declined recently in developed countries. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. If not managed with diet and exercise successfully, treatment may require oral medications, and when all else fails insulin injections are sometimes required. In a study of 51 regions around the world,23 areas with lower levels of ultraviolet B radiation (the main source of vitamin D in humans) had a higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. In developing and some former Soviet countries, however, some persistent organic pollutants (like DDT) are still in use, and contamination due to open dumping is also a concern. Other names formerly used for type 1 diabetes include juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).



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