Basal bolus insulin type 2 diabetes yahoo,squla jobs,draft nice guidelines type 2 diabetes - PDF 2016


In discussing pharmacologic treatments of type 2 diabetes, it is important to remember the two underlying processes of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency leading to hyperglycemia. All secretagogues allow the pancreas I?-cells to secrete insulin in response to a glucose challenge. Common side effects include hypoglycemia, weight gain, mild gastrointestinal complaints, and rarely skin reactions, photosensitivity, and cholestatic hepatitis.
There are four classes of secretagogues: first and second generation sulfonylureas, meglitinides, and d-Phenylalanine derivatives.
Sulfonylureas bind to a sulfonylurea receptors on the I?-cells which stimulate insulin secretion or sensitize the I?-cells to the presence of glucose. As type 2 diabetes progresses, I?-cells secrete less and less insulin and thus sulfonylureas will not be able to optimize glucose levels by themselves. D-Phenylalanine derivatives are a faster acting and shorter duration secretagogue than the meglitinides (rapaglinide). Both classes of insulin sensitizers, biguanides and thiazolidinediones, are being researched as possible therapies that delay type 2 diabetes in patients with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance (pre-diabetes), or have high risk for diabetes. Biguanides decrease gluconeogenesis from the liver, increases glucose uptake in muscle tissues, enhances the basal metabolic rate, and may lower food intake because of ita€™s gastrointestinal side effects. Thiazolidinediones have an insulin sensitizing effect on the peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors in liver cells, adipose tissue, and muscle. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors delay disaccharide and complex carbohydrate absorption in the small intestine and allow it to occur instead in the large intestine and colon. This class is excellent for patients with high 2 hour post meal hyperglycemia, and can be used in people with both insulin resistance and deficiency.
Once the decision that medical nutrition therapy and exercise alone are not optimizing a patienta€™s glucose control, the next step is to choose an appropriate oral agent. Most endocrinologists continue to prefer metformin as the optimal first-line agent, particularly in obese patients, and if no contraindications are present. Most patients on monotherapy for diabetes will eventually require a second agent (50% of patients after three years of monotherapy). The normal pattern of insulin levels throughout the day is illustrated in the chart below. The pancreas is constantly secreting basal levels of insulin which provides 50% of the bodya€™s requirement.
There are several types of insulin available, and their use is based on the type of insulin therapy and the onset of action required.
Basal insulin covers the baseline insulin needs of the body and is usually intermediate acting, extended intermediate acting, or long acting. The onset, peak, and duration of action of these mixtures would reflect a composite of the intermediate and short- or rapid-acting components, with one peak of action. Premixed insulin with NPH and a rapid acting component is more expensive but provides better post meal glucose control. Once the patient is comfortable with a basic insulin regimen and the daily doses is known, most individuals require more aggressive therapy.
Regular insulin can be substituted for patients who snack without bolus coverage or if there is a cost issue for patients. A 200 pound man who is naA?ve to insulin is started on advanced insulin therapy of rapid acting insulin and glargine. He will get an estimated 14 U of glargine at bedtime and 14 U of rapid acting insulin would be distributed over the morning (breakfast), noon (lunch), and evening (dinner) dose.
He will get an estimated 23 U of glargine at bedtime and 23 U of rapid acting insulin would be distributed over the morning (breakfast), noon (lunch), and evening (dinner) dose. He will get an estimated 34 U of glargine at bedtime and 34 U of rapid acting insulin would be distributed over the morning (breakfast), noon (lunch), and evening (dinner) dose.
He will get an estimated 23 U of glargine at bedtime and 46 U of rapid acting insulin would be distributed over the morning (breakfast), noon (lunch), and evening (dinner) dose. Step Five) The 23 U of rapid acting insulin would be distributed over the morning (breakfast), noon (lunch), and evening (dinner) dose. The target glucose level for rapid-acting insulin is achieved when the 2 hour post meal glucose level is within 20 a€“ 40 mg of the pre meal glucose level.A  Patients can also be taught to administer insulin sliding scales in the event of unexpected high glucose levels.
Insulin pumps may be useful for some patients as they deliver rapid acting insulin on a continuous basis as a basal dose. Inhaled insulin is a new dry powder method that will be available soon as it has been approved by the FDA.
Lipodystrophy can happen at sites of injection, with lipohypertrophy occurring more often in men and lipoatrophy occurring more commonly in women. A Insulin Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Rescue, Augmentation, and Replacement of Beta-Cell FunctionA  This is a corrected version of the article that appeared in print. Twenty-seven percent of persons with type 2 diabetes use insulin therapy, but less than one half achieve the recommended A1C level of 7 percent or less.1 These statistics suggest that suboptimal insulin therapy is too common. Insulin degludec has been extensively studied in the BEGINA® programme in a range of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
The BEGINA® programme investigated the efficacy and safety of insulin degludec in a range of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The demographic and baseline characteristics are usual for the type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients enrolled in these types of studies, and were similar across the treatment groups. All BEGINA® trials were randomised, controlled, open-label, treat-to-target, multicentre, involving more than 40 countries with few having an extension phase.
HbA1c is the most widely accepted measure of overall, long-term glycaemic control and is predictive of diabetes complications.
Insulin degludec was used as basal-only + oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) therapy in the five trials of BEGINA® programme and effectively improved long-term glycaemic control in insulin-naA?ve patients with type 2 diabetes (Figure 2).
In BB T2 3582, the type 2 diabetes trial in which insulin degludec was used as part of a basal-bolus insulin regimen with insulin aspart, substantial improvements in HbA1c from baseline to the end of trial were observed (FigureA 3). Insulin degludec was compared with insulin glargine and insulin detemir (Trials BB T1 LONG 3583, FLEX T1 3770 and BBT1 3585) with mealtime insulin aspart as part of a basal-bolus regimen in type 1 diabetes. In all insulin degludec trials, FPG was measured at selected time points and at end of trial and analysed at a central laboratory.
In all the basal-only type 2 diabetes trials, FPG decreased with both insulin degludec and comparator, and the observed mean FPG at end of trial was slightly lower with degludec than with comparator products.
Insulin Degludec was associated with a consistently larger reduction in FPG than comparators in the five basal-only therapy type 2 diabetes trials, with a statistically significant difference in favour of insulin degludec in four of the five trials (Table 5). In patients with type 1 diabetes, FPG decreased substantially both with insulin degludec and insulin glargine in a basal-bolus regimen.
The lower laboratory-measured FPG observed with insulin degludec (TableA 5) was not counteracted by higher plasma glucose values at other times of the day relative to comparator insulin products since both groups had similar SMPG values at end of study for all nine time points measured (before and after meals, at bedtime, and during the night).
9-point SMPG profiles seemed similar for the two treatment groups at baseline and decreased in both groups by week 525 (FigureA 7).
As shown in Table 7 (pooled insulin degludec type 2 diabetes trials), in the phase 3 trials, there was no consistent pattern in HbA1c reductions by age group, ethnicity, race, or baseline renal function for the degludec or comparator treatment groups. The BEGINA? phase 3a studies assessed key efficacy end-points (HbA1c - primary end-point, FPG, SMPG) for insulin degludec across the spectrum of diabetes.
There were three phase 3a non-inferiority trials in type 1 diabetes where insulin degludec was used in a basal-bolus regimen with insulin aspart at mealtimes. There were six phase 3a trials in type 2 diabetes (five non-inferiority and one superiority trial). In the superiority trial, insulin degludec lowered HbA1c significantly more than sitagliptin. The studies demonstrated that once daily dosing of insulin degludec administered in a fixed or flexible manner was non-inferior to insulin glargine administered with a fixed (inflexible) dosing schedule. Administering insulin at fixed times may not be convenient for patients9 and may result in intentional omission. In conclusion, insulin degludec appears to be non-inferior to existing basal insulins glargine and detemir in most clinical situations, whether used with oral antidiabetic agents or as a part of basal bolus therapy, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with lesser severe, nocturnal and overall hypoglycaemia.
Insulin administration Gestational diabetes Insulin resistance caused by Feeling of confusi Irrita Swe Anx Head Methods f Daily Injections Bolus insulin Basal insulin Two to five shots a day Insulin Pump Therapy Constant insulin History o 1920 – Insulin is first I know that it is advised that newborns sleep on their backs to prevent SIDS to not inhale carbon dioxide. Insulin and Weight Gain and Weight Loss: Another Insulin Myth One of the byproducts of the Atkins craze is the idea that protein does not cause insulin spikes.
We found that insulin detemir and insulin glargine have similar pharmacodynamics in healthy cats.
WebMD discusses diabetes mellitus, or sugar diabetes, in dogs including symptoms, treatments and dietary management, Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.
These two mechanisms are the reasons for checking both fasting and post meal glucose levels. Four of the classes are secretagogues: First and second generation sulfonylureas, meglitinide, and d-Phenylalanine. Secretagogues are contraindicated in pregnancy, and used with caution in patients with liver disease. Second generation sulfonylureas are more commonly prescribed than first generation, and have less side effects.


These drugs are used in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome which carries a component of insulin resistance. A 500 mg dose started at dinner is recommended and an additional dose can be added to breakfast after a week. There are several choices for first-line monotherapy as per the American Diabetes Association: metformin, thiazolidinediones, or secretagogues. First-line therapy with thiazolidinediones is becoming increasingly popular but some cite that there is not enough evidence based information. Using an insulin sensitizing medication along with a secretagogue, or two insulin resistance drugs, are good choices. Consideration should be given as to whether a patient on triple oral therapy should actually be on insulin. In type 2 diabetes, progressive insulin deficiency makes insulin a useful therapeutic tool. After a meal, the pancreatic I?-cells secretes insulin in response to meals known as bolus levels, which supplies the bodya€™s other 50% requirement.
Using the carbohydrate counting method comes in handy to better distribute the bolus amount of rapid acting insulin with each meal. Although it may be more acceptable to administer than injected insulin, it is subject to more variability in patient skill of administration, is less flexible in dosing, may still require injected basal insulin, are contraindicated in patients with lung disease, and its long term effects on the lungs are unknown. It improves glucose control by mimicking the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1, a natural mammalian incretin hormone secreted during food intake. Indications for exogenous insulin therapy in patients with this condition include acute illness or surgery, pregnancy, glucose toxicity, contraindications to or failure to achieve goals with oral antidiabetic medications, and a need for flexible therapy.
Absolute and increasing blood glucose levels stimulate insulin release.2 The postprandial glucose influx can be 20 to 30 times higher than hepatic production between meals. Although no insulin has a category A pregnancy classification, regular and NPH insulin have been used extensively in pregnant women. The insulin regimen should be tailored to the patient’s degree of hyperglycemia, the risks associated with hypoglycemia, comorbid conditions, the ability to adhere to a routine and understand and master the information and skills, and the cost.
BEGINA® is a phase 3a study programme which examined the efficacy and safety of insulin degludec once daily in three trials in type 1 diabetes and six trials in type 2 diabetes (Figure 1).1-8 It covered the spectrum of patients with diabetes who require insulin treatment (insulin-naive type 2 diabetes, insulin-treated type 2 and type 1 diabetes including basal-bolus therapy, basal plus oral therapy, and basal vs. In all insulin degludec phase 3 trials, the efficacy of once daily (OD) insulin degludec was established, as insulin degludec being non-inferior to comparators in reducing HbA1c (the measure of long-term glycaemic control) in all patient populations tested (insulin-naA?ve type 2 diabetes, insulin-treated type 2 and type 1 diabetes). The primary objective of the phase 3 trials was to confirm the efficacy of insulin degludec in terms of glycaemic control as assessed by the primary endpoint: change in HbA1c from baseline. The primary endpoint (change in HbA1c from baseline to end of trial) was subject to a non-inferiority analysis in all trials except EARLY 3580 trial (superiority vs. The observed mean HbA1c at end of trial with insulin degludec dosed any time of day (free flexible) in EARLY 3580 trial4 was 7.2% and was comparable to the other trials in which insulin degludec was dosed at a fixed time. As shown in a representative plot of FPG over time from type 2 diabetes ONCE LONG 3579 trial 52 week (12 month), reductions in FPG were evident after 12 weeks of treatment and were maintained. With degludec, the reduction in FPG was evident at the first post-baseline assessment (12 weeks), and the lower FPG was generally maintained until end of trial.
Moreover, there was no consistent pattern in HbA1c reductions by other key demographic or disease characteristics such as sex, body mass index (BMI), or duration of diabetes for the Insulin degludec or comparator treatment groups.
This includes insulin initiation in type 2 diabetes and its use with prandial insulin as part of basal bolus therapy in type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In all these trials, degludec was non-inferior to the comparators glargine and detemir with respect to change in HbA1c. One trial each used insulin degludec in a basala€“bolus regimen (with aspart) and a flexible regimen. The rationale for the comparison with sitagliptin was to investigate the efficacy and safety of adding insulin degludec instead of an additional OAD in patients inadequately controlled on 1a?’2 OADs. Flexible dosing is an attractive feature of this insulin that might improve adherence to therapy and conceivably improve outcomes.
Insulin degludec, an ultra-long acting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin aspart in type 1 diabetes (BEGIN Basal-Bolus Type 1): a phase 3, randomised, open-label, treat-to-target non-inferiority trial. Insulin degludec versus insulin glargine in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes: A 1-year, randomized, treat-to-target trial (BEGIN Once Long). Effect of ultra-long-acting insulin degludec versus sitagliptin addition in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on oral antidiabetic agents. Insulin degludec, an ultra-longacting basal insulin, versus insulin glargine in basal-bolus treatment with mealtime insulin aspart in type 2 diabetes (BEGIN Basal-Bolus Type 2): a phase 3, randomised, open-label, treat-to-target non-inferiority trial. Insulin degludec compared with insulin glargine in insulin-naA?ve patients with type 2 diabetes: a 26-week, randomized, controlled, Pan Asian, treat-to-target trial. A review of modern insulin analogue pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles in type 2 diabetes: improvements and limitations. Insulin adherence behaviours and barriers in the multinational Global Attitudes of Patients and Physicians in Insulin Therapy study.
Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. You are making such a big stink about your personal choice to feed your dogs grain free food and you don’t even know that you are feeding them grain.
I find it is better for my diabetes pills type 2 inner peace to ignore all commentary during the jump drills.
They also should be used with caution in renal disease (except for repaglinide and nateglinide which dona€™t have renal dosage requirements).
Metformin can decrease or stabilize patient weight, and can reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and may reduce myocardial infarction risk. It should be withheld prior to any radiology study requiring contrast dye or if going to surgery, and restored once renal function is normal. Two thiazolidinediones, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, are approved for use in the United States. They are taken within 15 minutes before a meal and are cleared from the body in 2 a€“ 4 hours. Phase 1 insulin release, lasting 10 minutes, suppresses hepatic glucose production and facilitates phase 2 release, which lasts two hours and covers mealtime carbohydrates.
The most common indication for insulin therapy is failure to achieve glycemic control with diet, exercise, and oral medications. Insulin degludec was non-inferior to insulin comparators as basal-only therapy and as part of a basal-bolus regimen (i.e. The primary statistical analysis was an analysis of variance (ANOVA) method with treatment, anti-diabetic therapy at screening, sex and region as fixed factors and age and baseline HbA1c as covariates.
HbA1c decreased primarily during the first twelve to sixteen weeks (Figure 2) when insulin dose usually goes titration.
Overall, good glycaemic control was achieved with insulin degludec in all five type 2 diabetes basal-only therapy trials, with end of trial HbA1c close to 7%.
After 52 weeks, the mean observed HbA1c was close to 7.1% in both the treatment groups (Table 3). Similar to the type 2 diabetes trials, the reduction in mean HbA1c was evident after the first 12 weeks of treatment, and the lower HbA1c level was maintained for at least 52 weeks based on the results from BB T1 LONG 3583 trial. All trials were treat-to-target trials and used established basal insulins- glargine or detemir as comparators. Insulin degludec administered as part of a basala€“bolus regimen to patients with type 1 diabetes demonstrated a good safety and tolerability profile with a significantly lower FPG and nocturnal confirmed hypoglycaemia rate compared with insulin detemir.
This allows patients who miss a dose, or for other reasons cannot inject their dose at the scheduled time, to administer degludec when this is discovered, without compromising on efficacy (glycaemic control). An easier dosing frequency (OD) and more flexible dosing translate into better adherence to therapy, which in turn would improve glycaemic control and decrease morbidity. The efficacy and safety of insulin degludec given in variable once-daily dosing intervals compared with insulin glargine and insulin degludec dosed at the same time daily: A 26-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target trial in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Brochure it also makes it seem like the women might not have known what was going on? Knee Pain Relief – AllegroMedical is the best place to shop for a ketones in urine causes diabetes wide variety of knee pain remedies and products.
Moderately increased blood glucose levels mayo clinic type 2 diabetes medications may be seen in those with pre-diabetes.
Fast Food Facts Fiber Facts Flu Facts Heart Disease Facts Junk Food Facts Nutrition Facts Obesity Facts Osteoporosis Facts The positive correlation between the level of polyphenol intake and insulin level warrants further studies on the effect of green tea on insulin resistance.
I have just added Glumetza back into my regimen with my insulin and so far have had no problems. I will admit that there are interesting themes in portions of the book as well as some worthwhile advice and perspective sprinkled in…However my main gripe is the tone and writing style of the book.
Most patients begin with a low dose of sulfonylurea and increase them at 1 a€“ 2 week intervals depending on the self-monitored glucose readings and A1C results.
Both nateglinide and rapaglinide can be useful in patients who are found to have optimal fasting glucose levels but high post-prandial glucose levels. A It is indicated for patients with insulin resistance and a good consideration in those with cholesterol issues.


Two I±-glucosidase drugs are approved for use in the United States: acarbose and miglitol. It is contraindicated in patients with liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and pregnancy. In most diabetic patients, multiple daily doses are required to strike the right balance between glycemic control and avoiding hypoglycemia. Ultralente acts somewhat longer than NPH and is therefore known as extended intermediate acting insulin. Between meals, a low continuous insulin level, called basal insulin, serves ongoing metabolic needs.The normal beta cell responds in a linear fashion to blood glucose levels. The BEGINA® clinical trial programme included patients from North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia.
With the exception of EARLY 3580 trial, all the trials were non-inferiority trials and efficacy was confirmed if the upper bound of the two-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for the estimated treatment difference (ETD) (insulin degludec minus comparator) was below or equal to the non-inferiority limit of 0.4%. In these treat-to-target insulin degludec trials, non-inferiority of insulin degludec versus comparator with respect to change in HbA1c was confirmed, as the upper limit of the 95% CI for the ETD (Insulin degludec a?’ comparator) was well below the predefined non-inferiority limit of 0.4%.
Modest decreases were observed in HbA1c during the remaining part of the trials and improved glycaemic control was sustained up to 52 weeks of treatment. Thus, the FPG reductions contributed to the improvements in long-term glycaemic control as measured by HbA1c. The estimated reduction in FPG was larger with insulin degludec than with glargine (TableA 6). Good glycaemic control was achieved with insulin degludec in all the trials, with end of trial HbA1c close to 7%.
Ninety to 95 percent of people with diabetes have Type 2 according to the International Diabetes Federation.
Time owned = almost 6 months (purchased 2009 JAN 12) Joslin Diabetes Center’s partnership with Walgreens is bringing it into pharmacies nationwide.
Information for the public February 2003 Guidance on the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for diabetes This leaflet is also available in Welsh (ref no.
Corticosteroids counteract the effect of insulin In other words your pancreas is okay normally but diabetes uk id card diabetic menu on a budget cannot handle the stress of the steroids. This class allows patients the flexibility to skip a dose if they skip a meal thus preventing hypoglycemia.
They do not cause hypoglycemia by themselves, but if hypoglycemia develops in conjunction with sulfonylureas or insulin, the patient may use milk to correct their glucose level.
In patients whom there appears to be a greater degree of pancreatic dysfunction as opposed to insulin resistance, secretagogue use is still appropriate. Studies have found that physicians should probably begin using insulin on patients earlier than they do, and that about 50% of type 2 diabetics require insulin to keep their A1C <7%. Postprandial glucose levels tend to be lower with rapid acting than with short acting insulin. The recommended dosage is 5 mug to 10 mug twice daily subcutaneously before breakfast and dinner. The slope of this response is steeper after fasting and flattened following prolonged exposure to high glucose levels. However, in the Steno-2 study,14 a combination of glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure control reduced mortality by 50 percent compared with usual therapy. The trial populations were representative of the general diabetes population and the majority of exposed patients had type 2 diabetes, reflecting this populationa€™s large and growing size. In the EARLY 3580 trial,4 which compared insulin degludec to sitagliptin, efficacy was confirmed if a statistically significant difference in change in HbA1c was observed (superiority).
In FLEX T1 3770 trial, 26 weeks of treatment with degludec (dosed in the evening) resulted in a larger reduction in estimated FPG compared with the insulin degludec flexible dosing arm which involved dosing at alternating narrow and wide dosing intervals (statistically significant).
Insulin degludec was non-inferior to insulin glargine in all five trials, and lowered HbA1c regardless of patient status (insulin-naA?ve or insulin-experienced) and insulin regimen (basal-oral, basal-bolus, or flexible dosing).
The biggest day-to-day change was the meat source which kept everything fresh and I kept lots of salsa and sugar-free marinara on hand. Trans fats cause inflammation and insulin resistance so STAY AWAY from them to stay away from belly fat. Recommendations regarding the optimal initial drug approach to this disease are always changing. It is formulated for delayed absorption over 24 hours with no peak levels, can be administered once a day, and has aA  lower risk of hypoglycemia.
It requires both an increased frequency of insulin administration and self monitored glucose levels.
In randomized, placebo-controlled, 30-week clinical studies, exenatide improved glycemic control and promoted weight loss of up to 2.8 kg. This loss of responsiveness to glucose levels, which may be reversible in the earlier stages, also is called beta-cell exhaustion or glucose toxicity.3In type 2 diabetes, phase 1 release is absent, and phase 2 release is delayed and inadequate. In the UKPDS,13 patients taking insulin gained 4 kg (8 lb, 13 oz) more than those treated with diet therapy over 10 years.
In the insulin degludec phase 3 trials, consistently larger reductions in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were also achieved with OD insulin degludec with a statistically significant difference in most of the trials.
In three-arm trials (FLEX 3668 [type 2 diabetes] and FLEX T1 3770 [type 1 diabetes] trials),2,7 the primary analysis was insulin degludec flexible dosing vs.
OD dosing is possible even in patients with high dose requirements (up to 160U), with a concentrated (U200) formulation of insulin degludec. I saw another documentary (forget the name) about the Gerson method for treating (curing) cancer and it intrigued me.
Rapid acting insulin is a good choice for those who dona€™t snack throughout the day, while short acting insulin may be better for patients who frequently delay eating after an injection or eat throughout the day.
Glargine can not be mixed with other insulin types, and is usually used in conjunction with bolus insulin. Patient education is critical and they must understand the effects of insulin, carbohydrate intake, insulin injection administration, and exercise. The most common adverse effects were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dose-dependent hypoglycemia.
The sharp spike of mealtime insulin release occurring in normal persons (white background in Figure 1) is delayed, prolonged, and insufficient in amount in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Patients who have irregular hours and meals may find that insulin glargine and rapid-acting analogues provide more flexibility, while those with a set routine can do well with the traditional insulins.Schedule patients for follow-up within one week to adjust insulin doses and provide more education.
Maintain contact with the patient through office visits, telephone calls, fax, or secure e-mail every three to seven days until blood sugar level is at the goal.Always ask for the self-monitoring blood glucose log. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS)5 demonstrated that this function continues to deteriorate over time despite treatment with diet, exercise, metformin (Glucophage), sulfonylureas, or insulin. The BEGINA® trials have all been conducted in a similar manner to allow for pre-planned meta-analyses. About 50 to 60 percent of the total daily insulin requirement should be a basal type, and 40 to 50 percent should be a bolus type. The mealtime dose is the sum of the corrective dose plus the anticipated requirements for the meal and exercise. A more accurate estimate is provided by levels of C-peptide, a byproduct of insulin production with a half-life of 30 minutes.
Adjustments should be made systematically, starting with the fasting, then the preprandial and, finally, the postprandial glucose levels. Basal therapy with glargine insulin provides similar to lower A1C levels with less hypoglycemia than NPH insulin. Insulin aspart and insulin lispro provide similar A1C levels and quality of life, but lower postprandial glucose levels than regular insulin.
First, their absorption profiles are erratic, creating day-to-day fluctuations in glycemic control.9 Second, their delayed onset of action and peak activity requires coordination of injection and meals. Regular insulin must be injected 30 to 60 minutes before the meal to match postprandial glucose influx. NPH may cause hypoglycemia during its peak at four to 10 hours after injection unless the patient remembers to eat. Augmentation also can be provided at mealtime using regular insulin (Figure 5), aspart, or lispro27,28 adjusted to maintain two-hour postprandial glucose levels of 180 mg per dL (10 mmol per L) or less. The most convenient basal-bolus regimen uses split-mixed injection of NPH and regular insulin before breakfast and dinner but requires rigid adherence to a set meal size and time. The morning NPH may not provide adequate coverage for lunch, and the evening NPH may cause nocturnal hypoglycemia.
Regimens include NPH and regular insulin, NPH with aspart or lispro, or glargine and aspart or lispro (Figure 7) .



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Comments

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    21.07.2015

  2. KARATEIST

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    21.07.2015

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    Not yet appeared, the government has.

    21.07.2015