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Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body’s cells resist the normal effect of insulin, which is to drive glucose in the blood into the inside of the cells. Extremely high blood sugar levels also can lead to a dangerous complication called hyperosmolar syndrome.
Retinopathy — Tiny blood vessels in the retina (the back of the eye that sees light) can become damaged by high blood sugar.
Obesity, especially abdominal obesity—a condition that greatly raises a person’s risk for type 2 diabetes.
High blood pressure—a condition often present in people with type 2 diabetes, that together with diabetes greatly increases the risk of heart disease and strokes.
Exercising regularly—like a brisk walk of 1-2 miles in 30 minutes—at least five times a week, even if that does not result in you achieving an ideal weight. In most cases, type 2 diabetes treatment begins with weight reduction through diet and exercise. Because type 2 diabetes develops when the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, about one of three people with this disease take some form of insulin injection.
In advanced type 2 diabetes, or for people who want to tightly control glucose levels, insulin may be needed more than once per day and in higher doses.
Treatment plans that include both very long-acting insulin and very short-acting insulin are frequently the most successful for controlling blood sugar. Fortunately, these side effects are uncommon, so the benefits of treatment far outweigh the risks.
In addition to medicines that help control the level of blood sugar, people with type 2 diabetes often take other medicines that reduce the risk or to slow the onset of the complications of diabetes. Slow the worsening of kidney disease—particularly drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).
After the first few years, the majority of people with type 2 diabetes require more than one medicine to keep their blood sugar controlled. Diabetes of all types can lead to complications in many parts of the body and increase the risk of dying prematurely. In April 2016, WHO published the Global report on diabetes, which calls for action to reduce exposure to the known risk factors for type 2 diabetes and to improve access to and quality of care for people with all forms of diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes has been steadily increasing for the past 3 decades, mirroring an increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight people. An additional 2.2 million deaths were caused in the same year by higher-than-optimal levels of blood glucose, through an increased risk of cardiovascular and other diseases.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a lack of insulin production and type 2 diabetes results from the body's ineffective use of insulin. Gestational diabetes is characterized by hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, with values above normal but below those diagnostic of diabetes, during pregnancy. Fact 6: People with diabetes can live long and healthy lives when their diabetes is detected and well-managed.
A series of cost-effective interventions can help people diagnosed with diabetes manage their condition. Fact 7: Early diagnosis and intervention is the starting point for living well with diabetes. The longer a person lives with undiagnosed and untreated diabetes, the worse their health outcomes are likely to be. In general, primary health-care practitioners in low-income countries do not have access to the basic technologies needed to help people with diabetes properly manage their disease.
Diabetes of all types can lead to complications in many parts of the body and increase the overall risk of dying prematurely. Thirty minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days and a healthy diet can drastically reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Pituitary Tumours – These result in vision problems, headaches, emotional instability, depression, anxiety, apathy and irritability.
Hypoglycemic Symptoms; Hunger, sweating, dizziness, confusion, irregular heart beat, numbness and or tingling of the lips. Cinnamon – Research suggests that enjoying 1-2 tsp of cinnamon a day can help the body produce insulin. Swiss Chard, Sea Vegetables, Pumpkin Seeds, Blackstrap Molasses – These foods carry high levels of magnesium, a mineral that diabetics tend to lack. Apple, Corn, Broccoli, Grapefruit, Sweet Potato, Tomato – A serving of each supplies roughly the daily requirement of chromium, a mineral that helps cells, decreasing the buildup of excess blood sugar.
The information contained in this article is accurate at the time of posting but may change thereafter. Client TestimonialsI have just started to go to Craig for massages and I get a lot of alternative therapies done around the southwest.
Intensive control of blood glucose and keeping glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels below 7%.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication caused by insulin deficiency. The process is usually triggered in insulin-deficient patients by a stressful event, most often pneumonia or urinary tract infections. Severely low insulin levels cause excessive amounts of glucose in the bloodstream (hyperglycemia).
These fatty acids are converted into chemicals called ketone bodies, which are toxic at high levels. Cerebral edema, or brain swelling, is a rare but very dangerous complication that occurs in 1% of ketoacidosis cases and results in coma, brain damage, or death in many cases. Other serious complications from DKA include aspiration pneumonia and adult respiratory distress syndrome. If the condition persists, coma and eventually death may occur, although over the past 20 years, death from DKA has decreased to about 2% of all cases. Life-saving treatment uses rapid replacement of fluids with a salt (saline) solution followed by low-dose insulin and potassium replacement. Patients with type 1 diabetes are 10 times more at risk for heart disease than healthy patients.
Both type 1 and 2 diabetes accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). In type 1 diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension) usually develops if the kidneys become damaged.
Impaired nerve function (neuropathy) associated with diabetes also causes heart abnormalities. Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty material is deposited in the vessel wall, resulting in narrowing and eventual impairment of blood flow. Diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), occurs in about 20 - 40% of patients with diabetes.
Diabetes is responsible for more than half of all lower limb amputations performed in the U.S.
People with diabetes who are overweight, smokers, and have a long history of diabetes tend to be at most risk. In general, foot ulcers develop from infections, such as those resulting from blood vessel injury.
Charcot foot is initially treated with strict immobilization of the foot and ankle; some centers use a cast that allows the patient to move and still protects the foot. Diabetes accounts for thousands of new cases of blindness annually and is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in adults ages 20 - 74. The early and more common type of this disorder is called nonproliferative or background retinopathy. If the capillaries become blocked and blood flow is cut off, soft, "woolly" areas may develop in the retina's nerve layer. Type 1 diabetes is associated with a slightly reduced bone density, putting patients at risk for osteoporosis and possibly fractures. Women with diabetes should also be aware that certain types of medication can affect their blood glucose levels. It is also important for women to closely monitor their blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body produces insulin but does not use it effectively.
Most people with insulin resistance don’t know they have it for many years—until they develop type 2 diabetes, a serious, lifelong disease.
Although the exact causes of insulin resistance are not completely understood, scientists think the major contributors to insulin resistance are excess weight and physical inactivity.
Excess Weight: Some experts believe obesity, especially excess fat around the waist, is a primary cause of insulin resistance. Physical Inactivity: Many studies have shown that physical inactivity is associated with insulin resistance, often leading to type 2 diabetes. Studies show that after exercising, muscles become more sensitive to insulin, reversing insulin resistance and lowering blood glucose levels. The cells in the body of an individual with type 2 diabetes are resistant to the effects of the hormone insulin.


A few individuals are born resistant to the effects of insulin as a result of mutations in their INSR gene, which templates the protein via which insulin mediates its effects.
By studying individuals with INSR mutations, a team of researchers, led by David Savage, at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, have now answered this question: defects in insulin signaling can cause dysfunctional mitochondria (at least in these individuals). Eventually insulin resistance overwhelms the ability of beta-cells to compensate in this way, and the individual becomes diabetic.
The Content is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. This is more likely if blood sugars remain elevated and high blood pressure is not treated aggressively. However, people with type 2 diabetes can sometimes restore their blood sugar levels to normal just by eating a healthy diet, regularly exercising, and losing weight.
The medication metformin (Glucophage) offers some additional protection for people with pre-diabetes. Very short-acting insulin is used with meals, to help control the spike in blood sugar levels that occur with a meal. All diabetics should consider taking medication to lower their cholesterol, usually one of the statin medications. Diabetics should use medication to control high blood pressure if it can’t be improved by lifestyle changes. Contact your doctor immediately if you develop vomiting or diarrhea and are not able to drink enough fluids. Even when blood glucose levels are not high enough to warrant a diagnosis of diabetes damage can occur to the body.The risk of cardiovascular disease rises as blood glucose levels rise. While type 2 diabetes is potentially preventable, the causes and risk factors for type 1 diabetes remain unknown, and prevention strategies have not yet been successful.
Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery.
Higher waist circumference and higher body mass index (BMI) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, though the relationship may vary in different populations.
Access to essential medicines (including life-saving insulin) and technologies is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Possible complications include heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, leg amputation (because of infected, non-healing foot ulcers), vision loss and nerve damage. In this Pt 1 article, I am looking at Diabetes and blood sugar specifically and the foods and smoothies to help with that as well as some information on the role of the endocrine system, some common endocrine disorders, risk factors and prevention. Hormones are substances sent through the blood stream that trigger chemical reactions in our cells.
While hormonal shifts can result from birth or genetic defects, others can be brought on by age, stress, injury, infection or illness. When the small intestine absorbs food, it quickly releases sugars from the food known as glucose into the blood stream. This places the body into a state of Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar), and the pancreas must strain itself to produce extra Insulin to take care of it. You are more as risk for diabetes if you are over weight or obese, have high blood pressure, have high LDL Cholesterol, have a family history of diabetes. Consuming high fibre, low sugar and nutrient dense plant foods on a steady, sensible schedule may significantly improve how your body controls it’s energy levels. Magnesium is known to help control glucose levels and prevent damage to the retinas; a common concern among diabetics.
Members receive a fortnightly email from me containing:* Featured natural health articles & tips.* FIRST access to freebies and giveaways* FIRST access my partners special offers!**PLUS JUST FOR JOINING** - You will get IMMEDIATE FREE download of ALL 8 of my natural health ebooks! This approach can help prevent complications due to vascular (blood vessel) abnormalities and nerve damage (neuropathy) that can cause major damage to organs, including the eyes, kidneys, and heart. Blood glucose control helps the heart, but it is also very important that people with diabetes control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and other factors associated with heart disease. Other triggers include alcohol abuse, physical injury, pulmonary embolism, heart attacks, or other illnesses. Among young patients, the youngest children and boys of any age are at higher risk for hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia unawareness is a condition in which people become accustomed to hypoglycemic symptoms.
Mild symptoms usually occur at moderately low and easily correctable levels of blood glucose. Heart attacks account for 60% of deaths in patients with diabetes, while strokes account for 25% of such deaths. Severely restricted blood flow in the arteries to the heart muscle leads to symptoms such as chest pain. With this condition, the tiny filters in the kidney (called glomeruli) become damaged and leak protein into the urine. Patients with ESRD have 13 times the risk of death compared to other patients with type 1 diabetes.
It is a common complication that affects nearly half of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes after 25 years. Studies show that tight control of blood glucose levels delays the onset and slows progression of neuropathy. People who have the disease for more than 20 years and are insulin-dependent are at the highest risk. Numbness from nerve damage, which is common in diabetes, compounds the danger since the patient may not be aware of injuries. Charcot foot or Charcot joint (medically referred to as neuropathic arthropathy) occurs in up to 2.5% of people with diabetes. When the acute phase has passed, patients usually need lifelong protection of the foot using a brace initially and custom footwear. Patients with no signs of retinal damage or low risk factors for retinopathy may only require screening every 2 - 3 years. People with diabetes face a higher risk for influenza and its complications, including pneumonia, possibly because the disorder neutralizes the effects of protective proteins on the surface of the lungs. Women with diabetes face a significantly higher risk for urinary tract infections, which are likely to be more complicated and difficult to treat than in the general population. Depression, in turn, may increase the risk for hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes.
The changes in estrogen and other hormonal levels that occur during perimenopause can cause major fluctuations in blood glucose levels.
Up to a third of young women with type 1 diabetes have eating disorders and under-use insulin to lose weight.
A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. When people have insulin resistance, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by the cells, leading to type 2 diabetes or prediabetes. The good news is that if people learn they have insulin resistance early on, they can often prevent or delay diabetes by making changes to their lifestyle. These individuals provide the unique opportunity to understand the relationship between features of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance; that is, whether the insulin resistance or the given feature came first).
The team therefore concludes that it is likely that insulin resistance in individuals with type 2 diabetes can impair mitochondrial function. A team of researchers, led by Derek LeRoith and Shoshana Yakar, at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, has now determined that, in mice, beta-cell expression of the molecule to which growth hormone binds is important if the cells are to increase in number to compensate for conditions that promote type 2 diabetes. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. If a person does not eat on a regular schedule, very short-acting insulin can be particularly helpful.
And the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas may wear out as the pancreas tries to keep up with the body’s extra insulin needs. These chemical reactions change our body from the inside out, and, play a key role in maintaining cell growth, the stress response, sleep cycles, arousal, energy levels, reproductive changes and homeostasis.
Because different hormones serve different purposes in the body, any over-productions, underproduction, or shift in the balance of hormone levels can interfere with normal physical functioning. The pancreas sense this spike in blood sugar and releases a hormone called Insulin that links with the glucose molecules and delivers them to the cells at a slow and steady rate. Then, once we finally eat, glucose floods the unprepared bloodstream, leaving the pancreas scrambling to produce enough Insulin to handle the sudden change in our blood sugar levels. Problems associated with diabetes include blindness, heart disease, stroke, kidney failure and poor circulation in the limbs which may result in amputation in severe cases.
As we already know, consuming these foods in an extracted and blended way aids digestibility ensuring your body gets exactly what it needs when it needs it. Insoluble fibre helps the blood sugar levels by bulking up foods without adding extra fat, sugar, protein, or calories.
The information in the article this disclaimer is linked from is not meant to treat, diagnose, prescribe or cure any ailment.
It may also occur in a person with type 1 diabetes who is not consistent with insulin therapy, or who has an acute illness or infection that makes their diabetes difficult to control. The most serious consequences of neuropathy occur in the legs and feet and pose a risk for ulcers and, in unusually severe cases, amputation.


Patients with diabetes should be aware of other warning signs of a heart attack, including sudden fatigue, sweating, shortness of breath, nausea, and vomiting. The consequences of both poor circulation and peripheral neuropathy make this a common and serious problem for all patients with diabetes. About 85% of amputations start with foot ulcers, which develop in about 12% of people with diabetes.
Related conditions that put people at risk include peripheral neuropathy, peripheral artery disease, foot deformities, and a history of ulcers. Early changes appear similar to an infection, with the foot becoming swollen, red, and warm. People with diabetes are also at higher risk for developing cataracts and certain types of glaucoma. The two primary abnormalities that occur are a weakening of the blood vessels in the retina and the obstruction in the capillaries -- probably from very tiny blood clots. Patients beginning a new or vigorous exercise program should have their eyes examined, as well as all patients planning pregnancy. Everyone with diabetes should have annual influenza vaccinations and a vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia. In terms of sexual health, diabetes may cause decreased vaginal lubrication, which can lead to pain or discomfort during intercourse. Long-term use (more than 2 years) of birth control pills may increase the risk of health complications. Studies indicate that high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) can affect the developing fetus during the critical first 6 weeks of organ development.
Women with diabetes also face an increased risk of premature menopause, which can lead to higher risk of heart disease. Adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk than adults for ketoacidosis resulting from noncompliance. Anorexia and bulimia pose significant health risks in any young person, but they can be especially dangerous for people with diabetes. However, studies have shown that belly fat produces hormones and other substances that can cause serious health problems such as insulin resistance, high blood pressure, imbalanced cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Scientists have found that complex interactions in fat tissue draw immune cells to the area and trigger low-level chronic inflammation.
Normally, active muscles burn their stored glucose for energy and refill their reserves with glucose taken from the bloodstream, keeping blood glucose levels in balance. This, in turn, acts on the insulin-producing cells of the body (pancreatic beta cells) causing them to increase in size and number so that more insulin is produced. Expression of this molecule was also found to be important for glucose stimulation of insulin production. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of Content found on the Website. People with diabetes who also have high levels of total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol are at greatly increased risk for heart disease and strokes. Issues in the endocrine glands are often responsible for hormonal imbalances, and because hormones work along with other body systems, endocrine disorders often surface in other organs. This slow and steady delivery of glucose to the cells keeps the cells working consistently, and as a result, maintains the body’s energy levels throughout the day. This allows the body to feel full on foods that do not release too much glucose, limiting insulin spikes that can lead to Type s diabetes. Always check with your health professional before taking any products or following any advice that you believe may conflict with other forms of health care. Longer survival rates are probably due to improvements in monitoring and tighter control of blood glucose.
Other contributing factors are lack of health insurance and intentionally reducing insulin doses in order to lose weight, which occurs with adolescent girls in an effort to keep weight down.
It affects about 25% of patients who use insulin, nearly always people with type 1 diabetes. Urine tests showing microalbuminuria (small amounts of protein in the urine) are important markers for kidney damage.
Symptoms of kidney failure may include swelling in the feet and ankles, itching, fatigue, and pale skin color. Peripheral neuropathy usually starts in the fingers and toes and moves up to the arms and legs (called a stocking-glove distribution). Lowering triglycerides, losing weight, reducing blood pressure, and quitting smoking may help prevent the onset of neuropathy. If these processes affect the central portion of the retina, swelling may occur, causing reduced or blurred vision.
In this more severe condition, new abnormal blood vessels form and grow on the surface of the retina. Therefore, it is important that women with pre-existing diabetes (both type 1 and type 2) who are planning on becoming pregnant strive to maintain good glucose control for 3 - 6 months before pregnancy. Young people who do not control glucose are also at high risk for permanent damage in small vessels, such as those in the eyes. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. This inflammation can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and CVD. These data help dispel the controversy surrounding the function of growth hormone receptor on beta-cells by providing clear insight into its role on these cells. When levels of glucose in the blood rise (for example, after a meal), the pancreas produces more insulin.
Some people with type 2 diabetes become dependent on dialysis treatments because of kidney failure.
These include the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands, as well as the pancreas. This occurs when the Insulin response cannot properly manage the amount of glucose present in the blood.
Always consult your health care professional before you start, stop or change anything that has been previously prescribed.
Usually the condition is manageable, but, occasionally, it can be severe or even life threatening, particularly if the patient fails to recognize the symptoms, especially while continuing to take insulin or other hypoglycemic drugs. In such cases, hypoglycemia appears suddenly, without warning, and can escalate to a severe level. The outlook of end-stage renal disease has greatly improved during the last four decades for patients with type 1 diabetes, and fewer people with type 1 diabetes are developing ESRD.
The bones may crack, splinter, and erode, and the joints may shift, change shape, and become unstable.
Studies show that losing the weight can reduce insulin resistance and prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes, and is really a different disease.
Several tissues of other organ systems also contain hormone secreting glands and function as part of the endocrine system also.These include the stomach, liver, heart, bone marrow, adipose tissue, testicles, ovaries and skin. While Type 1 Diabetes is most often inherited genetically or prompted by illness, Type 2 Diabetes usually results from years of poor eating and lifestyle habits. Certain herbs and holistic remedies are unsuitable to take if you are pregnant or nursing and must always be cleared by your health professional before use. Even a single recent episode of hypoglycemia may make it more difficult to detect the next episode. It typically develops in people who have neuropathy to the extent that they cannot feel sensation in the foot and are not aware of an existing injury. Major hemorrhage or retinal detachment can result, causing severe visual loss or blindness.
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Type 2 Diabetes is far more prevalent than Type 1 and accounts for up to 95% of all Diabetes diagnosed.
With vigilant monitoring and by rigorously avoiding low blood glucose levels, patients can often regain the ability to sense the symptoms. Instead of resting an injured foot or seeking medical help, the patient often continues normal activity, causing further damage. The good news is that Type 2 Diabetes can be avoided or reversed with proper eating and lifestyle habits. However, even very careful testing may fail to detect a problem, particularly one that occurs during sleep.




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