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Take sugar easily absorbed (1-2 pieces), a glass of juice, coca-cola (not diet), sweetened soft drinks and bread to slow absorption, corresponding to 1-2 units of bread (UP). If the patient is unconscious and thus unable to swallow food with glucose, it is dependent on help from others. In the presence of premonitory symptoms, he will make an immediate measurement of blood glucose and enter the values obtained, these values will be useful to the treating physician to determine insulin doses for future administration. The patient should always have available sugar or a sweet drink and take it at the time of the appearance of premonitory signs. Mild hypoglycaemia can be managed by the patient himself, but should be avoided wherever possible.
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A condition of low levels of sugar in the blood that causes muscle weakness, uncoordination, mental confusion, and sweating. When blood sugars drop too low, the brain cannot get the glucose it needs to function properly. While severe symptoms are easy to spot, mild to moderate low blood sugar is not always easy to recognize.
The more lows a child has, the greater the risk for lows that go unrecognized in the future, because fewer warning signs actually appear. To treat low blood sugar during the day, the child should immediately take 15 grams of glucose or a sugar source such as three or four glucose tablets, four ounces (half a cup) of 100-percent fruit juice, four ounces (half a cup) of regular (not diet) soda, or one tablespoon of sugar or honey. If the symptoms do not go away in 10 to 15 minutes, the blood sugar test should be repeated.
In the case of severe low blood sugar reading, the child should be given glucagon as prescribed.
While exercise is important, extra physical activity can cause blood glucose levels to drop lower than usual, either during the exercises or much later (particularly during the night). To help prevent nighttime lows, a child’s blood sugar should be checked at bedtime and then followed with a snack.
It is also important that everyone who cares for a child with diabetes (even school bus drivers) should know that the child has diabetes and takes insulin. High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been growing in popularity in the past few years.
Neonatal hypoglycemia is low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth. Causes Babies need sugar (glucose) for energy. Challenging aspects of and solutions to diagnosis, prevention, and management of hypoglycemia in critically ill geriatric patients. The twin problems of potentially preventable hyper- and hypoglycemia are a huge cost burden to the society. Medical expenditures associated with diabetes acute complications in privately insured U.S. Relationship between glycemic control and readmission rates in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure during implementation of hospital-wide initiatives. Hypoglycemic potential of current and emerging pharmacotherapies in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Association of clinical Symptomatic Hypoglycemia with cardiovascular events and total mortality in type 2 diabetes Mellitus: A nationwide population-based study. Association between hypoglycemia and inpatient mortality and length of hospital stay in hospitalized, insulin-treated patients. Temporal and geographic patterns of hypoglycemia among hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus.
Defining and reporting hypoglycemia in diabetes: A report from the American Diabetes Association Workgroup on Hypoglycemia. Changing the glucose cut-off values that define hypoglycaemia has a major effect on reported frequencies of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: Pathophysiology, frequency, and effects of different treatment modalities. Identification of factors associated with impaired hypoglycaemia awareness in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Cardiovascular risk of oral antidiabetic drugs: Current evidence and regulatory requirements for new drugs. Infection-related hypoglycemia in institutionalized demented patients: A comparative study of diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
A randomized trial of two weight-based doses of insulin glargine and glulisine in hospitalized subjects with type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency.
Identifying clinically significant preventable adverse drug events through a hospital's database of adverse drug reaction reports. Incidence of hypoglycemia following insulin-based acute stabilization of hyperkalemia treatment.
Risk of hypoglycemia in older veterans with dementia and cognitive impairment: Implications for practice and policy. NHS Diabetes guideline for the perioperative management of the adult patient with diabetes. Antecedent hypoglycemia impairs autonomic cardiovascular function: Implications for rigorous glycemic control.


Incidence and prognostic significance of hypoglycemia in hospitalized non-diabetic elderly patients.
Evaluation and management of adult hypoglycemic disorders: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Reexamining the evidence for inpatient glucose control: New recommendations for glycemic targets. Characterizing glucose changes antecedent to hypoglycemic events in the intensive care unit. Intensive glucose control in the management of diabetes mellitus and inpatient hyperglycemia.
Basal-bolus insulin versus sliding-scale insulin for inpatient glycaemic control: A clinical practice comparison.
Intensive insulin protocol implementation and outcomes in the medical and surgical wards at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
Glycemic control in hospitalized patients not in intensive care: Beyond sliding-scale insulin. Perioperative management of diabetes and hyperglycemia in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Glycemic control in non-critically ill hospitalized patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Impact of malglycemia on clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with cancer: A review of the literature.
Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia consensus statement on perioperative blood glucose management in diabetic patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. Metformin as an adjunct to insulin for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes after CABG surgery: A randomized double blind clinical trial. Diabetes in a geriatric ward: Efficacy and safety of new insulin analogs in very old inpatients. Accuracy of the modified Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) sensor in an outpatient setting: Results from a diabetes research in children network (DirecNet) study. Implementing and evaluating a multicomponent inpatient diabetes management program: Putting research into practice. Treatment of inpatient hyperglycemia beginning in the emergency department: A randomized trial using insulins aspart and detemir compared with usual care. Effect of a targeted glycemic management program on provider response to inpatient hyperglycemia.
Diabetes and hyperglycemia quality improvement efforts in hospitals in the United States: Current status, practice variation, and barriers to implementation. Durability of the effect of online diabetes training for medical residents on knowledge, confidence, and inpatient glycemia. Management of inpatient hyperglycemia: Assessing knowledge and barriers to better care among residents. Effect of case-based training for medical residents on confidence, knowledge, and management of inpatient glycemia.
Minimizing hypoglycemia in the wake of a tight glycemic control protocol in hospitalized patients.
The level at which low blood sugar gets serious depends on the child’s age, health, and whether or not the child has had hypoglycemia before. If these symptoms appear, blood sugar should be checked around midnight and again at 3 A.M. This is called “hypoglycemia unawareness.” On the other hand, symptoms of hypoglycemia can increase if the number of lows is decreased. Although glucagon is rarely needed, it is vital to keep it on hand and to know how to use it if the blood sugar drops so low that the child cannot eat or drink. Children should not skip meals or snacks, but if a child does not eat appropriately or eats less than usual during the day, blood glucose should be checked more often than usual during the rest of the day. When a child exercises more than usual, more carbohydrates (such as peanut butter and crackers) should be given.
They must also understand what hypoglycemia is, how to lessen the risk, and how to recognize and treat the problem. Most of that glucose is used by the brain. The developing baby gets glucose from the mother through the placenta.
If a child is having lows during the night, the nighttime insulin dosage, type, or timing of the insulin injections may need to be adjusted. A child who is having too many episodes of low blood sugar on a regular basis (such as every day) needs to have an adjustment in the diabetes regimen.
It is important to emphasize at school that a child who might be having a hypoglycemic episode should not be sent to the nurse’s office alone, even for a blood sugar check.
Hypoglycemia can occur in any infant or child who takes insulin injections for diabetes, or in people with type 2 diabetes taking certain medications. If for some reason a test is not possible, it is safer to assume that the cause of the child’s behavior is low blood sugar and treat the suspected low with carbohydrates.
Signs that it is needed include lethargy, unconsciousness, or the inability to swallow normally. A middle-of-the-night blood glucose reading should be done if a child has eaten less than usual during the day.


It is safer to treat a child for low blood sugar when levels are normal, than to ignore a situation in which the blood sugar is actually low.
Teachers should also understand that low blood sugar can be triggered by an altered mealtime, a skipped meal or snack, or extra physical activity. In United States, more than 25% of the elderly are diabetic and the number is rapidly increasing.
This is especially true for babies with lower-than-average weight or whose mothers have diabetes. Possible Complications Severe or long-term hypoglycemia may lead to brain damage, affecting normal mental function. The search strategies included extensive scrutiny of literary evidence from internet resources, journals and textbooks of endocrinology and anesthesiology, and intensive care among endocrinologists, anesthesiologists and intensivists of high academic caliber. The literature was explored for full text articles and abstracts from various search engines such as PubMed, Medscape, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, Yahoo, Google Scholar, and many others, using key words like diabetes mellitus, geriatric, hyperglycaemia, hypoglycaemia, and insulin. DefinitionHypoglycemia has traditionally been defined as low blood sugars with symptoms of hypoglycemia. This is because recurrent hypoglycemia impairs the counter regulatory mechanisms to subsequent hypoglycemia. There are countless episodes of asymptomatic hypoglycemia, two episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia and one episode of severe hypoglycemia per year. Type 2 diabetes is much more frequent and clinically we see many more cases of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetics.
In 50% of the cases, insulin is responsible, and in 20% cases, it is long-acting sulphonylureas [16] which are considered to cause hypoglycemia.Consequences in the elderlyIt is a known fact that the incidence of neuroglycopenic manifestations in the elderly is higher as compared to autonomic manifestations.
In a diabetes control and complications trial, the patients on more intensive control had a higher level of hypoglycemia. The most common cause is a prior history of severe hypoglycemia which may be the result of intensive glycemic control.Insulin excess is also an important cause. This may be due increased exogenous insulin per se or secondary to long-acting secretagogues especially sulphonylureas. This would be discussed in detail here.Causes of hypoglycemia in inpatient settingsThe cause of hypoglycemia in the elderly diabetic population is a complex interplay between multiple factors and is seldom attributable to one single cause [Figure 2].
In the inpatient settings, failure to adjust the diabetic medications with the diminished oral intake is the most common correctable cause of hypoglycemia in the hospitalized elderly diabetics. Insulin and long-acting insulin secretagogue may cause profound hypoglycemia in the elderly leading to increased cardiovascular adverse events in inpatient settings.
This is especially true for elderly patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) or sepsis in whom low flow states cause an altered metabolism of drugs in the kidney and liver. This was followed by alcohol intoxication, liver failure, sepsis, cancer, and endocrine disorders. About 60% of insulin is excreted through the kidneys by glomerular filtration and about 40% is excreted by extraction from peritubular vessels. In the proximal tubular cells, it is transported to lysosomes which break it down to amino acids. With the decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in CKD, insulin metabolism remains constant. This is because even though GFR decreases, there is a concomitant increase in the extraction of insulin from peritubular vessels.
But when GFR falls below 15, there is a decrease in the metabolism of insulin and a patient gets predisposed to hypoglycemia.In general, when GFR drops below 60, there is an increased incidence of hypoglycemia in both diabetics and nondiabetics.
Anemia also contributes to insulin resistance which tends to improve when erythropoietin is started.
Most elderly patients have underlying CKD and the drugs need to be dosed based on their changing renal profile. Insulin dosing as per the decreased creatinine clearance has been shown to decrease the incidence of inpatient hypoglycemia.
Though easily recognized in the young and middle-aged people, it may be obscure in elderly patients who could have masking of hypoglycemia awareness secondary to dementia, polypharmacy, comorbidities, and adverse drug reactions.
Elderly especially those with a compromised renal function are at a heightened risk of hypoglycemia when treated with long-acting sulphonylureas in the hospital settings. An autonomic response may manifest as sweating, weakness, tachycardia, palpitations, tremor, or paresthesia which may result in falls in the elderly and subsequent hospitalization. If the patient has an altered mental status and is unable to swallow, he should be managed by giving an intravenous (IV) bolus of 50 ml of 50% dextrose. Blood glucose is measured 10-15 min after the initial IV bolus and monitored every 30-60 min thereafter until stability is reached.If glucose cannot be given by parenteral or oral routes, glucagon, 1 mg intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC), is given. Insulin analogs, both, short and long acting, are proven to be more effective if renal insufficiency is taken into account while prescribing the same. The hallmark of the glycemic control in hospitalized patients is to avoid hypoglycemia while optimizing glycemic control.



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