Can diabetic patients eat pineapple your,any closer to a cure for type 1 diabetes genetic,new cure for type 2 diabetes 2014 viena,january 1 1970 bricked iphone glitch fixed - PDF Books


The first characteristic of diabetes is increased sugar level in the body and intake of carbohydrate foods leads to rise in blood sugar.
An association on diabetes control suggests taking whole grains like brown bread, brown rice, whole grain pasta, barley and quinoa as they are rich in fiber. Fruits should be taken in moderate quantity as they are a rich source of carbohydrates which raises the sugar levels in the body. You can take benefits of yogurt, cream, milk and acquire the necessary calcium and phosphorus by taking low fat dairy products with non fat milk. The sugar should be very limited and depending upon your blood sugar levels it should not be more than two spoons in a day.
Alcohol intake should be limited and that too when the blood sugar level is controlled.Alcohol should be taken with food and water and not alone as taking it alone will lead to negative side effects.
Chronic kidney disease patients, especially those in the stages of kidney failure, have to be careful with their diets. Chicken— Lean cuts of boneless, skinless chicken breasts are a delicious, high protein, high iron healthy meal entree.
Tofu— Tofu is a versatile soy product that can be used in many dishes as an entree or meat replacement.
Pork Chops— Another lean white meat, pork chops are easy to cook in a variety of ways and are high in protein and iron. Dried Apricots— Dried apricots are a delicious and easy snack for any time of the day, and are high in iron. Iron rich foods that are safe for kidney failure patients can be found just about anywhere, you just have to know what dangers to avoid and how to properly prepare.
Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes: Mediterranean DietPablo Perez-Martinez1, Antonio Garcia-Rios1, Javier Delgado-Lista1, Francisco Perez-Jimenez 1 and Jose Lopez-Miranda1[1] Department of Medicine, IMIBIC, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia,Universidad de Cordoba and CIBEROBN Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain1.
I’ve always assume if you have a family history of diabetes you sh Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) Global Prevalence of Diabetes.
Because the symptoms apply to both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes the quiz is also appropriate for parents to take for their children.
With the strict supervision of two doctors we formulated a plan to manage Type 1 Diabetes in a healthy way.
Living with certain health conditions, such as high blood pressure, can make navigating certain situations a little more difficult than usual. Most of the sodium and other unhealthy additives that you have to worry about are going to be in the sauces, so consider this when you are picking your toppings. One thing you can do to counteract some of the extra special foods you might be eating is to have fun and engage in some activity while you are out.
Wake up to a new dietObesity has shown an alarming increase in the UK in recent years - with unhealthy eating habits and lifestyle factors the main cause.
To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements.
The patients suffering from this type of diabetes are not able to produce adequate insulin in the body as the cells of the body are not capable to produce enough insulin in the body.
Carbohydrate counting is a diet in which a person takes control on the amount of the carbohydrate consumed at each and every meal. Vegetables that are low in calories but high in vitamins, minerals, fiber and other antioxidants should be taken.
Take moderate amount of unsaturated fats from liquid vegetable oils like avocado and sunflower as obesity complicates the problem of diabetes.
Substitute sugar with artificial sweeteners that are low in calories and helps to control the blood sugar. One main example is that protein rich foods are often on the restricted list because the extra proteins cannot be flushed from the body, which can lead to a buildup of protein waste. Most protein rich foods are also great sources of iron, which is a very important mineral to many bodily functions. Simply place in a pan, cover with foil and bake for 30 to 45 minutes on 350 degrees until cooked through.
Look for these specific types of burgers to fulfill your protein and iron needs while still being kidney friendly: turkey burgers, veggie burgers, and lean 100 percent beef burgers. Make sure that anytime you choose dried fruits that you are avoiding added sugars, oils or nitrates. Keep your eye out for these foods and increase your protein and iron intake, while enjoying delicious foods on your kidney safe diet.
So with these things in mind, let me tell you some healthy snacks for diabetics.Healthy SnacksA person who has diabetes should keep an eye on some things while planning out his diet.
IntroductionDiabetes mellitus is a chronic illness which has an outstanding impact on public health due to its increasing prevalence, poor prognosis, and due to the high impact on cardiovascular health. Garg, 1998High-monounsaturated-fat diets for patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Key words: diabetes mellitus coronary heart disease Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in diabetes mellitus It has been estimated that coronary artery disease is present in every second unselected diabetic patient.
As the symptoms of hyperglycaemia in Type 2 Diabetes can be extremely subtle many people are completely unaware they have diabetes at all. This page discusses guidelines for blood sugar levels usd by the American and Canadian Diabetes Associations for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes.
The MDPA will create a new benefit to provide coverage of the National Diabetes Prevention Program (National DPP) under Medicare. Aguirre Castaneda Urine ketones were kept in the moderate range to keep the effect of ketosis on seizure control. As long as you know what to look for, you can stress a little less and enjoy the festivities- and the food.
Not only are these healthier, leaner options, but you are less likely to have to deal with added ingredients. Barbecue sauce, ketchup, and other sauces are likely to contain a lot of sodium and sugar, so make sure that you are using these sauces in moderation or omitting them completely.
For example, if the grilled chicken is cooked with barbecue sauce on it already, try not to add any extra sauce. Look for crisp salads with low sodium or low fat dressings, grilled vegetables, corn on the cob, and other produce based side dishes. You can enjoy the food and festivities just as much as you always did, with the added knowledge that you are living a healthier life.
The Department of Health has called it a “wake up call” and is working with manufacturers to reduce fat, sugar and salt in food and drink, to help reduce life-threatening diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, which are all associated with obesity. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
Diet is an important factor that affects the type 2 diabetes.You need to consult with your physician before resorting to any diet change.
The foods that are rich source of carbohydrates are the foods that contain starch, fruit and milk. It divides different food items on the basis of carbohydrates, fat and protein content in them. You should also eat legumes and nuts every week as they are a rich source of protein and fiber.
This is because your kidneys are unable to process and filter out certain vitamins, minerals, and waste, nor can they carry out the many functions they are responsible for in the body.
Such is its importance, that diabetes is actually considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (which includes coronary heart disease and stroke).
Diabetic Diet Food List Pdf Iowa Des Moines however other autonomic symptoms can occur before syncope and these include impotence or ejaculatory dysfunction Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents.
If you are newly diagnosed as an adult I’m not surprised that it is relatively easy for you. The FDA has approved Kombiglyze XR (saxagliptin and metformin from Bristol-Myers Squibb and Diabetic Diet Food List Pdf Iowa Des Moines AstraZeneca) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adults.
In contrast to Type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas makes little or no insulin. Diabetes mellitus consists of a heterogenous group of conditions with diverse underlying Type 1 diabetes In healthy people low blood pressure is a sign of good heart and blood vessel health. He was later diagnosed as having had a stroke and suffering from aphasia (inability to speak) a well-known complication of type 1 diabetes high risk pregnancy california downey stroke (or other ain conditions). They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out regular blood tests and following a special diet. How do you navigate a barbecue when you are following a restrictive diet for high blood pressure? There are a few simple rules for you to keep in mind when navigating a barbecue with high blood pressure. Grilled fruits are absolutely delicious, and can add a lot of flavor to your plate without adding extra “bad stuff”. High blood pressure doesn’t mean that life is over or boring from here on out, it simply means that things are a little different and you have a chance to change your choices for the better. UK research also confirms concerns over bigger portion sizes in calorie-rich processed foods like take-aways, fast foods, snacks, confectionary and sugar sweetened drinks. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.
So check the label on the food to check the amount of carbohydrates before eating anything. Exchange is defined as the serving of a food from different groups of food that give a similar amount of carbohydrates, protein and fat.The foods are exchanged with each other in one group. So are you looking to find out what iron rich foods that you can eat with chronic kidney disease. For others, such as people on dialysis, those protein rich foods are actually recommended, because hemodialysis often depletes the body of so much. An iron deficiency, known as anemia, can lead to feeling faint or weak, fatigue, headaches, and shortness of breath. Soy takes on the flavors of the spices and sauces you use and can be a very versatile addition to your diet. With regards to snacking, people often think of foods that are high in sugar or added fats however, you have lots of other options. Moreover, the cardiovascular risk of individuals with diabetes is considered to be equivalent to the risk of nondiabetic individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular diesease.
Lemberg, 2002High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is the most effective prognostic measurement of acute coronary events. List of recent Treating (nsclc); treating pre-cachexia or early cachexia (preventing muscle wasting in a cancer patient) treating and The most challenging thing about canine diabetes is the fact that it may not have any symptoms at all. Ulcers can begin with narrow arteries that supply the legs to diabetes it can be treatment is diabetes acelet charm my own opinions.
Obesity signs of diabetes nerve damage ri providence and weight gain are two of the biggest factors in diabetes.
Diabetic Foot Care Clinic -Identifies those at high risk for diabetes foot ulceration by foot examination and some basic tests like dopplerbiothesiometryfoot pressure study. Hotdogs, of course, contain all sorts of preservatives and nitrates that are not heart healthy.
Instead of potato or macaroni salad, go for a whole baked potato with some low fat sour cream. Activity, as much as you are able, is a great way to work in being healthy when you are having fun. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site.
Snacking can also be important if you’re taking medication that could cause a blood-sugar low between meals. Therefore, persons with diabetes mellitus have an increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis and an increased prevalence of ahterogenic risk factors, notably hypertension, obesity, and anormal lipids.
Diabetic patients follow up at specified intervals is part of the care plan which should be Diabetic Diet Food List Pdf Iowa Des Moines considered first. High calorie food flopsThe most recent survey of UK diet and nutrition shows we're still eating too much saturated fat and sugar - well above healthy eating recommendations for both men and women. People with diabetes on certain types of tablets or insulin may require one snack between each meal as well as for supper.
This compendium of the abnormalities can be found in people with metabolic syndrome (MetS) which is now regarded as a prelude to diabetes and such as diabetes, MetS is a substantial predictor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality(Ford, et al. Giugliano, 2010Prevention and control of type 2 diabetes by Mediterranean diet: a systematic review. Giugliano, 2009bAdherence to a Mediterranean diet and glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Symptoms of women suffering a heart attack Symptoms of hyperglycemia May include blurred vision, fatigue, increased thirst and appetite and increased urination. A further study on how many exchanges to take from different food items can be made with the help of a dietician. However, most people planning to control their body weight may not require a snack between every meal. 2002).Morbidity and mortality from these chronic diseases in the general population have a multifactorial origin, resulting from the interaction between genetic background and environmental factors. Jialal, 2008High-fat, energy-dense, fast-food-style breakfast results in an increase in oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. Dietz, 2002Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Alcoholic drinks, fast foods, savoury snacks, confectionary, preserves and sugary drinks are our chief offenders. Among the latter, diet is probably the most relevant factor in order to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Tinahones, 2008Fat overload aggravates oxidative stress in patients with the metabolic syndrome.
Stefanadis, 2004Adherence to the Mediterranean diet attenuates inflammation and coagulation process in healthy adults: The ATTICA Study. Astrup, 2008Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: a 6mo randomized, controlled trial. Thus, it has been demonstrated that medical nutrition therapy is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least slowing, the rate of development of diabetes complications.
Willett, 2007Dietary patterns, insulin resistance, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in women.


We're also not good at reaching our '5 a day' portions of fruit and vegetables, with most of us finding it hard to manage more than 3 portions a day. But make sure you only have a handful of those as they add a lot of calories and should be consumed moderately.
The basis of what constitutes optimal nutrition has been the subject of decades of research spanning the whole range of study designs, from ecological studies to in vitro modulation of gene expression. Giugliano, 2004Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial.
Walnuts, pecans, peanuts, and cashews are also good options.Avocado With BalsamicWhen you are in the mood for a luscious snack, slice an avocado in two, remove the pit, and drizzle with balsamic vinegar.
Gonzalez-Correa, 2010Virgin olive oil administration improves the effect of aspirin on retinal vascular pattern in experimental diabetes mellitus.
Fuentes, et al.2008Chronic dietary fat intake modifies the postprandial response of hemostatic markers to a single fatty test meal. Marrugat, al, 2007Effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet on lipoprotein oxidation: a randomized controlled trial. Perez-Jimenez, 2008Chronic effects of a high-fat diet enriched with virgin olive oil and a low-fat diet enriched with alpha-linolenic acid on postprandial endothelial function in healthy men. Ordovas, et al.2001Mediterranean and low-fat diets improve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic men.
On average we consume about 20% more than the recommended daily amounts – which are no more than 30 grams a day for a man and no more than 20 grams a day for a woman.
Get used to checking nutrition labels – they will often tell you how much fat and salt is in your choice, with some highlighting the amount of saturated fat, or sugar, too.
Avocados are also packed with potassium, a mineral that aids nerve function to assist prevent diabetic neuropathy.Whole Grain CrackersWhole grain crackers buck you up with complex carbohydrates. Thus, the MedDiet pattern is built on the basis of a consumption of fat primarily from foods high in MUFA (olive oil as the principal source of fat), and emphasizes the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and fish, as well as a moderate consumption of alcohol. Complex carbohydrates take more time to become absorbed in the body and hence keep you feeling full for an extended amount of time. In this regard, the MedDiet pattern has been associated with higher survival due to lower all cause mortality(Knoops, et al.
You are able to get them in various flavors too, so consider those!PopcornAnother good news is that you do not need to restrain yourself on popcorn the next time you go for any movie. A recent meta-analysis of prospective studies based on 1.5 million subjects and 40,000 fatal and non-fatal events showed that a greater adherence to this dietary pattern was significantly associated with a reduction of overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cancer incidence and cancer mortality, and incidence of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease(Sofi, et al. Then share your portion of chips and add a side salad or veg to help balance the meal and reduce calories.
In addition, a recently cross-sectional assessment of baseline data from a cohort of high-risk participants in the PREDIMED study, a large-scale feeding trial of primary cardiovascular prevention(Sanchez-Tainta, et al. FruitsNot being allowed to consume sugar concentrated foods, it severely restricts the options of fruits for diabetics, but you will find some fruits which are specifically recommended for diabetics like apple (with skin), grapefruit, blueberries, and apricots. 2008), showed that adherence to the MedDiet was inversely associated with the clustering of diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.
The follow-up of large cohorts of healthy populations living in Mediterranean countries, such as the Greek EPIC(Psaltopoulou, et al. Chill the remainder and have it for dinner tomorrow – and add a large portion of veg to fill your plate without loading the calories. Healthier choicesWholemeal bread and brown rice and pasta instead of white varieties help improve your diet by adding fibre and minerals such as selenium.
But baked sweet potato fries really are a super-healthy choice for people concerned about their blood sugar.
Choose sugar-free or diet squash and fizzy drinks to lose the sugar, lose the calories and help protect your teeth. Although a 150ml portion counts as one of your 'five a day', limit fruit juice to once a day as it's a concentrated source of natural sugars that adds calories to your diet.
Sweet potatoes possess a lower glycemic index than other spuds, which helps soften their effect on your blood sugar.
And research shows that their high carotenoid content might be particularly useful in the blood sugar battle with regards to managing diabetes.PistachiosPistachios would be the another healthy nuts for diabetics. Most of us consume too much salt, increasing our risk of high blood pressure which contributes to our heart disease and stroke risk.
2009) study cohorts, are providing new information suggesting that increasing adherence to the MedDiet relates to a reduced prevalence of risk phenotypes. The proportions of food on the Eatwell Guide, shown here, provide a useful starting point for adopting a healthier diet.
And also the calcium in dairy foods like yogurt may hinder the absorption of fat in the small intestine and stymie the birth of new fat cells — good news for your waistline if you want to trim some belly fat. In this regard, the MedDiet pattern is being reconsidered as the one of the more holistic approaches for the control of metabolic diseases including at the same time salutary and pleasure components.
Make at least one of your snacks fruit based, and cook extra vegetables with your main meal. Top it with fruit for any naturally sweet treat or use it in place of sour cream in veggie dips. In this regard, pioneering nutritional strategies, such as nutraceuticals, have been developed aimed at reducing the main metabolic risk factors and promoting cardiovascular health. Second, choose wholemeal bread, brown rice or wholegrain pasta for the fibre benefits, and to help you feel fuller for longer. In this context, a growing body of clinical evidence has demonstrated positive cardiovascular effects associated with olive oil, antioxidants, and polyphenols intake. Third, add modest amounts of protein-rich foods (meats, fish, or pulses and beans if you’re vegetarian), and dairy foods, soya milk or tofu if you prefer for their calcium and protein content. Traditionally, many beneficial properties associated with olive oil have been ascribed to its high oleic acid content. Olive oil, however, can be considered a functional food that, besides having high-MUFA content, contains other minor components with biological properties(Perez-Jimenez, et al.
Portion controlResearch suggests it's not just the type of foods that damage our health and increase our weight gain - it's the portion sizes we enjoy.
Food servings have increased significantly over the years, whether we eat at home or in restaurants. Thus, phenolic compounds have shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties(Lopez-Miranda, et al. We even use bigger plates at home than we did two decades ago - and we like to fill them!Super-sized meals will super size you too!
Carvery meals are the easiest to eat healthily with – they limit your meat portions but allow you free choice of healthy veg to fill up your plate, but don't go back for seconds!
New rulesRemember when mum told you to finish your meal as to leave some would be wasteful? Unfortunately that may have coloured your attitude to meals in later life, and if we eat more than we need, we'll pile on the weight.
If you're cooking for younger children, remember to give them 'me sized meals' and if you're watching your waistline, don't overfill your plate when serving, and make sure seconds are of the veg or salad foods only!
Therefore, all those evidences suggest that MedDiet could serve as an antiinflammatory dietary pattern, which could help fighting diseases that are related to chronic inflammation, such as MetS and type 2 diabetes.
In this context, it has been clearly demonstrated that many components of the MedDiet have been considered to be important in the treatment and modulation of cardiometabolic diseases.
In the present chapter, we review the state of the art illustrating the relationship between MedDiet rich in olive oil and metabolic diseases, including MetS and diabetes mellitus and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment.2. Mediterranean diet and diabetesIn the last decade the incidence of conditions associated with insulin resistance, including metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, is increasing rapidly worldwide. Low in calories and will help fill you up.Why not ask for a second starter as your main course, and add a salad or vegetable dish alongside.Fancy a high calorie dish like onion rings, or mushrooms in garlic? Although pharmacological interventions are available for minimizing or delaying the comorbidities associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, as well as diabetes, initial management for the vast majority of the affected population remains focused on lifestyle modification, consisting of sustainable changes in dietary habits and physical activity.
Share the guilt with a friend and half your calories between you.Don't order a pudding until your main meal has chance to settle.
Lifestyle modification, in particular recommendations to follow an appropriate dietary pattern, has generally been accepted as a cornerstone of treatment for people with these conditions, with the expectation that an appropriate intake of energy and nutrients will improve glycaemic control and will reduce the risk of complications.
The factors that regulate body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and associated metabolic disturbances are not fully understood. Nevertheless, increasing scientific evidence suggests that dietary habits may be an important environmental factor regulating glucose and fat metabolism(Phillips, et al. Epidemiological studies indicate that Western-style dietary patterns promote the MetS, while diets rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, fish and low-fat dairy products have a protective role(Esmaillzadeh, et al. It is just as quick to cook, and doesn't taste much different, but adds important dietary fibre to our daily diets.Choose tomato based sauce rather than cheese or cream based saucesUse low-fat mayonnaise or dressing when making pasta salad.
Sizing up meat1 portion of meat or fish = the palm of your handThat's a portion around 85g in weight which provides around 16-20g of high quality protein. Unlike body fat stores we can't store protein, so it's important to have protein daily in our diet. In the same line, two studies in Southern European populations showed that a greater adherence to the MedDiet was associated with reduced prevalence (Panagiotakos, et al. Lean protein, like meat, fish, chicken, eggs, beans or nuts, helps maintain our muscle mass and helps control hunger pangs. Handy veg1 portion of fruit or vegetables = a handful or around 80g5-a-day is recommended when it comes to fruits and veg and more is okay too.
To date, several feeding trials have assessed the effect of dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome status (Azadbakht, et al. Lighten up with riceA portion of cooked rice = a large, heaped serving spoon, or half a mug of cooked rice.Rice has little fat and is relatively low in calories, although for added nutritional value serve with healthy vegetables such as broccoli, peppers, onions or carrots.
For healthy options, try:Steaming instead of frying rice for a low calorie mealBrown rice is packed with more fibre than white rice, but it does take longer to cook. Savoury snacksProbably the hardest foods for portioning, given crisps, tortilla chips, and peanuts are available in such a variety of pack size.Have a crisp craving? These studies used a behavioral program to implement a relatively low-fat MedDiet(Esposito et al. Choose a pack from a multipack – they usually weigh in around 22-25g a packet, and provide less than 120kcal a pack. 2004), intensive lifestyle intervention with inclusion of a vegetable-rich diet restricted in animal fat (Orchard et al.
One study on crisps in tubes showed if a marker crisp of another colour was inserted in the column, nibbling was reduced. Keep sweets in check1 serving = 1 ice-cream scoop or one dessertspoon ballDesserts can wreck a healthy diet, so try and make them a twice-weekly treat rather than daily. That's a four portion serving, not servings for one or two.Premium ice-cream lollies provide a massive amount of calories, up to 50% more than a bar of chocolate. 2005) used energy-restricted diets that led to some degree of weight loss, while one study(Salas-Salvado et al. Their small amount of chocolate and lower-fat ice cream helps keep them low in calories.Having plain ice-cream? In all these studies, a decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was shown in the intervention groups. Go easy on the syrups and sauces, and for a healthy alternative add tinned or fresh fruit as a topping.Frozen yoghurt is a healthy lower fat, calcium rich alternative to ice-cream.
Moreover, in a subgroup of this study including the Reus PREDIMED Centre some components of the MedDiet, such as olive oil, legumes and red wine were associated with lower prevalence of MetS (Babio, et al.
On the other hand, results of a study in overweight, insulin-resistant patients also suggest that, by comparison with a low-fat diet, a MUFA-rich diet prevents the redistribution of body fat from peripheral to visceral adipose tissue without affecting total body weight(Paniagua, et al. 2010).Because diabetes is a frequent outcome in patients with sustained MetS, it is reasonable to assume that the MedDiet might also prevent the development of diabetes in predisposed persons or beneficially influence the metabolic abnormalities associated with the diabetic status(Giugliano and Esposito 2008). In this context, two prospective studies from Southern European cohorts suggest a lower incidence of diabetes with increasing adherence to the MedDiet in previously healthy persons(Martinez-Gonzalez, et al.
In contrast, in the absence of weight loss, the low-fat diet used in the Women’s Health Initiative trial(Tinker, et al.
Furthermore, in the set of the PREDIMED study, it has been tested the effects of two MedDiet interventions versus a low-fat diet on incidence of diabetes. Interestingly, when the two MedDiet groups were pooled and compared with the control group, diabetes incidence was reduced by 52%. In all study arms, increased adherence to the MedDiet was inversely associated with diabetes incidence. It is also important to highlight that diabetes risk reduction occurred in the absence of significant changes in body weight or physical activity.
These results extend those of prior studies showing that lifestyle interventions can substantially reduce the incidence of diabetes in individuals at high risk(Knowler, et al.
However, in these studies, the interventions consisted of advice on a calorie-restricted diet plus physical activity and, except for one study(Ramachandran et al. 2006), weight loss was a major driving force in reducing the incidence of diabetes(Salas-Salvado, et al.
2011).Diets high in SFA consistently impair both insulin sensitivity and blood lipids, while substituting carbohydrates or MUFA for SFA reverts these abnormalities(Riccardi, et al. Postprandial lipemia and glucose homeostasis are also improved after meals containing MUFA from olive oil compared to meals rich in SFA(Lopez, et al.
Thus, an examination of the association of dietary and membrane fatty acids with insulin secretion in the cross-sectional Pizarra study(Rojo-Martinez, et al. 2006) showed that dietary MUFA contributed to the variability of ?-cell function, with a favorable relationship of MUFA with ?-cell insulin secretion, independently of the level of insulin resistance.The question as to what was the best nutrient to replace energy sources from SFA in the diabetic diet, carbohydrates or MUFA, was also hotly debated.
Since the late 1980’s, many feeding trials have compared the effects of isoenergetic high carbohydrates (CHO) and high MUFA diets on insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects and on glycemic and lipid control in diabetic patients(Garg 1998; Ros 2003). Garg’s meta-analysis(Garg 1998) favored high MUFA diets, but most of the studies reviewed therein were performed with metabolic diets having wide differences in total fat content between the two experimental diets, ranging from 15% to 25% of energy.
Nevertheless, high MUFA diets generally had more favorable effects on proatherogenic alterations associated with the diabetic status, such as dyslipidemia, postprandial lipemia, small LDL, lipoprotein oxidation, inflammation, thrombosis, and endothelial dysfunction(Ros 2003).
Although we will discuss this point later, of particular interest is the ability of the olive oil-rich MedDiet to improve mild systemic inflammation, as shown by the reduction of C-reactive protein and inflammatory cytokines in the study of Esposito et al.(Esposito et al.
2006) in diabetic patients and other subjects at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). In addition, in a cross-sectional analysis of a population of type 2 diabetic patients, the adherence to a MedDiet was inversely associated with glycosylated haemoglobin and postprandial glucose levels during free living conditions, independent of age, adiposity, energy intake, physical activity and other potential confounders(Esposito, et al. This association was apparent even although no strong associations were evident for each of the components of the MedDiet score, except for a modest association with whole grains and the ratio of MUFA to saturated lipids. However its cross-sectional nature does not allow us to make inference about cause and effect.


Furthermore a systematic review of the available studies confirmed that adopting a MedDiet may help to prevent type 2 diabetes, and also improve glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk in persons with established diabetes(Esposito, et al. 2010).Despite the beneficial effect attributed to the MedDiet, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes be treated with pharmacotherapy as well as lifestyle changes(Nathan, et al. The rationale for combination therapy is presumably that each form of treatment alone is imperfect. Lifestyle changes are often inadequate because patients do not lose weight or regain weight or their diabetes worsens independent of weight.
After 4 years, they found that the MedDiet delayed the need for antihyperglycemic drug therapy.
There were no differences in the degree to which participants in each group increased their physical activity or decreased their caloric intake, so the effect seems specific to the MedDiet and is probably, although not exclusively, linked to its ability to induce greater weight loss, in accord with results of a recent trial(Shai, et al. The between-group difference in the proportion of people needing antihyperglycemic drug therapy increased over the course of the trial and favored the MedDiet, whereas the between-group differences in weight loss decreased. 2008), and this component of the diet might explain the favorable effect of the MedDiet on the need for drug therapy. In summary, although more data are mandatory, there is good scientific support for MedDiet diets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach to low-fat diets for the medical nutritional therapy in MetS and diabetes.3.
Protective mechanisms of mediterranean diet Several mechanistic links offer potential explanations of protective effect of the MedDiet on type 2 diabetes.
Excessive oxidative stress and inflammation are closely associated with the pathogenesis of many human diseases (such obesity, MetS, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and aging).
The potential reversal of those conditions can be achieved by reducing the levels of inflammation through the consumption of an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern.
Usually this may occur through the reduction of systemic vascular inflammation and endothelium dysfunction without having a drastic effect on body weight. Phenolic compounds are the focus of intense research in the last years, due to the biological properties that they have proven, mainly as potent antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents; therefore, they can modulate signal transduction pathways to elicit their beneficial effects in human diseases.
It is of note that phenols are not uniquely represented in olive oil in the traditional MedDiet, but also in other classic foods, such as wine, fruits and vegetables. Beyond this, epidemiological and interventional studies have revealed a protective effect of the MedDiet against mild chronic inflammation and its metabolic complications (Chrysohoou, et al. Inflammation and oxidative stressThe origins of heightened inflammatory activity in diabetes are diverse. In type 1 diabetes, islet inflammation is thought to be a local phenomenon driven by a focal autoimmune attack on islet antigens.
By contrast, in type 2 diabetes, activation of inflammation results from systemic etiologic factors, such as central obesity and insulin resistance. Ultimately inflammatory mediators activate a series of receptors and transcription factors such as NF-?b, toll-like receptors, c-Jun amino terminal kinase, and the receptor for advanced glycation end products, which lead to ?-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, impaired insulin signaling in insulin-sensitive tissues, systemic endothelial dysfunction, and altered vascular flow.
NF-?B is a pleiotropic transcription factor activated by low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited by antioxidants(Mantena and Katiyar 2006).
This factor regulates the expression of several cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, immunoreceptors and inflammatory enzymes(Piva, et al. 2006), molecules that are involved in disease such as atherosclerosis and insulin resistance.
Certain stimuli result in the phosphorylation, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of I?B proteins thereby enabling translocation of this transcription factor into the nucleus.
In this context, an interesting aspect was the demonstration that supplementing an endothelial cell culture with oleic acid reduces the transcriptional activation of this factor in these cells, similar to what is done by ?-linolenic acid, and the opposite of the inflammatory effect of linoleic acid.
Both linoleic and stearic fatty acids activated endothelial cells more markedly than did either oleic or linolenic fatty acids.
Also, compared with control cultures, treatment with stearic and linoleic acids decreased glutathione concentrations, which suggested an increase in cellular oxidative stress. Previous studies have confirmed that fat consumption induced the activation of inflammatory markers(Jellema, et al. In this regard, Bellido and Perez-Martinez have previously demonstrated that the MedDiet, enriched in virgin olive oil, attenuated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) NF-?B activation compared with a Western SFA rich diet, and the effect of an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet was intermediate in young healthy population(Bellido, et al. These findings suggest that virgin olive oil could be a possible contributor to prevent the activation of NF-?B system, within the frame of the MedDiet. Besides olive oil, the MedDiet contents other source of potentially cardioprotective nutrients from fruits and vegetables which could also enhance this beneficial effect.
In contrast, the opposite effect has been observed after the chronic intake of a Western diet rich in saturated fatty acids, corroborating previous data after the acute intake of a butter meal.
The effect of a high CHO diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids on the NF-?B activation was intermediate. In this sense, previous data have suggested that n-3 ?-linolenic acid found mainly in plants and walnuts may reduce cardiovascular risk through a variety of biological mechanisms, including inhibiting vascular inflammation. 2007) explored the effects of an extra-virgin olive oil extract, particularly rich in minor polar compounds, on NF-?B translocation in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from healthy volunteers.
In a concentration-dependent manner, olive oil extract inhibited p50 and p65 NF-?B translocation in both un-stimulated and phorbol-myristate acetate challenged cells, being particularly effective on the p50 subunit. Interestingly, this effect occurred at concentrations found in human plasma after nutritional ingestion of virgin olive oil and was quantitatively similar to the effect exerted by ciglitazone, a PPAR-? ligand.
However, olive oil extract did not affect PPAR-? expression in monocytes and monocye-derived macrophages(Brunelleschi et al. On the other hand, NF-?B has been shown to regulate the expression of several adhesion molecules in response to inflammatory stimuli, including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and cell adhesion molecule 1(VCAM-1)(Ghosh, et al.
1999) observed, in an endothelial cell culture model, that the incorporation of oleic acid into cellular membrane lipids reduced the expression of VCAM-1. Furthermore, it has been observed that the expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), following the addition of minimally oxidised LDL, was less with LDL obtained from persons who had followed a diet rich in olive oil than from persons whose diet was rich in saturated fat(Bellido, et al. This anti-inflammatory action of MUFA also explains the fact that the enrichment of LDL particles with oleic acid, during the consumption of different types of diet, reduces their capacity to induce monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion. In accordance with these results, a previous study has shown that LDL obtained from a MUFA-rich diet induced a lower rate of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells(Mata, et al. The mechanism by which LDL from carbohydrate and MedDiets induces a lower expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin is unknown; however several hypotheses have been suggested, for instance, the interaction of mononuclear leukocytes with vascular endothelial cells is most likely mediated by a complex amalgam of interacting regulatory signals in the inflammatory response characteristic of early atherogenesis.
In another study including healthy subjects, virgin olive oil reduced plasma levels of ICAM-1(Bellido et al. This anti-inflammatory effect has also been observed in MetS patients who modified their diet for two years. In the group that followed a MedDiet model, the prevalence of this syndrome was reduced, improved insulin sensitivity and lowered the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6, 7 and 18. Compared with participants in the low-fat group, after 3 months those in the MedDiet groups had decreased levels of C-reactive protein. Moreover, people who eat the MedDiet that includes virgin olive oil reduce their levels of oxidized LDL, as suggested by the results of a subgroup analysis of the PREDIMED study carried out in 372 participants at high risk for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes(Fito, et al. Furthermore new data suggest that virgin olive oil intake was associated with higher levels of plasma antioxidant capacity after 3 years of intervention(Razquin, et al. In summary, based in the above evidences presented, we could assume that the MedDiet rich in nutrients with favorable anti-inflammatory properties may protect from metabolic diseases that are related to chronic inflammation and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, such as MetS and diabetes. Postprandial stateWhen explaining possible mechanisms is important to recall that fasting is not the typical physiological state of the modern human being, which spends most the time in the postprandial state.
Therefore, the assessment of the postprandial lipemic response may be more relevant to identify disturbances in metabolic pathways related to inflammation and oxidative stress than measures taken in the fasting state. With regard to the postprandial state, several previous studies have demonstrated that a breakfast enriched in saturated fat resulted in an increase in biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress(Cardona, et al.
In this regard, the identification of increased expression of TNF-?, a proinflammatory cytokine, in the adipose tissue of obese mice and humans has been correlated with the degree of adiposity and associated with insulin resistance.
This fact is crucial given than insulin resistance will drive towards an increase in oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and impairments in lipoprotein metabolism and blood pressure.
However, the effects of the three fatty breakfasts on the plasma concentrations of these proinflammatory parameters showed no significant differences. The fact that we only found differences in the expression of TNF-? at mRNA levels in PBMCs following the intake of the three breakfasts may be due to that the synthesis and secretion processes of these proteins do not happen simultaneously, and to the short half-life of cytokines(Futterman and Lemberg 2002; Kishimoto 2005).
Endothelial functionIn the last years another interesting observation is that dietary fat may affect the endothelium(Berry, et al. Several studies have shown that the acute administration of a high-fat meal induces a transitory disruption of endothelial function. Moreover, the effect of chronic consumption of a high-fat diet on endothelial function has also been evaluated. One study showed that a Mediterranean-style diet administered during 28 days to healthy subjects, attenuated plasma markers of endothelial activation, suggesting an improvement in endothelial function(Perez-Jimenez et al. Similarly, the chronic consumption of low-fat diets and Mediterranean-style diets improve endothelial function compared to a high-fat Western-type diet in hypercholesterolemic patients(Fuentes, et al.
On the other hand, previous studies also demonstrated that postprandial lipemia induces endothelial dysfunction(Anderson, et al. This study demonstrated that the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response was greater after the ingestion of the high-MUFA diet.
Moreover this diet also induced lower postprandial sVCAM-1 levels and higher bioavailability of NOx compared with the other two diets(Fuentes et al. Therefore, those data carried out in the postprandial state support previous evidences suggesting that dietary patterns similar to those of the Mediterranean-style diet exert positive effects on components of the MetS and other conditions associated with, including endothelial dysfunction(Esposito, et al. In addition, this diet induced lower postprandial plasma levels of lipoperoxides, protein carbonyls concentration and superoxide dismutase activity compared to subjects adhering to the other three diets(Perez-Martinez, et al. Furthermore, postprandial plasma hydrogen peroxide levels were unfavourable increased during the high-SFA diet compared to the other three diets(Perez-Martinez et al. These findings suggest that the postprandial state is important for understanding possible cardio-protective effects associated with the MedDiet particularly in subject with the MetS.
In addition, these findings support recommendations to consume a high MUFA diet as a useful tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases in MetS patients. CoagulationBoth endothelial cells and macrophages contribute to the generation of altered vasoreactivity and a procoagulant state through increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 and tissue factor and through platelet activation and acute phase reactions that increase levels of coagulation factors such as fibrinogen and factor VIII. Many of these molecules enter the circulation at levels that correlate with the degree of inflammatory activity.
It has been well stablished that consumption of MedDiet as a dietary pattern, and virgin olive oil as it main fat source, is accompanied by a decrease in thrombogenesis, combining a decrease in coagulation factors and by platelet aggregation (Delgado-Lista, et al. In other words, adhering to MedDiet may act as a prophylaxis for the appearance of thrombotic driven cardiovascular events. Reinforcing this hypothesis, some authors have recently published in vitro and animal studies in which they show antiaggregant properties of virgin olive oil comparable in efficacy to those of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).
Even more, virgin olive oil and ASA, when in combination, act synergically to further inhibit platelet activation and aggregation(6, 10). Although the cited studies have been realized mostly in healthy persons, diabetic persons may also benefit from the antithrombogenic effects of MedDiet.
As an example, Rasmussen et al showed how non-insulin dependent diabetic patients who were fed a MUFA-rich diet for three weeks decreased their von Willebrand factor (an important procoagulant factor) when compared to a carbohydrate-rich diet.
The same authors, in an elegant design, compared the effects of two diets similar in carbohydrate and protein content, one rich in MUFA (30 energy %) and one rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (30 energy %).
NutrigenomicsIt has been recently demonstrated the effects that phenolic fraction of olive oil exert at transcriptional level in vivo. To this end, two virgin olive oil-based breakfasts with high and low content of phenolic compounds were administered to 20 MetS patients following a double blinded, randomized, crossover design. They demonstrated that intake of virgin olive oil rich in phenol compounds is able to repress in vivo expression of several pro-inflammatory genes, thereby switching activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a less deleterious inflammatory profile. In the same context, the consumption of a MedDiet with virgin olive oil, rich in polyphenols, decreased plasma oxidative and inflammatory status and the gene expression related with both inflammation (INF-gamma, Rho GTPase-activating protein15, and interleukin-7 receptor) and oxidative stress (adrenergic beta(2)-receptor) in PBMCs from healthy volunteers(Konstantinidou, et al. Moreover the same authors demonstrated the hypothesis that 3 weeks of nutritional intervention with virgin olive oil supplementation, at doses common in the MedDiet, can alter the expression of genes related to atherosclerosis development and progression(Khymenets, et al. 2010) have confirmed in a population at high cardiovascular risk, that the MedDiet rich in olive oil influences expression of key genes involved in vascular inflammation, thrombosis and, in general, on atherosclerosis susceptibility. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated in mice that olive oil up-regulates uncoupling protein (UCP) genes in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle(Rodriguez, et al.
2002), which is important given that UCP have been related with the regulation of body fat in mammals across its participation on the system of thermogenesis(Cypess, et al. It is well reported that mitochondrial biogenesis could, in part, underlie the central role of adipose tissue in the control of whole-body metabolism and the actions of some insulin sensitizers and that mitochondrial dysfunction might be an important contributing the symptoms of MetS(Wilson-Fritch, et al.
These data suggest that HT is able to promote mitochondrial function by stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis. This mitochondrial targeting property may provide a possible mechanism for the efficacy of the MedDiet for lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease and also suggests that HT may be used as a therapeutic intervention for preventing and treating diabetes mellitus and obesity(Hao, et al. Summary and future directionBecause unhealthy eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle are among the strongest risk factors for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, modification of eating habits and physical activity constitutes an important component of any successful management program. In this chapter we reviewed the state of the art illustrating the relationship between MedDiet rich in olive oil and metabolic diseases, and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment. Epidemiological and intervention studies indicate that MedDiet, thanks to its set of benefits, may protect from metabolic diseases that are related to chronic inflammation and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, such as MetS and diabetes. However, despite the significant advances of the last years, the final proof about the specific mechanisms and contributing role of the different dietary models and nutrients to its beneficial effects requires further investigations. In the future, the integrated application of approaches that are becoming available in functional genomics, metabonomics, lipidomics, microbiota, cronobiology, proteomic techniques, and bioinformatics analysis, will lead to a more highly integrated understanding of its positive effects on health. In this context the recent advances in human nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics, two fields with distinct approaches to elucidate the interaction between diet and genes but with a common ultimate goal to optimize health through the personalization of diet, will provide powerful approaches to unravel the complex relationship between nutritional molecules, genetic polymorphisms, and the biological system as a whole. On the other hand efforts should be put into identifying those micronutrients in olive oil that have the greatest beneficial effects on health. In conclusion after decades of epidemiological, clinical and experimental research, it has become clear that consumption of Mediterranean dietary patterns rich in olive oil have a profound influence on health outcomes. Thus, there is good scientific support for recommend MedDiets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach for the medical nutritional therapy in obesity, MetS and diabetes.5. AcknowledgementsCiber Fisiopatologia Obesidad y Nutricion, CIBEROBN, is an initiative of ISCIII government of Spain. Also supported by Centro de Excelencia Investigadora en Aceite de Oliva y Salud (CEAS) and FEDER, Fondo Social Europeo.



Gl752 asus review
Diabetes care pdf 2013
Can undiagnosed diabetes cause death 2009
Jan reussens overleden




Comments

  1. VersacE

    California, eating lots of animal protein and cheese quadruples it's a medically supported, three-month, low-carb food plan.

    09.09.2014

  2. Delfin

    Sure that you at least avoid those containing learn concerning the American Diabetes highly manageable.

    09.09.2014