Are type 1 and type 2 diabetes genetically related diseases,type 2 diabetes nice guidelines quick reference pdf,cfg viewer free download utorrent - Try Out

The pancreas is a compound gland, very similar in structure to the salivary glands, which is about 23 cm (7 inches) long, extending from the duodenum to the spleen.
Many factors contribute to the development of diabetes in a person such as genetic inheritance, age factor, obesity, sedentary life style etc. The person who is genetically predisposed for diabetes, is highly vulnerable to the risk factors of the chronic diabetic conditions.
Type 1 diabetes can also be called as juvenile-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. Actually, Type 1 diabetes is an auto immune disorder, in which the immune system launches its attack against the body’s tissues and for that matter attacks its pancreatic beta cells.
It is also found that the HLA (Human leukocyte antigen) class 2 region, located on chromosome 6, are involved in type 1 diabetes.
However, recent studies have shown that environment (especially viruses and diet) too plays an equal role in triggering this type 1 diabetes that is, genetic-environmental interactions has to be there and certain combinations of genes alone is not sufficient to claim itself to be responsible for causing type 1 diabetes. Even though, heredity plays an undeniable role in contributing to this problem, the pattern of inheritance is not fully understood in a clear cut manner. First of all, there is no true answer to the question of which type of diabetes is genetic.
Some examples to support this evidence is, that families who have type 2 diabetes usually share the same lifestyle such as eating habits, exercise habits, as well as being overweight, which has been known to be one of the leading causes of type 2 diabetes. So to answer the question of which type of diabetes is genetic, the short answer is there is a high probability that type 2 diabetes will have a stronger predisposition to get it, compared to type 1 diabetes. In other words, there is a predisposition of getting both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but the type 2 diabetes has a bigger chance to run in the same family. While we are not sure which type of diabetes is genetic for sure, or what triggers type 1 or type 2 diabetes to occur if you have a family member who suffers from it, the most important thing is to know that prevention is key especially in type 2 diabetes since studies have shown that diet and regular exercise can prevent it from happening, or in some cases reverse the symptoms. Recent Commentspatrice thompson on Free Diabetic Supplies – How to Get Them?munnaamalai on Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes ChartJessica I. A schematic representation of proposed integration of mechanisms by the protein products of type 1 diabetes (T1D) loci that are involved in adaptive immunity, and for which the direction of the functional effect of the T1D-associated variants is known or suspected. Many mechanisms maintain appropriate cell growth: Cell division occurs in response to external signals (1).
But when the cell also loses the ability to respond to death signals, it divides out of control, forming a tumor.

The failure of this small gland to produce enough insulin or if the cells do not respond properly to the insulin produced by this small gland , then that condition is diagnosed as diabetes. Among these factors, the genetic factor or family history plays an undeniable role in developing diabetes in a person.
People with an affected parent or parents are at 3.5 times greater risk of developing this chronic disease than people from non-diabetes families. For the children who are genetically susceptible to auto immune type 1 diabetes are likely to develop islet auto antibodies (indicators that appear when insulin producing beta cells in pancreas are damaged) in their early life. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes do produce insulin, but with some more complications.
Diabetes mellitus cannot be cured in full sense of the term, but it can be effectively controlled, to lead a normal life.
This is one of the most common questions asked by people who are diagnosed with diabetes, or with parents who have children with diabetes. Researchers have found that although there is a predisposition for someone to have a diabetes, there are other factors other than genetics that may trigger the diabetes to occur. If one twin get a diabetes, the other one will likely to have it as well, although the possibility differs depending on which type of diabetes it is.
This means that if you have a family member with type 2 diabetes, you have a bigger chance of getting it too if you do not take extra measures in preventing it from happening. What researchers have not found out is the triggers that might shed a clue to why some identical twins both get it, and some others do not, even though they have the exact same genes. Molecules in green actively participate in T cell activation through T cell receptor (TCR) signalling or downstream events, whereas red indicates inhibitors of these processes. What if a target cell does not respond to a signal, or a cell responds even though it has not received a signal?
People with type 1 affected diabetes have to live with the help of insulin injection daily, without which they could not have control over their blood glucose levels and this may lead to dreadful complications.
In fact, this islet auto immunity is the first sign that occurs very early in their life, which is the indication of the future repercussions. That is, either their pancreas produce inadequate insulin or their body cells could not use the produced insulin in an efficient manner. However, insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes is mainly due to intra- abdominal fat accumulation which is mainly under genetic control.

As you probably already know, there are two type of diabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The reason is because even though type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes has different causes, but there is a bigger chance for both types of diabetes to happen if some family members also have it. Arrows in grey boxes show the functional effect (whether an increase or a decrease) on the protein by the T1D risk allele in the genes that encode these proteins.
The fact is that people who are genetically prone to diabetes, are born with a predisposition for the diabetes. Moreover, as far as type 2 diabetes is concerned, only diabetic genes are not enough to give this chronic condition on their own.
On the other hand, type 2 diabetes twin will have a bigger chance of 75%, if the other twin has it. However, if your family member suffers from type 1 diabetes, your probability of getting it is slightly lower compared to type 2 diabetes.
In the case of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), reduced function by risk alleles is not proven but is widely suspected. Apart from genetic factors, obesity (central adipose), SEDENTARY LIFE STYLE, POOR PLACENTAL GROWTH, METABOLIC SYNDROME etc, are also held equally responsible for the onset of this diabetes.
As TCR activation is involved in both tolerance and immune attack, the prevailing effect of signalling alterations on autoimmunity risk is not immediately obvious.
However, the person whose genetic, environment and lifestyle plays a cumulative role in the contribution of the disease, is most likely to end up in the clutches of chronic conditions. However, this is not a true evidence that this is purely genetic, because it is very common in families to share the same lifestyle which is probably causing someone to have type 2 diabetes. Where known, T1D-associated alleles impair T cell activation through a loss-of-function of activators or a gain-of-function of inhibitors. In the presence of inflammation (for example, active insulitis, perhaps initiated by innate immune events) and increased antigen abundance (for example, ?-cell apoptosis from viral infection), the same partial loss-of-function could be overridden by the stronger signals in T cells that have previously escaped self-tolerance for the same antigen. In addition, defective interleukin 2 (IL-2) signalling will compromise the function of regulatory T cells.

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