Can type 2 diabetes change into type 1,perfect world international pw school teacher,diabetes type 2 diet advice zeer - 2016 Feature


Diabetes is an incurable condition in which the body cannot control blood sugar levels, because of problems with the hormone insulin.
Under normal circumstances, the hormone insulin, which is made by your pancreas, carefully regulates how much glucose is in the blood. After a meal, the amount of glucose in your blood rises, which triggers the release of insulin.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, and the immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas. The exact mechanisms that lead to Type 2 diabetes are not fully understood, but an underlying genetic susceptibility is usually present.
Gestational Diabetes - During pregnancy, some women experience heightened blood sugar levels and can't produce enough insulin to absorb it all.
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) - Caused by a mutation in a single gene and is also very rare.
If people living with Type 1 diabetes don't receive treatment they can develop very high blood sugar levels - hyperglycaemia - within days. At the same time, the body starts breaking down fat for fuel to counter the low levels of sugar available to the cells.
Those with Type 1 can also suffer a dangerous complication of treatment known as hypoglycaemia, which can cause a coma.
If treatment doesn't effectively control high blood sugar levels, it leaves a person with diabetes more vulnerable to infections. Type 2 diabetes tends to develop more gradually, which is one of the reasons why medical professionals think that so many cases go undiagnosed.
In the long-term, diabetes raises the risk of many conditions, including peripheral vascular disease (when the arteries to the extremities are damaged by atherosclerosis) and peripheral nerve damage. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that effects the way your body metabolizes sugar to use as a fuel source. Insulin, a hormone produced in your pancreas, allows sugar (glucose) to enter cells to be used as a fuel source. Nerve damage, excess blood sugar damages smaller blood vessels that feed your nerve cells especially in your legs. Kidney damage, kidneys filter waste through a network of millions of tiny blood vessels and diabetes damages this intricate filtration system leading to kidney disease and possibly kidney failure. A new study from the researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health brings some very good news. Direct costs of diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association in 2012 was $245 billion USD which included $176 billion in direct costs and $69 billion in reduced productivity.
We all know that eating too much can be bad for our health, especially if we become overweight or obese. Obesity is the medical term for the accumulation of excess fat, leading to adverse effects on health and reduced life expectancy. Obesity can lead to increased risk of heart disease, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis and some types of cancer.
In the medieval period, obesity was a sign of status – only the wealthy were able to eat too much (and would have lower activity levels). It is very difficult to estimate the weight, and therefore the BMI of a skeletonised person, and because of that any estimates have wide error margins.
There is eburnation (polishing) and flattening of the head of this femur (thigh bone), which is indicative of osteoarthritis of the hip.
The largest factor influencing the likelihood of having osteoarthritis is age – put simply, the older you are, the more wear and tear on your joints. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH; also known as Forestier’s disease) is a non-inflammatory joint disease which causes ossification (turning to bone) of the spinal ligaments and the regions where tendons and ligaments attach to bone (entheses).
DISH is more commonly seen in males over the age of 50 and is associated with a rich diet, and with Type II diabetes, although the exact causes of the disease are unknown. This first metatarsal (foot bone) has a large hole at the distal end, caused by the build up of urate crystals in gout. Generally, fasting blood sugar (the value you get when you’re tested upon waking without any food intake) is also the baseline blood sugar level.
Irrespective of what you eat, tiny amounts of insulin are squirted into the blood stream in small pulses every few minutes. The counter-regulatory (anti-insulin) hormones that are secreted in our bodies shortly before dawn, raise the blood sugar slightly. Change the timing of your basal insulin – insulin taken later in the day often controls fasting sugar better. Opiate addiction can happen quickly and when it does, the person is rendered powerless of the drug, be it heroin, morphine, codeine, or a pharmaceutical version, like Vicodin, OxyContin, Norco, Percocet, or Opana. Learning how opiates affect the brain can help determine appropriate prevention, education, intervention, and treatment measures so that the millions of people currently struggling with opiate addiction can be helped.


The Addiction Research Group led by Steven Laviolette of the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at Western University, in London, Canada, have been working on that very subject. The study, first conducted on rats, yields results that can change the way withdrawal, addiction, and relapse are addressed.
Just like cancer, diabetes, and other illnesses, research results allow those working to create addiction treatments and cures to progress. Additional information, like the identification of heroin’s impact on the basolateral amygdala, boasts the process of prevention and treatment. With constant advancements in the understanding of addiction overall, and with opiates most specifically, substance abuse treatment professionals are able to improve the psychotherapeutic and pharmaceutical interventions they use on addicts seeking recovery.
For opiates in particular, treatment efforts often seem successful, but are then followed by relapse. Insulin stimulates cells all over your body to absorb enough glucose from the blood to provide the energy, or fuel, that they need.
It tends to affect people before the age of 40, and often follows a trigger such as a viral infection. In most cases it develops between the 14th and 26th week of pregnancy, known as the second trimester, and disappears after the baby is born. Because there is no insulin to drive the sugar from the blood into the cells, the kidneys try to remove the excess glucose. This leads to toxic levels of acids building up in the blood - a life-threatening condition known as ketoacidosis.
This occurs when blood sugar levels fall dangerously low as a result of taking too much insulin, or sometimes by skipping a meal. Over time it can also damage the small blood vessels and nerves throughout the body, including the smaller vessels at the back of the eye, which can result in blindness, and the kidneys, leading to kidney failure. It may be caused when your pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin to keep glucose levels normal in your blood or when your body becomes resistant to the insulin. As you lower the glucose levels in your blood your body reduces the insulin produced in the pancreas. Contributing factors include family history, genetics, a sedentary lifestyle, poor diet and excess body weight can cause type 2 diabetes.
They found that independent of other changes, including physical activity and weight loss, that a 10% improvement in the quality of your diet reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes by 20%.
Obesity itself does not cause pathological lesions in bone, however recent research has suggested that obesity can cause an increase in the size of bones, especially the width of the femur (thigh bone).
Strenuous activity, especially from an early age, will also increase the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis.
Clinically, the patient initially suffers from pain in the mid back, and over time experiences increasing stiffness as the bones of the spine fuse together. The vertabrae are fused together due to the ossification of a ligament running along the front of the spine. DISH has been observed to be particularly common in medieval skeletons from monastic cemeteries, suggesting that either these were monks who enjoyed a particularly rich diet or possibly that these were rich patrons who chose to be buried at the monastery. Lead was used as a sweetener and preservative in wine, and liquid containers often had lead glazes. But people with type 2 diabetes may have much higher morning blood sugars than the level they achieve after meals, for the rest of the day. But, if the factors that control this basal secretion go haywire, your body may only secrete insulin in response to meal-time rises in glucose and result in a high fasting blood glucose level. But in diabetics, this rise can be exaggerated, leading to high blood glucose levels in the morning.
You might wake up in the middle of the night with a jolt, thudding heart, soaked in sweat – a low blood sugar or hypoglycemic reaction, which drives you to eat sweets resulting in a sugar spike in the morning.
A Metformin Sustained Release pill taken at bedtime will have a stronger impact on fasting blood sugar than the same pill taken in the morning. Scientists have been able to study and identify the part of the brain, the basolateral amygdala, that responds to heroin, in particular. Since the brain imprints a memory of heroin, the user recalls a place heroin was used, for example, as positive, and the brain reacts with a craving for heroin. New pharmaceutical drugs to help cancer patients can only be developed when scientists further understand what cancerous cells are doing in the human body, and the same is true for drugs and other forms of treatment that can help those addicted to drugs and alcohol. In other words, when we better understand how the brain interprets addiction, we can better treat it with the right combination of therapy and medication.
Even after months of sobriety, the desire to dull all pain and anxiety, and to escape are still very real.
If you know someone who has been abusing opiates for any length of time, intervention is necessary. It can also be produced by carbohydrates such as potatoes, pasta or bread when they are digested and broken down.


In Type 2 diabetes, either the pancreas cells do not make enough insulin, or the body's cells do not react properly to it. The condition is then triggered by lifestyle factors - such as obesity - and it usually appears in people over the age of 40. The brain requires a constant supply of glucose from the blood otherwise it can't function properly. Your liver stores and makes glucose when you need energy to keep the glucose levels in your blood in a normal range. Being overweight is a significant risk factor as increased body fat, especially in the abdominal area, makes it harder for insulin to be used by the body. Carrying too much weight can lead to type II diabetes and osteoarthritis of weight bearing joints, and certain diseases such as DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis) are also seen more often in obese individuals. It is well known that activity increases bone size and bone mass – and carrying around excess weight has a similar effect on bone. Therefore very few researchers have investigated the prevalence of obesity in medieval populations.
Once all of the cartilage has worn away, bone on bone contact occurs – which leads to polishing (eburnation) and porosity of the bone surface. Obesity puts extra strain on the main weight bearing joints – especially the knees – and therefore also leads to an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. Documentary evidence suggests that although monks ate a frugal diet at the start of the Middle Ages, they became adept at bending fasting rules and there are many accounts describing the rich and varied diet they enjoyed.
However, it is ideal that you get tested for both FPG and PP to understand how well you are managing your blood sugar. More dangerous is the unrecognized drop in blood sugar at night during sleep which triggers a burst of counter-regulatory hormones. Essentially, when the drug is introduced to the human system, a switch in the basolateral amygdala. When trying to stop using opiates, withdrawal symptoms are painful and extremely uncomfortable. New research is now helping to explain why this is happening, but opiate addicts really need the next step: what can we do to counteract the positive memories the brain creates around opiate use? Opiate addiction treatment at Balboa Horizons has proven success in helping addicts create a new life without drugs. Although patterns of obesity, dietary intake and skeletal pathology are far from simple and therefore difficult to interpret, there is plenty of evidence that being overweight can even affect our bones! According to the World Health Organisation, a BMI of over 30 is obese and a BMI under 18.5 is considered underweight. Osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and possibly also the lower back and feet have all been associated with obesity in modern populations.
Fat friars became famous through stories, including Friar Tuck, the rotund friend of Robin Hood, and Chaucer’s monk, described as a ‘fat and personable priest’. High lead levels in the body cause kidney damage and this inhibits uric acid excretion, leading to hyperuricemia. These hormones push the blood sugar back up – to higher than normal levels by the morning (Somogyi phenomenon).
With the glorified memories of heroin use in the brain, the person recalls only positive and wants to then use heroin again. In the medieval period, obesity was an indication of wealth, and was also seen in monastic communities where a high-calorie diet and low levels of physical exertion led to problems we often associate with our modern, sedentary lifestyles.
Waist circumference is strongly linked to obesity and these increased health risks – and it is understood that carrying excess weight around the waist is particularly harmful to health.
In archaeological populations we can see the changes on the bone joint surfaces of people who had osteoarthritis – but these are more advanced changes than those required to make a clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis, which rely on identifying narrow joint spaces (the size of the gap between the bone ends in a joint) on x-rays. Osteoarthritis of the spine is very common in medieval populations, and is directly related to age. Since this part of the brain controls memory creation and recall, it has been deduced that heroin convinces the brain that it is to be remembered and used again. Osteoarthritis of the major joints is less common, but is still seen quite often – especially in the knees, hips, elbows and shoulders.
Again, this is directly associated with age; however, one study has suggested that osteoarthritis was more common in older individuals (estimated to be over 45 years of age) predicted to be obese compared with older individuals with a normal BMI. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.



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