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Figure 2 – The puckered lips of the ileocecal valve are visible in the lower left of this photograph. The cecum is identified as a blind end to the colon, with the appendiceal orifice visible, even in patients who have had an appendectomy (Figure 2). Figure 5 – The head of this pedunculated polyp is erythematous and consists of adenomatous tissue.
Figure 6 – The scalloped mass on the left side of this image is an adenocarcinoma that penetrates at least into the deep submucosa and is appropriately treated by surgical resection. Once at the cecum, gradually withdraw the scope, carefully inspecting the colon as you do so.
In the rectum, it is customary to retroflex the scope (turn the tip 180 degrees so that it faces the distal rectum) (Figure 8); this area is difficult to inspect fully without retroflexion. A 52-year-old obese woman presented to the emergency department for severe diffuse abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting of 12 hours’ duration.
Healthcare Associates now offers its patients the convenience of having a sleep study performed in one of our private sleep labs. Physicians have become increasingly aware that sleep disorders can take its toll on the body and mind.
If you feel you may have a sleep disorder such as sleep apnea, frequent snoring or fatigue during wake times, schedule an appointment with one of our physicians to determine if you are a candidate for our sleep lab evaluation. During your evaluation our certified sleep technologist will apply various sensors to your head, face, chest and legs. The orifice typically appears as a slit or a small opening visible at the base of the cecum.


The ileocecal valve entrance is visible on the proximal margin of the fold nearest the appendix (Figure 3). The stalk is a tan color and contains feeding vessels that are cauterized during snare polypectomy. Here the black scope shaft is visible entering through the anus with the instrument tip maximally deflected to obtain a backward view.
Usually considerable back and forth motion is required to inspect behind all of the many folds of the colon, as well as to lavage and suction fluid residue in areas that have not been adequately cleansed (a second button on the scope controls suction). Once the examination is finished, suction excess air from the rectum, remove the scope, and monitor the patient for 30 minutes or more while the sedative wears off. The body needs sleep to grow and repair tissues as well as for the immune system to function properly. These sensors will enable us to look at your breathing patterns, oxygen levels and sleep stages during the night in order to determine if your sleep is being disturbed.
It is important to advance the scope into the cecum to maximize visualization of the cecum and to definitively identify the ileocecal valve and appendiceal orifice landmarks to ensure examination of the entire colon. These are small and easily distinguished from the true lumen of the colon, which is visible on the lower right.
Encourage the patient to pass gas to relieve the bloating that is nearly universal after colonoscopy. Common findings, such as diverticulosis, a pedunculated polyp, adenocarcinoma, and ulcerative colitis, are shown in Figures 4 through 7. Chronic sleep deprivation can also speed up some aspects of aging, such as hastening the onset of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and memory loss.


CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a ruptured spleen with a hematoma surrounded by a moderate to large amount of free fluid (Figure).The patient was admitted after being stabilized with isotonic intravenous fluids and blood transfusion. Her condition improved and she was discharged in good condition after 2 days.DiscussionColonoscopy is used for diagnosis and treatment of a multitude of GI and surgical conditions.
Splenic injury after colonoscopy is a serious complication, yet its true incidence is largely unknown; the current literature consists of case reports. The first known case report of splenic rupture as a possible complication of colonoscopy is attributed to Wherry and Zhener,1 in 1974.
Fewer than 70 cases have been reported in literature since then.2 There are many large published series reports of colonoscopies3-7 that include as many as 82,0004 procedures. Splenectomy is typically required.Severe abdominal pain following colonoscopy, especially within 24 hours following the procedure, warrants a high index of suspicion for splenic injury, after perforation and hemorrhage have been excluded. Hemodynamic instability is almost universally seen.8  Levine and Wetzel10 proposed 2 theories for the probable cause of splenic injury during colonoscopy.
Difficult scope advancement through the colon may impart direct injury to the spleen during passage through the splenic flexure. Prospective evaluation of complications in outpatient GI endoscopy: a survey among German gastroenterologists.



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