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Our body is a factory that works non-stop, without a break and glucose is the main source of fuel to our body. When food is consumed it gets broken up into fats, proteins and carbohydrates. But for the cells to convert the glucose in the blood to energy it needs the hormone – Insulin. Diabetic Neuropathy – Diabetic neuropathy occurs when there is damage to the nerves due to high blood sugar levels. Peripheral Vascular Disease – Peripheral vascular disease is a condition when blood vessels narrow down and restrict the flow of blood. Athlete’s foot is a type of Tinea Fungal infection, the fungus start thriving on the skin of your feet. Fungal nail infection occurs when fungus attacks a toe nail, fingernail or the skin under the nail. Calluses occur due to the accumulation of dead skin cells that hardens and thickens in a particular area. When a toe gets bent because of weakened muscles, the weakened muscles tend to make the tendons shorter.
Diabetes results in insufficient supply of blood to the feet, when the supply is minimal wounds or cuts require more time to heal.
Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent such foot diseases that are difficult to treat and may require amputation. In addition the following foot care tips will help you prevent most of the diseases.
Inspect Your Feed Frequently: Inspect your feet for blisters, cuts, sores, cracks, colour change in toe nails. Wash Your Feet Regularly: Washing your foot once a day in warm water helps you keep your foot clean.
Remember you are not a Doctor: In order to prevent injury to your feet do not try to remove calluses, warts or corns, you would be doing more bad than good. Quit Smoking: Smoking reduces blood circulation, which in turn will lead to more complications. Diabetes is certainly a disease not to be ignored and the Foot not be forgotten as it takes the most in daily physical stress. The symptoms of diabetes, on skin are mostly curable, especially, if they are detected early. Due to diabetes, the smaller blood vessels supplying blood and oxygen to the skin get damaged. The diabetes leads to damaging of the blood vessels and this damage is visible in the form of different skin conditions.
Other than diabetic dermopathy, damage in blood vessels can also cause Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum or NLD, where large and shiny scaly patches develop over the skin.
The diabetics have high sugar level in their blood, providing a perfect medium for the growth of fungus and other pathogens.
This fungus mostly develops in moist and warm areas regions of the skin, like, around the fingernails, between toes, in armpits, in groin area, under foreskin of male genitalia, and also in corners of the mouth. Other fungal infections that may be found in the skin of diabetic patients, include, athlete’s foot, jock itch and ring worm. Bacterial infections are also very prominent, on the skin of diabetic patients, due to high blood sugar levels.
The most common bacterial infections found in the skin of diabetic patients, include, boils, infection of glands present in the eyelids, inflammation of a certain region of skin and tissues below it also called as carbuncles, folliculitis (infection in the hair follicles) and inflammation around the nails. Blisters are not a regular sight in the diabetic patients, but, some patients may develop blisters in their forearms, feet, toes, hands and fingers. This condition is mainly found in the patients suffering from type 1 diabetes and can be controlled by normalizing blood sugar levels. This condition of the skin is mainly found, in the males of younger age group, suffering from type 1 diabetes. Due to high glucose levels, the fluid from the skin cells evaporates, leaving the skin dry. Diabetic patients need to take special care of their skin, and keep on sanitizing and moisturizing it, to prevent it from drying. Atherosclerosis is the thickening of arteries, and a common occurrence in diabetic patients.
This is a medical term, not a medical condition that is used to describe a type of skin disorder that is very common. Because there are many different kinds of capillaritis there can be a variance of symptoms but in all types there is one common symptom and that is the color of the lesion. In people with dark skin the lesion can be deeply pigmented with pepper-like petechiae, or a red-brown color.
The cause of capillaritis could be because of a leakage of the small blood vessels which are called capillaries but in many cases there is no exact cause known. Using certain medication such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications like aspirin, Tylenol, or ibuprofen. Excessive exercise which can cause capillaritis mainly in your lower legs or ankles and during warm weather may increase in frequency.
Treating capillaritis is often not necessary because it will eventually go away on its own.
If is a prescription medication is the cause your physician may suggest stopping the medication temporarily to see if the outbreak will disappear. Boils also known as skin abscesses are local skin infections that are tender, red and often filled with blood or pus.
Diabetic boils are infections which are caused by the weakening of the immune system due to diabetes. Check the blood sugar levels regularly if you have diabetes and make sure that you keep it in check. The skin safeguards our body against microbes and other foreign materials that can harm the body. Despite these efforts if you have persistent boils then use hot packs and hot soaks to treat the boils. The diagnosis is based on history of the disease (white finger during cold exposure), younger age, sex (female), the absence of lesions during the clinical examination and additional tests and the absence of other causes (drugs, professional context).
The less severe forms of the disease can be treated by a protection against the cold, whereas when the disease is more severe, some treatments can be prescribed by doctors (vasodilators, calcium channel blockers).
Treatment involves either treatment of the disease in question is by stopping the offending drug.
In healthy volunteers, exposure to vibration, even if it does not touch a hand, can occur a phenomenon of vasospasm at the four corners. The peripheral nervous system informs the central nervous system of the presence of vibration and it responds by releasing a potent vasoconstrictor molecule, the endothelin 1. Copyright © 2012 Rayur, All trademarks are the property of the respective trademark owners. Lyme Disease – is the transfer of bacteria to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes ticks. In the early stages of the disease, can be observed weakness, fatigue, fever, headaches, migrating muscle pain, characteristic rash, fatigue and dizziness. Lyme Disease is diagnosed based on epidemiological history (visiting the woods, tick bites) taking into account the time of year (summer, early fall), as well as the clinical picture: the emergence of migratory annular erythema. On our website describes the most common disease of adults and children, causes and symptoms of these diseases, as well as the most effective treatments for these diseases. The information on this health site are for informational purposes only, professional diagnosis and treatment of the disease should be done by the doctor in the clinic.
Please note that we are unable to respond back directly to your questions or provide medical advice. As the fastest growing consumer health information site a€” with 65 million monthly visitors a€” Healthlinea€™s mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being.
Non-infectious causes include diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, crystalline deposition disease, ochronosis, amyloidosis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, Reiter’s syndrome or reactive arthritis, gonorrhea and overuse. Certain tendons especially those in the hands, feet, and wrists are more susceptible to this condition.


Kanavel signs may be absent in patients who have received antibiotics recently, early stage of disease, immunocompromised state and chronic infections.
Erythema [redness], tenderness, and painful range of motion of the involved tendon are present. Herpetic whitlow, pyarthrosis, gout, pseudogout, dactylitis, injury, arthritis, rheumatic fever and subcutaneous abscess should be ruled out in flexor tenosynvitis of hand.
De Quervain tenosynovitis occurs because of inflammation of abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist at the lateral border of the anatomic snuffbox. Finkelstein test is performed by having the patient make a fist with the thumb inside the fingers.
Volar flexor tenosynovitis or trigger finger mostly affects the thumb or ring finger in and is most common in middle-aged women. The white blood cell count may be elevated in the presence of proximal infection or systemic involvement but may be normal in inflammatory conditions and in immunocompromised patients. The ESR typically is elevated in acute or chronic infections and may be elevated in cases of inflammatory flexor tenosynovitis (FT) as well. In non infectious conditions, synovial fluid may show nonbirefringent crystals (gout) or birefringent crystals (calcium pyrophosphate disease [CPPD], or pseudogout). In case of suspected infection, culture of the synovial fluid [aerobic, anaerobic, fungal, mycobacteriae] is done befoe patient is put on antibiotics. Non infectious flexor tenosynovitis frequently is treated nonoperatively, but in chronic conditions, surgical intervention may be necessary. For Gonococcal tenosynovitis, parenetaral [injectible] antibiotics like ceftriaxone are given. For nongonococcal infections urgent surgical incision and drainage is considered though prompt medical management [IV antibiotics,elevation , splinting] may preclude the need for surgical intervention.
For patients who are immunocompromised or have diabetes, early surgical intervention is warranted.
For De Quervain tenosynovitis rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and a thumb spica wrist splint is given.
In tenosynovitis of Rheumatoid arthritis ice, NSAIDs, rest, splinting, DMARDs, oral steroid treatment may be considered. Incoming search terms:causes of flexor tenosynovitis (3)flexor tenosynovitis (3)Tenosynovitis Causes (3)volar flexor tenosynovitis (3)infectious flexor tenosynovitis symptoms (2)synovial fluid in wrist symptoms (2)xray of lower ulna frature (2)what is serous exudate in a hip replacement that has failed (2)cat bite possible tenosynovitis? Subscribe to our Newsletter and get latest publications on Musculoskeletal Health your email inbox. About Dr Arun Pal SinghArun Pal Singh is an orthopedic and trauma surgeon, founder and chief editor of this website.
This website is an effort to educate and support people and medical personnel on orthopedic issues and musculoskeletal health.
Surgical Incision PhotographsSurgical incision, as the name suggests is the cut given for performing the surgery. Quantitative Ultrasound or QUSQuantitative ultrasound is an ultrasound based modality to measure bone mineral density in osteoporosis. Diabetes occurs when the hormone – Insulin is not produced in sufficient quantities or is defective. When people with Diabetes have excess of glucose in their blood for a long duration of time it tends to make them prone to serious complications, including foot problems. Our body hosts a number of bacteria’s and fungi, some of these are good while the the others at times multiply in numbers and start infecting our hair, skin and nail.
When you are healthy fungal nail infection won’t affect your nail and when it does attack it is easily visible and painful.
When a toe finger is bent for a long duration of time the muscles shorten and inturn makes the toe finger bend forward.
This increase in blood glucose can be either because of inefficiency of the body to produce insulin, or due to inefficiency of the body cells to respond to insulin.
In fact, it has been observed in studies that as much as 33% of the total population, in the world, suffering from diabetes, has to suffer from different types of skin disorders. So, anyone having a diabetic condition should take these symptoms seriously and get them cured, as early as possible. This is caused due to hyper pigmentation and occurs mainly in the places, where the skins meet, like, neck, armpits, groin, and under the breasts. This results into the formation of small scaly patches of reddish to brown or light brown color, over the skin.
Poor circulation of blood due to damage of blood vessels also leads to itchiness and numbness of skin. These fungal infections are characterized by the present of sore spots and rashes, which are surrounded by small blisters on all sides. Patients having any of these symptoms of fungal infection, need to immediately rush to the doctor and get proper medications. These infections are mostly characterized by inflammation of the affected tissue, which is red in color and very painful. These blister resemble those blisters that are developed due to burns and can be of any size, from small to large.
This condition is known as digital sclerosis, and it makes the joints of affected body parts (mostly fingers) stiff and incapable of normal movement. This dryness is also caused due to infection of pathogens, like, fungus, bacteria and virus. These factors include different types of infections, dryness of the skin, and also allergies.
This condition affects the legs of the patients and results into hairless, shiny, thin and cold skin. But, thankfully, you can control these skin conditions, by using proper medication and remedies.
There can be color variations in the lesion because of the different stages of hemosiderin, which is the re-absorption of the blood breakdown product.
When there is a leakage of blood the capillaries become inflamed when the blood passes through the little gaps that occur between the cells that are making up the capillary wall. The rash usually occurs after walking with my local rambling club and I used to think it was caused through wearing gaiters but this is not the case.
They are caused by the staphylococcus aureus bacteria which often enter the skin through wounds and cuts. Unfortunately diabetes can wreck havoc on the immune system and lead to a number of health problems including certain skin complications as well.
With high sugar levels the efficiency of the immune system is greatly affected and it can lead to slower healing of wounds and cuts. When there is any break in the skin like cuts or open wounds then it can become infected with bacteria. For larger and painful boils filled with pus you will need to drain the pus and take antibiotics to prevent any bacterial infection.
Remember that for taking any medicine for boils it is best to consult a healthcare provider first. This can be caused by taking steroid medication long-term (the common cause) or by the body making too much cortisol (the main glucocorticoid made by the body). The greatest number of people suffering from Borreliosis is celebrated in summer in the hot season, which usually contributes the greatest activity pest mites.
More severe manifestations of Lyme disease are damage to the nervous system, the musculoskeletal system and even your heart! On the background of antibiotic therapy may develop fever and intoxication due to the mass destruction of Borrelia. If there are changes in the cerebrospinal fluid administered Ceftriaxone 2 g 1 per day, Cefotaxime 2 g every 8 hours or benzylpenicillin (sodium salt) to 24 million IU per day. If no effect is prescribed Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime or benzopinacolone in the same dosages as when the 2nd stage of the disease. Both of which will support, guide, and inspire you toward the best possible health outcomes for you and your family.


The primary inciting event of infectious flexor tenosynovitis usually is penetrating trauma, such as a bite wound. Patients usually have a history of repetitive pinching motion of the thumb and fingers as in screwing or weeding. Gonococcal cultures of the urethra or cervix, rectum, and pharynx are appropriate if gonococcal tenosynovitis is suspected. The skin related symptoms of diabetes may also act as warning signals, to help patients become aware of their fluctuating blood sugar levels.
These blisters are mostly painless and develop, when major fluctuations occur in the blood sugar levels of the patient. Allergies surface in the form of itching, in diabetic patients, and other skin conditions also normally lead to itching. Also, as you may have noticed, many skin conditions are result of temporary sugar imbalance, so, if you are diabetic and want to avoid such uncomfortable conditions, try to keep your sugar in control.
It is not a harmful condition but it can cause a person who has this skin disorder to feel insecure and embarrassed because of the way it makes you look. If you have existing boils with pus then drain out the pus by covering the boils with warm cloth, apply antiseptic and cover the boils with bandage.
If you have boils and there are clothes that rub against them then make sure that you wear loose fitting clothes that do not rub against wound. This is because certain immune suppressing medicines used for boils treatment can complicate the problem further. Symptoms usually develop gradually, and so the diagnosis (other than that caused by steroid medication) may not be clear for some time. Be aware that some patients do not notice or forget that you removed the tick from the skin. In such cases, antibiotics are a temporary repeal, then resume taking them at a lower dose. In nongonococcal infectious tenosynovitis, there may be history of puncture wound, laceration, bite or injection injury. There is a gradual onset of pain in the radial aspect of the wrist which worsens with activity and becomes better with rest. They neither itch, not cause irritation, and therefore, they do not demand medical treatment also. These bumps cause itching, and mostly appear on skin of the feet, back of the hand, arms, buttocks and legs. Capillaritis normally appears in the leg but it can sometimes appear on your upper extremities and trunk but is never present on your face. Sometime there are no symptoms at all other than the lesions and usually the lesions are non-blanching.
There are various reasons why the body may produce too much cortisol, and complex tests may be needed to find the root cause of the excess cortisol. In these cases, the diagnostic value is the presence of clinical disease and laboratory data.
Tenderness is present at the proximal end of the tendon sheath just proximal to the metacarpal head. There are some symptoms that are associated with capillaritis that may be managed by using prescription or over-the-counter medications. People suffering from boils should try to avoid sharing clothes and towels among family members.
The most common cause of excess cortisol is a small, non-cancerous tumour in the pituitary which makes too much of a hormone called ACTH which stimulates the adrenal glands to make too much cortisol. This skin disorder is normally found in people who work in occupations that require them to stand for long extended periods of time. If capillaritis is causing itchiness you could apply steroid ointments to help control this problem but it will not shorten the course of the capillaritis outbreak. Since capillaritis normally affects your legs, especially the lower portion, wearing compression stocking may help with some the symptoms you are experiencing. If the outbreak is caused by food sensitivities or allergies you may need to start an elimination diet to find the food(s) that is causing the breakouts. The most common type of capillaritis is called Schamberg’s disease, which is referred to as progressive pigmented purpura. Cushing's syndrome develops when the level of a glucocorticoid in your body is too high over a long period of time. Too much glucocorticoid can occur from an exogenous or endogenous source: Exogenous glucocorticoids This means you take a glucocorticoid medicine regularly. Steroid medicines are sometimes used to treat various conditions such as some types of arthritis, and for some cancers.
The amount of cortisol which is made in the adrenal glands is controlled by another hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - and sometimes just called corticotropin. The amount of ACTH made by the pituitary gland is largely controlled by another hormone called corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
CRH is made in a small part of the brain called the hypothalamus, which is just above the pituitary gland.
ACTH passes into the bloodstream, is carried to the adrenal glands, and stimulates the adrenal gland to make cortisol. That is, as the level of cortisol in the bloodstream rises above a certain level, it turns down the amount of ACTH made by the pituitary. This means that the adrenal gland is then stimulated less, and therefore less cortisol is made. So, the level of cortisol is kept within a certain range - just enough as is needed by the body. These include the following: Pituitary adenoma - Cushing's disease A pituitary adenoma is a small, benign (non-cancerous) tumour in the pituitary. It is usually less than 1 cm in size, and is made of abnormal cells which make lots of ACTH.
The abnormal cells in the adenoma are not 'turned down' by feedback from the high levels of cortisol. If you exclude cases caused by medication (as mentioned earlier), about 4 in 5 cases of Cushing's syndrome are caused by a pituitary adenoma. The ectopic ACTH (that is, ACTH not made in the pituitary) then stimulates the adrenal glands to make too much cortisol.
Some benign tumours are so small that it is very difficult to find where in the body the excess ACTH is being made. So, the muscles around the thigh, pelvis, shoulders and upper arms are the proximal muscles.
A blood cortisol level which is high after taking this medicine helps to confirm Cushing's syndrome. For example, is it due to a pituitary adenoma, an ectopic cause of ACTH, or to an adrenal cause? If this occurs, and the ACTH remains high following surgery, options include a second operation or other treatments listed below. Also, the radiotherapy may damage the normal pituitary cells, and may cause low levels of other hormones made by the pituitary gland. For example: If a tumour in an adrenal gland is the cause, an operation to remove it will cure the condition.



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