Developing type 2 diabetes during pregnancy ppt,nice guidelines diabetes type 2 diet youtube,is there any new treatment for diabetes mellitus - How to DIY


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Taking a long nap during the day or being exceptionally tired raises the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, research has found. Scientists from the University of Tokyo found that “excessive daytime sleepiness” was linked to a 56 per cent increased risk of getting diabetes. Examining data from 261,000 participants in more than 200 studies also found that taking a regular daytime nap for upwards of one hour was found to raise the risk of developing the condition by 46 per cent. But researchers are unclear as to whether taking a nap or an underlying condition that causes sleepiness is the accelerant.
Dr Tomohide Yamada, author of the study, said: “Excessive daytime sleepiness and taking longer naps were associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, with a short nap not increasing this risk. On Adblock Plus click "Enabled on this site" to disable ad blocking for the current website you are on.
If you are Private Browsing in Firefox, "Tracking Protection" may cause the adblock notice to show. Then click the big power button to whitelist the current web site, and its state will be remembered next time you visit the web site. What Can Happen To You And Your Baby If You Have Type 1 Or Type 2 Diabetes During Pregnancy?
Pregnancy is the period during which your body undergoes various changes, because it is the time for your baby nourishment. If you cannot control your blood sugar levels, then you will get some of the most common issues of diabetes or those issues become worse if you already have. High blood pressure during pregnancy can cause your baby to born sooner or causes strokes or seizures at the time of labor and delivery. Uncontrollable blood sugar leads to deposit large amounts of amniotic fluid around the baby, thus leading to preterm labor. The other problem common to women with uncontrollable diabetes lead to too much growth of their baby.
Babies born to diabetic women are more likely to become obese or a chance to develop Type 2 diabetes soon after in life. Diabetes lead to premature birth, which again cause heart problems, breathing problems, intestinal problems, vision problems and bleeding in the brain. Low birth weight babies born to diabetic women have various problems in gaining weight, staying warm, fighting against diseases and eating problems.
According to the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Sports Medicine, 58% of American adults are physically active, whereas only 39% of adults with type 2 diabetes are physically active.[1] However, there is no shortage of evidence indicating that diet and exercise are crucial for the management of type 2 diabetes. In addition to weight loss,[1][22][49] improved insulin sensitivity,[1][18][19][20][59] disease management,[19] and overall improved health, there are many reasons from a cellular biology perspective for individuals with type 2 diabetes to incorporate exercise into their daily routine. Multiple reports have clearly demonstrated the importance of exercise in the prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes.
A systematic review of prospective cohort studies by Jeon et al[10] reports that individuals who regularly participated in moderate intensity physical activity reduced risk of type 2 diabetes by 30% in comparison to sedentary individuals.
Research has found that a temporary physiological increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be essential for a training-induced increase in insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.[17] ROS are beneficial when the increase in ROS is temporary.
13 obese type 2 diabetic subjects and 14 obese control subjects participated in 10 weeks of aerobic training, which consisted of cycling on a stationary bicycle 4-5 times per week, for 20-35 minutes per session, at an average exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 peak).[18] Subjects were instructed not to make any dietary changes throughout the 10 weeks of training. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely considered one of the best biological markers for glucose control.[76],[77] Due to this, many studies reporting the effects of exercise interventions on type 2 diabetes often use HbA1c as either a primary or secondary outcome measure. Multiple animal studies have also supported the notion that exercise can reduce HbA1c levels. These studies coincide insofar as exercise in acute and chronic exposures promotes increased Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle in diabetic patients.
Research shows increased AMPK muscle activity, caused by exercise, leads to increased PGC-1? activity in healthy subjects. Research has demonstrated that AMPK activation is decreased in healthy female subjects compared to healthy males.
A study was done to examine the LKB1-AMPK signaling in muscle from obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats and the effects of exercise on signaling. The obese Zucker rats lost 7% of their body weight during the training program and there was a 120% increase in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the obese insulin-resistant rats. PGC-1? is a transcription co-activator involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative phosphoralation, increasing Glut4, increasing angiogenesis and muscular fiber type transformation.


A study comparing the expression of PGC-1? in 6 males who randomly performed on control resting session and a cycle ergometer exercise session at 80% lactate threshold (LT) and 120% LT. A study investigating the effects of high intensity low volume interval training found that two weeks of interval training of 60 seconds of cycle ergometry at their peak power with rest periods of 75 seconds at 30 watts. In a study investigating the effect of acute exercise on AMPK signaling in subjects with type 2 diabetes also examined the change in PGC-1? with low (50% VO2max) and moderated (70% VO2 max) single exercise bouts lasting 40 minutes. In a study investigating the effects of exercise on young type 2 diabetic average age 23 subjects compared to control subjects without type 2 diabetes with similar age, weight, and gender ratio. A recently conducted study has indicated that maternal diabetes could be a culprit that is associated with increased risk of developing birth defects. However, the study found that there was no significant link between a mother’s obesity and the incidence of birth defects. So it would actually seem that this study has made a distinction that is purely academic and in terms of what it means to women and what they need to do, this distinction is perhaps immaterial. Women need to keep weight in check and prevent obesity for a number of reasons, not least because it can lead to type 2 diabetes which can in turn lead to birth defects. WHAT YOU CAN DO TO PREVENT TYPE 2 DIABETES Type 2 Diabetes is a Growing Problem In Ontario, 1,169,000 people have been diagnosed with type 1 or type. Pre-diabetes Higher than normal blood sugar but below levels that would diagnose diabetes People with pre-diabetes have increase risk for developing diabetes. Make a Plan Choose an activity you enjoy Start slowly—5 to 10 minutes a day Increase to 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for a total of 150 minutes per week – Walk, skate, climb stairs, dance. Healthy Eating – Make a Plan Choose more: – high fibre foods like whole grain rotis, breads, cereals, brown rice, beans and lentils, dahl, fresh, colourful fruit and vegetables (fresh or frozen) such as broccoli, spinach, sweet potato, mango and carrots.
Healthy Eating – Make a Plan Eat less: – sweet food like sugar, honey, jam, regular pop, juice, candy, chocolate bars, pie, iced cookies, and cakes. Healthy Eating – Grains & Starches Plate Method Handy Portion whole grain bread, cereal, rice, noodles, potatoes, corn, pasta. Make Simple Changes Reduce Fat, Salt and Sugar – Bake, boil, steam or poach instead of frying with fat – Switch to lean cuts of meat or vegetarian alternatives – Reduce salt by choosing no sodium or low-sodium products and rinsing canned beans and vegetables. Tips for Planning East Asian Meals Instead of… 1 bowl pork broth with Chinese herbs Stir fried beef with broccoli and cashews 1 cup bok choy stir-fried in 2 tbsp.
Tips for Planning South Asian Meals Instead of… 2 potato parathas 1 cup spinach paneer ? cup potato curry ? cup raita 1 gulabjaman 1 cup salty lassi 3 tsp. Tips for Planning Caribbean Meals Instead of… 2 fried eggs 2 sausage patties 2 buttermilk biscuits ? fried plantain with brown sugar coffee with 3 t.
Type 2 diabetes is caused by a continuous deterioration of the insulin-secretory capacity of pancreatic β-cells, which does not allow compensation for an increased peripheral insulin demand.
Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.
If you are a pregnant with diabetes, then there are greater chances in your body’s blood sugar to increase more often and more quickly. Along with other complications during the last months of pregnancy, this extra baby growth causes some additional complications for you and your baby. The uncontrollable blood sugar levels can affect the baby’s organs during their development and cause severe birth defects, like problems to brain, heart, spine, and finally lead to miscarriage of the growing baby. This in turn can lead to more usage of insulin by your baby and also uses additional calories or accumulates them as fat. This page will explore general exercise recommendations, response to exercise in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and the effects of exercise from a cellular biology perspective in order to help identify appropriate exercise recommendations for individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Managing type 2 diabetes requires a combination of diet, exercise, and medication (when prescribed).
Additionally, a review of large diabetes prevention trials by Sanz et al[7] reported that interventions focused on increasing exercise along with diet can cut the incidence of type 2 diabetes in half for adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In Finland, a large diabetes prevention trial found that people who greatly increased leisure-time physical activity (i.e. Moderate physical activity increases both nitric oxide (NO) and ROS and decreases oxidative stress. It is important to recognize that in humans, HbA1c levels reflect an average of plasma glucose concentrations from the previous 3-4 months.[78] Therefore, changes in HbA1c levels occur over long periods of time, and are not likely to be affected by single bouts of exercise.
75%-85% VO2max) produce greater reductions in HbA1c, as opposed to lower intensity activities.
This has been found across multiple trials using both different animal models of type 2 diabetes, as well as different exercise interventions.


However, the degree of this expression can be disputed, as some studies show far greater changes than others (369% versus 36%). TNF?, a proinflammatory cytokine involved with inflammation, was studied to investigate the effects of moderate exercise and changes to inflammatory markers in diabetic mice who performed 3 weeks of 30 minutes of running 6 days a week at approximately 60% VO2 max.
The exercise session at 120%LT lasted 60 minutes and the exercise session at 80% lasted the amount of time necessary to have equal energy expenditure compared to the 120%LT test. Over the two week training period, the subjects increased the amount of intervals from 8 to 12 per session. The study had 12 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (average age 53), 8 obese subjects without diabetes, and 8 non obese subjects without type 2 diabetes. Research has found that high intensity training leads to increased levels of PGC-1?, which results in an increase in the following:type 1 muscle fibers, mitochondrial biogenesis, fat oxidative capacity, GLUT4, and glycogen.
So it always makes sense to eat wisely, exercise regularly and keep weight in check, so the purport of the study does not make a lot of difference in the health principles that women need to follow. Check each item that applies to you: My family background is Caribbean, African, Hispanic, South Asian or East Asian. Being physically active helps you by: lowering blood sugar level lowering blood pressure helping you to lose weight and keep it off.
Things that lower glucose – Regular balanced meals and snacks – Exercise Things that raise glucose – Food, activity and medications are not balanced – Feeling sick or under stress. In healthy individuals, insulin secretion by the pancreatic islet allows for normal glucose disposal in the insulin-sensitive tissues: liver, muscle and adipose tissues (panel a).
This review also showed that the reduction in incidence from such interventions carried over for years after cessation of supervised activity.[7] Furthermore, a systematic review and meta-analysis by Gillies et al[8] reported that lifestyle interventions focusing on achieving weight loss as well as increasing physical activity are just as effective as pharmacotherapy for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.
However, strenuous exercise increases NO, markedly increases ROS, and increases oxidative stress.
Overall, it appears that chronic adherence to the recommendations set forth by ACSM and the ADA (i.e.
Further research is needed to examine the various interactions between fitness and Glut4 expression and the effects of the various exercise interventions available. At the end of 3 weeks the diabetic mice that exercised had a 6% improvement in TNF-?, 34% increase in inflammatory markers involved with insulin signaling Interleukin (IL) -1?, 86% increase in IL-g. Results of the study found that exercise at 80%LT showed an insignificant change in PGC-1? gene expression, where as the 120% LT exercise session had a significant increase in PGC-1? gene expression.
The chronic group exercise for 70 minutes (5 minute warm up, 60 minutes exercise, 5 min cool down) 4 times a week at 70% VO2 max for 12 weeks. That is to say obesity is a strong risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and the other way around as well. During prediabetes, genetic predisposition, over-nutrition and physical inactivity reduce the response to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake that is compensated for by an increase in insulin production (panel b). Donath is internationally recognized for his contribution to the understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, more high-quality research is required to further clarify the specific exercise parameters (i.e. The acute exercise group performed the same exercise for 7 consecutive days.[73] Both groups had muscle biopsies performed at pre-test and after their final exercise session.
In patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion no longer compensates for the increased peripheral insulin demand (panel c). He is Head of the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland.
Results for the chronic exercising group found the young type 2 diabetic group had no change in VO2, insulin sensitivity, insignificant drop in plasma free fatty acid for the chronic group where as the non diabetic group had a 20% increase in VO2, and a significant drop in plasma free fatty acids.[73] The acute exercise study also found a 4x increase in PGC-1? in the control group compared to no increase in PGC-1? in the young type 2 diabetic group. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes is largely dictated by changes in the islet-secretory capacity, whereas insulin resistance remains relatively constant over time. I have been diagnosed with any of the following conditions: Polycystic ovary syndrome Acanthosis nigricans (darkened patches of skin) Schizophrenia. I have health problems that are linked to diabetes such as diabetes eye, nerve or kidney problems.
On the basis of this, he initiated a pioneering clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes that vindicates his hypothesis and opens the way for the causative treatment and prevention of diabetes and associated complications.Contact Marc Y.



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