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Although the enzyme doesn’t change the change in free energy, it does lower the activation energy and thus allowing reactants to react with less energy. As the concentration of enzymes increase, the rate of reaction increases linearly and proportionately because the more enzymes there are, the more available active sites and therefore the more products that will be produced. As the number of substrates increase, the rate of reaction also increases linearly, that is, up to the saturation point, where the graph becomes constant. Similar to optimal temperature, enzymes have optimal pH at which they function most efficiently.
6)    The effect of adding a competitive inhibitor (with a substrate concentration that is constant) on enzyme activity or reaction rate.
Competitive inhibitors, who bind to active sites and prevent substrates from attaching to the active sites, reduce the productivity of enzymes, thus lowering enzyme activity. In contrast to competitive inhibitors, noncompetitive inhibitors, or allosteric regulators, prevent substrates from binding to active sites by forcing the enzyme to change its shape, therefore disrupting the shape of the active site and invalidating the substrate. Cofactors are inorganic substrates that are sometimes necessary for some enzymes to catalyse substrates. Good blood sugar control today will reduce the risk of damage to kidneys and other organs tomorrow.
Early detection of kidney damage is important, but there might not be noticeable symptoms in the early stages. Keeping blood sugar as close to normal as possible is the first step to preventing kidney disease.
Educating individuals on best ways to avoid this and other diabetes complications is a goal of self-management courses. Whether you have already planned a summer vacation or still in the process, incorporate your pump or CGM needs into your travel plans instead of treating your needs as an afterthought or an overwhelming fear.
You can obtain a Transportation Security Administration Card to print out and bring with you to notify TSA of your diabetes can be found online. Always have Plan B in place in case something goes wrong with your current device, such as carrying syringes or pens to give injections and carrying extra supplies in case you run low.
Be sure to carry some form of prescription or letter from your physician that treats you for your diabetes.
Carry all of your medicines, such as insulin, and all related supplies in your carry-on baggage. If you wear an insulin pump or continuous glucose monitoring device, it is OK to continue to keep them on as you go through security at airports or terminals. A printed checklist might help elevate stress and keep your plan in your hands, front and center. Learning how to handle life’s challenges like traveling and treatment plans is a covered topic in diabetes self-management courses.
Although the calendar says the influenza season should be over, cases of the flu are increasing into March 2016 instead of winding down to a close.
A sick day plan should include these elements of good blood sugar control.  Monitoring, meals and medications are key while exercise or physical activity is usually halted during the illness. The sick individual needs to follow a schedule for monitoring that gives the diabetes care team information to direct the modifications for the patient’s needs. Recording temperature, blood sugar, medication amount and time, fluid and food intake and the presence of ketones are highly important on sick days.
A log to monitor the sickness over time, glucose meter, lancets, lancing device, test strips, control solution, and a bottle of Ketostix should be included in a sick day management tool kit. The start of each year is a prime time to consider your life, health and ways to improve both. Timely – I will make an appointment with my care team every three months in 2016 to evaluate my A1C with hopes to start 2017 near 7.5. Other goals that will impact blood sugar control include getting regular and sufficient exercise, gaining or losing weight, following a diabetes nutrition plan, and being more compliant to medication schedules. The National Diabetes Education Program, a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), offers an online resource for making a plan for success. The CGM reads blood sugar levels every one to five minutes and shows whether a person’s blood sugar is rising or falling. The diabetes educators at Diabetes Management & Supplies can help take the guess-work out of your monitoring needs. Insulin pumps and Continuous Glucose Monitoring devices work best when insertion sites and parts and accessories are changed as recommended. Insertion site management refers to choosing the best locations on your body to place insertion sets and sensors, but it also involves the frequency in which the site is changed and new supplies are put in place.
John Wright, Diabetes Management & Supplies Director of Sales, wears an insulin pump and stresses that site management can affect the level of blood sugar control.
Insulin pump wearers will experience poorer blood sugar control when a site has been used too long before rotation.
It is recommended that CGM sensors be changed every six to seven days, but infusion sets should be changed every two to three days. Insulin pump use will require supplies that include insertion sets, reservoirs, tubing, cartridge caps, batteries, dressings and adhesives.
CGM devices will require supplies that include sensors, receivers, transmitters and batteries.
To ensure the best results, keep an eye on your supplies on hand and always place reorders enough in advance that you don’t run out of supplies or over use your insertion sites. The holiday season may help bring attention to a rarely-discussed diabetes symptom: depression. The American Diabetes Association explains that people with diabetes are at a greater risk to depression and the complications of poorly controlled blood sugars are very similar to the symptoms of depression. Spotting depression in yourself or someone you love is an important step to countering depressions effects. Change in sleep patterns: You have trouble falling asleep, you wake often during the night, or you want to sleep more than usual, including during the day. Change in appetite: You eat more or less than you used to, resulting in a quick weight gain or weight loss. This month (November) is Diabetes Awareness Month, a time set aside to education and inspire those living with a form of diabetes and those who can take steps to reduce their risk of the preventable conditions associated with diabetes.


Type 1 Diabetes accounts for only 5 – 10 percent of all cases, and used to be called juvenile diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90 – 95 percent of all cases. The causes of Type 2 Diabetes are not completely understood, but it almost always starts with insulin resistance. The causes of Gestational Diabetes have not been determined, but the many hormonal changes during pregnancy contribute to what is called insulin resistance – which is your body not using the insulin that your pancreas produces. For more on these forms of diabetes, visit the Diabetes Management & Supplies Learning Center. Diabetes is a disease caused by the absolute (lack of production) or relative (increased resistance at the tissues of the body) to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. The dose of insulin required for individual patients depend on the type of diabetes, height, weight, blood glucose level, insulin resistance and comorbidities (diseases the patients are suffering apart from diabetes).
There are different methods of delivery such as jet injectors, infusion pumps, and bolus injections; here injecting insulin using a syringe or insulin pen is the commonest method.
Another method of delivering insulin is Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) delivered via insulin pump using rapid acting insulin analogs; the advantage of this is that it allows great life style flexibility but here patient must be strongly motivated and requires skilled professionals. Adverse effects of insulin therapy are,· Hypoglycemia (sudden reduction in the levels of blood glucose)· Weight gain· Lypodystrophy (abnormal distribution of fat in a disfiguring manner)· Antibody formation· Allergy· Insulin odemaIn spite of all the complications and the trouble of injecting everyday, insulin is the most physiological way of treating diabetes mellitus. One way that enzymes do this is by enabling reactant molecules to absorb enough energy that is required to reach the transition state but at lower temperatures. The point of saturation is where all active sites are filled and where no further increase in rate is possible unless more enzymes and therefore more active sites are present.
Enzymes have optimal conditions in which they work best, and the average optimal temperature for human enzymes to work at is around 37?C, about the average human body temperature. This type of inhibitors, however, could be overcome by increasing the concentration of enzymes. Allosteric regulators (activators and inhibitors) usually alternate between the active and the inactive state, allowing products to be formed when needed and stopping the production when there is an excess amount of products. This activity gives you the opportunity to raise the public awareness about the importance of a healthy lifestyle in preventing diabetes. Having diabetes puts you at a greater risk for developing kidney disease also called diabetic nephropathy.
It’s important to have regular urine tests to find kidney damage early because early kidney damage might be reversed. Control your blood pressure by checking it on a regular basis and following your doctor’s recommendations for acceptable levels. If you need help developing a strategy to avoid complications or face other challenges, Diabetes Management & Supplies can assist with diabetes self-management and education services. There’s nothing new under the sun and you can also reap the benefits of those who have traveled the vacation path before you.
If you need help developing life and treatment strategies, Diabetes Management & Supplies can assist with diabetes self-management and education services.
Avoiding illness is a prime goal, but people living with diabetes should be aware of the special needs presented by sick days caused by the flu and other conditions. Meals and eating will play an important role as medication will need to be adjusted to match rising or falling blood sugar levels.
This log or report will give insight to the diabetes care team of current health status and allow them to help adjust medication or intake to prevent dehydration or ketoacidosis. Certain foods, testing equipment and testing supplies need to be handy before a sickness occurs.  The phone number of the doctor or diabetes care team should be readily available.
The food pantry should contain: broth, both sugar-free and regular Jello, both diet and non-diet soft drinks, both sugar-free and regular popsicles, both thin and creamy soups, regular and sugar free pudding, yogurt, juice and milk. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that across the country, this flu season was significantly less severe than in the last few years, though number of cases have been increasing since early January. Motivation and method are both key to setting new goals and ending your year with a sense of accomplishment. SMART Goals provide a road map to success because those goals are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Timely.
Beyond those faceless figures, one should focus on goals that bolster your diabetes control. Your diabetes care team should be consulted about ways to reduce your A1C and risk of complications. Lowering one’s blood sugar is a great goal, but drastic drops can increase changes of hyperglycemia. Diabetes Management & Supplies offers diabetes self-management and diabetes education services. A CGM automatically takes several blood sugar readings throughout the day, sends alerts for extreme readings and feeds those levels to the insulin pump. Combining CGM with insulin pump therapy can provide a method to monitor and manage blood glucose levels. For more information on specific monitoring or insulin delivery needs, call our Education Department at 1-888-738-7929. Resolving to make “a healthier you” in 2016 can start with a good understanding of your device and its disposal parts and ensuring you are always equipped with adequate supplies.
Click HERE for our efficient reorder form or call 1-888-738-7929 to place an order by phone. Whether emphasized by SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) or just noticed in contrast to the festive season, depression may be one sign of diabetes or a flag that one’s diabetes is not in good control.
Treat yourself to your favorite stuffing or homemade pie on these days.  Keep these treats to the holidays.
These foods fill you up, but will not affect your blood sugar. Chicken, turkey and cheese are often on party trays. Just a 15-minute walk before or after a holiday party can help to keep your blood sugar in control when you are celebrating. It is group of similar conditions that fall into the same category because the symptoms and effects on the body may be similar.
Three-quarters of people who develop type 1 are under the age of 18, and most others are under 40 years old, but older adults develop it as well.


Most experts believe it is an autoimmune disorder, which is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. In studies that followed relatives of people with Type 1 Diabetes, researchers found that relatives who later developed diabetes had certain auto-antibodies in their blood for years.
It used to be called adult-onset diabetes, but, unfortunately, both children and adults develop this kind of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is still diabetes, which means your blood sugar levels are abnormally high.
Lack of insulin secretion or its action in the target tissue is the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and replacement of insulin as a drug is one of the commonest and standard treatments of diabetes. This leads to abnormally high levels of blood glucose accompanied by excessive passage of urine, excessive thirst and loss of weight.
The healthcare professionals should be well aware of the injection technique in order to educate the patients and the care givers.1. The response to treatment is assessed by measuring glycosylated haemoglobin called HBA1C which is high in poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. At about 7?C lower or higher than 37?C, the curve drops quickly, indicating a denaturation of the enzymes and the loss of their ability to catalyse reactions. For example, gastric (stomach) enzymes tend to be more active at low pH, whereas intestinal enzymes tend to work better at slightly alkaline environments. In the feedback loop, or the feedback inhibition, the end product of the metabolic pathway becomes the allosteric inhibitor that regulates the productivity of an enzyme earlier in the pathway. It was stated on one of the letters I received That i had a history of poly substance abuse i had no idea what it was. In type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia starts in the first decades of life and is usually the only recognized cause of nephropathy. Finally, don’t use tobacco because it narrows your blood vessels including the already tiny ones working deep inside your kidneys.
Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has a helpline number to assist patients with medical conditions who want to prepare for the screening process prior to flying.
It will help to remove this bag from your luggage so that the TSA officials can clearly see what is inside. Please notify the TSA officials as you move through the checkpoints that you are wearing a pump or CGM. The purpose of a sick day management plan and more vigilant testing has to do with limiting hyperglycemia and dehydration.
Medications are to be taken on the usual schedule or may be modified to meet the patient’s needs by the doctor or a member of the healthcare team. The most common types of diabetes in our presence society are Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes.
With Type 1 Diabetes, an infection or some other trigger causes the body to destroy the cells in the pancreas that make insulin.
Such factors appear to be more common in whites, who have the highest rate of type 1 diabetes. That excess sugar crosses the placenta and can make your baby grow too large and lead to problems with your pregnancy and delivery. As the high levels of bllod sugar can leads to many complications as described in another article by the author, it is important to control the level of blood sugar in the physiological range. The best method which is mostly physiological is called Basal-Bolus regimen where rapid acting or short acting insulin is given half an hour before meals and give intermediate or long-acting insulin is given in the evening at bedtime.What is the correct technique of injecting insulin?
Area of skin in which about 1 inch of subcutaneous fat can be pinched between two fingers should be chosen2. Insulin becomes second only to the drug Metformin among all the treatment modalities in reducing HBA1C. Other enzymes (those not in the human body), like the thermophilic bacterial enzymes shown in the graph below, have different optimal temperatures at which they work best. And because noncompetitive inhibitors regulate rather than simply obstruct enzymic productivity, its curve on the graph will not reach the point where the rate of reaction of a normal enzyme and that of one with competitive inhibitors meet. This year, we hope to welcome even more participants, so bring your friends, family and colleagues along for an early morning run or walk through the French Quarter.
It is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that are used to filter waste from the blood. With type 2 diabetes, to the contrary, hyperglycemia starts near middle-age, usually when the kidneys have already suffered the long?term consequences of aging and of other recognized promoters of chronic renal injury such as arterial hypertension, obesity, high cholesterol, and smoking. Also, in case your checked luggage is lost, you will still have your insulin and supplies with you in your carry-on bag. The goals are to prevent DKA in the Type 1, avoid dehydration of the Type 2 individual and avoid potential hospitalizations for either individual. Understanding what they have in common, how they differ and the associated risk factors is crucial to raising awareness and encouraging prevention, when possible. Inhalational insulin is an alternative to monomeric insulin which carries greater patient satisfaction and convenience. Like cofactors, they are sometimes required for catalytic activity but can sometimes be altered by the chemical reactions, causing them to be considered as secondary substrates of the reaction. This is because the pancreas produces less and less insulin over time, so it must be injected to meet the body’s needs.
Additionally, coenzymes are not specific to the enzymes they assist, but they can only be obtained through food, since the body is unable to produce them. However, the problem is here that the absorption is inefficient and therefore requires 10 fold higher doses of insulin compared to other standard routes of administration.What are the side effects of insulin? Insulin absorbed fastest from the abdominal wall, slowest from leg & buttock, intermediate from arm6. Absorption varies inversely with subcutaneous fat thickness so pre-meal regular should be injected to abdominal wall and intermediate acting to leg or buttockWhat are the emerging methods of insulin delivery?



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