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Understanding the links between mind and body is the first step in developing strategies to reduce the incidence of co-existing conditions and support those already living with mental illnesses and chronic physical conditions. Both mind and body are affected by changes to physiological and emotional processes, as well as by social factors such as income and housing. People living with mental illnesses experience a range of physical symptoms that result both from the illness itself and as a consequence of treatment.
Furthermore, the way that people experience their mental illnesses can increase their susceptibility of developing poor physical health.
Canadians who report symptoms of depression also report experiencing three times as many chronic physical conditions as the general population. Canadians with chronic physical conditions have twice the likelihood of also experiencing a mood or anxiety disorder when compared to those without a chronic physical condition. One out of every two Canadians with major depression and a co-existing chronic physical condition report limitations in their day-to-day activities.
People living with mental illnesses often face higher rates of poverty, unemployment, lack of stable housing, and social isolation.
Some chronic physical conditions can cause high blood sugar levels and disrupt the circulation of blood, which can impact brain function.4 People living with chronic physical conditions often experience emotional stress and chronic pain, which are both associated with the development of depression and anxiety.
Mental and physical illnesses also share many symptoms, such as food cravings and decreased energy levels, which can increase food consumption, decrease physical activity and contribute to weight gain.
People living with the most common chronic physical conditions in Ontario also face worse mental health than the general population.
People with serious mental illnesses face a greater risk of developing a range of chronic physical conditions compared to the general population, impacting almost every biological system in the body.7 Table 1 summarizes the risk of people with a mental illness developing various chronic physical conditions. Conversely, people with diabetes have nearly twice the rate of diagnosed mental illnesses as those without diabetes. People with serious mental illnesses often experience high blood pressure and elevated levels of stress hormones and adrenaline which increase the heart rate. Conversely, there are significantly elevated rates of depression among people with heart disease.
People with serious mental illnesses have a significantly increased likelihood of developing a range of chronic respiratory conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis and asthma.21,22 Smoking is commonly identified as a risk factor for respiratory illnesses. People living with chronic respiratory diseases experience significantly elevated rates of anxiety and depression. People living with cancers face a higher risk of developing depression, due in part to high levels of stress, emotional upset, and changes in body image.30 A co-existing mental health problem can interfere with cancer treatment and remission. Research has consistently found a lower rate of arthritis in people with serious mental illnesses than the general population. By comparison, people with arthritis are at significantly elevated risk of developing mood and anxiety disorders.34 These rates are strongest among younger age groups and are also linked to experiences with frequent or chronic pain. The stigma associated with mental illness also continues to be a barrier to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic physical conditions in people with mental illnesses.
People with serious mental illnesses who have access to primary health care are less likely to receive preventive health checks. The mental health of people with chronic physical conditions is also frequently overlooked. Some community mental health agencies have established primary health care programs to ensure their clients with serious mental illnesses are receiving preventive health care and assistance in managing co-existing chronic physical conditions. However, these initiatives currently lack sufficient infrastructure, incentives and momentum.
We have also launched the Minding Our Bodies initiative in partnership with YMCA Ontario and York University’s Faculty of Health, with support from the Ontario Ministry of Health Promotion through the Communities in Action Fund, designed to increase capacity within the community mental health system in Ontario to promote active living and to create new opportunities for physical activity for people with serious mental illness.
Government of Canada, The Human Face of Mental Health and Mental Illness in Canada, Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada (Catalogue No. Use these free images for your websites, art projects, reports, and Powerpoint presentations! Initially body piercing was only done in nose and earlobes by women who wanted to adorn jewellery. Many youngsters opt for body piercing without taking into consideration their skin type, the sterilization of the equipment and information on post piercing.
According to health experts, one of the main reasons for infection in the pierced area is the lack of proper sterilization of the gun and lack of hygiene. Even though piercing eyebrows and earlobes does not result in serious complication, infection in the naval or nose can result in serious infection.
So, it is advisable that one should go to experts and in case it doesn’t fit into your budget, just make sure the gun or the hands used for piercing are clean, as simple hygiene steps can keep an infection at bay.


To avoid infection in the pierced area, it is important that you put an antibiotic ointment on the pierced area for at least 2 weeks. We urge you to always seek the advice of your physician or medical professional with respect to your medical condition or questions. April 7th, 2015 – Medical cannabis patient Nakki was born with a very rare disorder called Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Nakki along with others who live with chronic pain will have frequent visits to the hospital and every day tasks become increasingly more difficult. The endocannabinoid system has a known connection to the body’s pain centers, so the ingestion of cannabinoid products have been found to reduce the pain longer and in a more gentle manner.
Many of the patients with wide-ranging ailments are usually are on a pharmaceutical program that requires them to ingest daily amounts of drugs such as acetaminophen with codeine or oxycodone, which can be hard on the system and often while reducing pain, introduce new discomforts. Medical cannabis, whether in the form of edibles or vapor, works as a way to reduce the pharmaceutical drug intake and greatly reduces the pain and suffering of some of these patients. Though this is greatly helping those who have access to the cannabis dispensaries, there is a necessity for the personalization of medical marijuana programs. Many people like Nakki, who live with chronic pain, must often do without their most helpful medicine until the costs are lowered to a more affordable level. In-depth news, insights and analysis of the rapidly emerging Industrial Hemp and Medical Cannabis Industries. I had an ulcer on my foot which was complicated due to my diabetes, this gel worked fantastic.
It has that smooth, Vanilla and Chocolate flavors that can be taken regularly as a drink to supplement your diet or as snack, or even as meal replacement. People living with a serious mental illness are at higher risk of experiencing a wide range of chronic physical conditions. These three pathways of biology, illness experience, and the social determinants of health can increase the likelihood of someone living with a mental illness or chronic physical condition developing a co-existing condition. Mental illnesses can alter hormonal balances and sleep cycles, while many psychiatric medications have side-effects ranging from weight gain to irregular heart rhythms.2,3 These symptoms create an increased vulnerability to a range of physical conditions. Mental illness can impact social and cognitive function and decrease energy levels, which can negatively impact the adoption of healthy behaviours.
Experiences with disability can also cause distress and isolate people from social supports. These factors increase the risk of developing chronic physical conditions and can also have a detrimental impact upon an individual’s mental well-being.
People living in poverty with chronic physical conditions are at risk of developing mental health problems and may face barriers to accessing mental health care, contributing to worsening mental health problems.
Figure 1 illustrates the elevated rates of mood disorders in Ontarians with diabetes, heart disease, cancer, arthritis and asthma. Higher rates of diabetes, heart disease and respiratory conditions in people with serious mental illnesses have been well-established by the research; the links to cancer are still emerging and preliminary findings vary depending on type of cancer. Antipsychotic medication has also been linked with the development of an abnormal heart rhythm. People with mental illnesses have high smoking rates, due in part to historical acceptability of smoking in psychiatric institutions, the impact of nicotine on symptom control, and the positive social aspects of smoking.
It has been previously suggested that schizophrenia may reduce the risk of developing arthritis due to genetics, the anti-inflammatory side effects of antipsychotic medications, and more sedentary lifestyles linked to institutionalization and illness. These barriers are complex and range from the impact of poverty on the ability to afford transportation for medical appointments to systemic barriers related to the way that primary health care is currently provided in Ontario. Diagnostic overshadowing can mask psychiatric complaints, particularly for the development of mild to moderate mental illnesses. The Chronic Disease Prevention and Management Framework being implemented in Ontario has the potential to address the importance of emotional and mental health care for people living with a chronic physical condition.
We do this by advocating for increased access to primary health care, as well as for more affordable housing, income and employment supports, and for healthy public policies that address the broad determinants of health. The recommendations address the prevention and management of mental health problems in people with chronic physical conditions, and the prevention and management of chronic physical conditions in people with serious mental illnesses.
May et al., “Does Psychological Distress Predict the Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack? However, things have changed today as body piercing is done on lips, belly button, tongue and eyebrows. At times, people who have sensitive skin can get irritant eczema when they apply antiseptic on the pierce area. Infection in the nose can cause severe swelling and people can feel pain on the pierced area for several days. The information is not intended nor suited to be a replacement or substitute for professional medical treatment or for professional medical advice relative to a specific medical question or condition. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a condition that affects the connective tissues in the body, causing symptoms such as dislocated limps, stomach sensitivity, and easily broken bones.


Most people with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, like Nakki, live with constant pain and discomfort with a daily regimen of traditional pharmaceutical drugs that often do not reduce the pain effectively. Ones quality of life is lowered due to the lethargic after-effects of a traditional drug regimen.
Some may prefer smoking; others vaporizing and there are those that would rather ingest edibles, which seems to be the most sustainable option.
Specific strains with medicinal properties need to be matched appropriately and applied consistently to each individual patient’s needs.
It is time to explore this safe, effective and more cost efficient alternative for pain relief to bring increased quality of life and overall well being to those suffering chronic pain.
Conversely, people living with chronic physical health conditions experience depression and anxiety at twice the rate of the general population.
For example, people who are unable to afford healthier food options often experience nutritional deficiencies. Housing insecurity can be particularly stressful and lead to poorer mental and physical health.
The biological impact of high blood sugar levels is also associated with the development of depression in people with diabetes.
These physical changes interfere with cardiovascular function and significantly elevate the risk of developing heart disease among people with mental illnesses.14 Similarly, people with serious mental illnesses also experience higher rates of many other risk factors for heart disease, such as poor nutrition, lack of access to preventive health screenings, and obesity. Social factors such as poverty, unstable housing, unemployment and social exclusion may also impact upon both smoking rates and the development of respiratory conditions, but there has been little research on this topic among people with serious mental illnesses. People who experience asthma attacks similarly have a greater likelihood of experiencing anxiety and panic disorders.24 This is thought to be related to the life-threatening possibility of a severe asthma attack. For example, people with mental illnesses who live in precarious housing may not have an OHIP card due to the lack of a permanent address or a safe place to store identification. It can directly prevent people from accessing health care services, and negative past experiences can prevent people from seeking health care out of fear of discrimination. Short appointment times are often not sufficient to discuss mental or emotional health for people with complex chronic health needs.40 Finally, mental illnesses and chronic physical conditions share many symptoms, such as fatigue, which can prevent recognition of co-existing conditions. Collaborative mental health care initiatives such as shared care approaches are linking family physicians with mental health specialists and psychiatrists to provide support to primary health care providers serving people with mental illnesses and poor mental health. There is no replacement for personal medical treatment and advice from your personal physician. Nakki however had an aversion to ingesting edibles due to the specifics of her ailment and thus preferred to vaporize or smoke a Sativa strain. The most cost-effective way for people to acquire this medicinal alternative is to either have a third party grow it for them or turn to the black market.
Co-existing mental and physical conditions can diminish quality of life and lead to longer illness duration and worse health outcomes.1 This situation also generates economic costs to society due to lost work productivity and increased health service use. Or, they may adopt unhealthy eating and sleeping habits, smoke or abuse substances, as a consequence or response to their symptoms, contributing to worse health outcomes. Poor nutrition is a significant risk factor for the development of heart disease and diabetes.
Left untreated, co-existing diabetes, poor mental health and mental illnesses can hinder self-care practices and increase blood sugar levels, contributing to worsening mental and physical health. In Canada, women with depression are 80 percent more likely to experience heart disease than women without depression.15 This is attributed to both biological and social factors.
Furthermore, stigma can lead to a misdiagnosis of physical ailments as psychologically based.
People who do body piercing should take care in the initial days to reduce the risk of risk infection. Even though piercing at a well-known shop or at a medical center is a bit expensive but these people take all precautions.
The downside of the black market though is that organic options or specific medicinal strains may not be readily available. Similarly, it is more difficult to be physically active when living in an unsafe or unhealthy neighbourhood. Even if there is any complication, they care capable of handling the situation before it goes out of hand.
In addition, the preferred method of ingestion of the medicine may differ with each individual based on their specific condition and needs, which also has cost implications.



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