Age range for type 2 diabetes symptoms,food to reverse diabetes meaning,incidence of type 1 diabetes in siblings,epic pw 2014 - Review


The materials contained on this website are provided for general information purposes only and do not constitute medical, legal, financial or other professional advice on any subject matter. When I get my A1c measure, the lab also reports the average (according to their measure of "average" for the result).
At least .5% difference, and that's a pretty big difference when you are trying to gain tight control and think you're at your target, when, surprise! High blood pressure is one of the most common conditions that patients present with in family medical practice.
Recently, new modified guidelines for high blood pressure classification and treatment have been released. 3)  Race is a factor when choosing a type of medication for treatment of high blood pressure in adults under 60 years of age. Also, new guidelines focus on implementing lifestyle interventions such as weight loss, diet and exercise at all times of high blood pressure management regimen. The threshold for normal blood pressure has been increased because there is not enough medical evidence to support that treating mild elevation in blood pressure can significantly reduce risks associated with high blood pressure such as stroke and heart attack. Nevertheless, elevation in the blood pressure increases one’s risk of heart attack, stroke, developing chronic kidney disease, vision loss, as well as, premature death. Ignoring the stupid and fat hating graphic of this article (A fat head eats a hamburger but resists pills), the author tries to figure out why people are not flocking to take Contrave or the other diet drugs on the market. Maybe people don't want to take diet drugs because you know heart valve disease and primary pulmonary hypertension. Much of the resistance to the weight-loss medications stems from the disastrous safety record of diet drugs pulled from the market in the 1990s. Or perhaps it works on the flawed presumption that all fat people are fat because we eat too much. Every day I take some kind of stairs, an while the exercise has done wonders for my legs, it has not made me thin.
I have mentioned before that there is a constant assumption that if you are fat because you stuff your face and sit on the couch all day. If the people running this International Congress of Obesity would talk to an actual fat person (and not just try to treat them), they might figure out that taking the stairs will not make us thin.
When organizations pull stunts like this, the only thing at which they can possibly succeed is creating an environment that prevents people from, and shames people for, navigating the world in the way that’s best for them and their situation.
And shame on this Amanda Sainsbury who decided fat people must become thin or they will die and Health at Every Size is bad for encourage people to stay fat.
While I certainly agree that it is possible to have healthy behaviours that provide health benefits at a wide variety of body sizes, I disagree that it is possible to be or to stay truly healthy at every size.
This is the second time I've seen someone add a Y to the end of health when referring to Health at Every Size.
It is thus not surprising that people frequently put off doing anything about excess weight until better conditions arise (e.g. Fatness among 3-5 years old has dropped 43% and fat adults and kids over 5 and adults have stayed the same and have been for the past decade. Paul Campos writes: As Michael Gard notes in his recent book The End of the Obesity Epidemic, data from all over the world indicate that, over the past ten to 15 years, obesity rates have leveled off or declined among adults and children. 30% of parents of children age 6-14 report worrisome eating behaviors and physical activity in their children.
7% of parents say that their children have been made to feel bad at school about what or how much they were eating. In a neighborhood not far from where I live, a little girl Claudialee was an active and imaginative six year old who wanted to be a vet when she grew up.
Defining obesity as a disease should encourage more doctors to offer treatments like surgery and medication, Hamdy says. The AMA's classifying the fatness as a disease opens up a lot of money to the diet industry. I have mentioned before that some of the worst habits I've ever picked up came from dieting. Obese people are less likely to survive cancer, and one reason may be a surprising inequality: The overweight are undertreated.
I have written before about doctors refusing to treat fat people or giving them surgery and treatments needed.
Posted at 08:24 PM in Current Affairs, discrimination, Fat in the News, Stigma, Stomach amputation. The team also showed that a “lean” microbial community could infiltrate and displace an “obese” one, preventing mice from gaining weight so long as they were on a healthy diet. Instead of telling people to just maintain, or lose a little or focusing on weight at all, they need to remove weight completely as a health indicator. You can teach aerobics classes, swim, walk, run, eat your vegetables, only eat 2000 cal a day, be in perfect health but if your BMI is 30 and above, you have a disease. The full text of this 2007 article provides a good comprehensive review of the role of iron in diabetes.
This 2007 full text comment on the above review adds important perspective to this discussion. In this study reported from China in 2010 the researchers st out "to investigate the relationship of gamma-glutamyl transferase to ferritin, and their interaction on the risk of type 2 diabetes." "A total of 436 men and 588 women were recruited. In 2006, these researchers reported a study of 490 Greek individuals with metabolic syndrome. In this 2007 study of a group of 944 individuals in France, and over a period of six years, both ferritin and transferrin levels were significantly associated to the development of metabolic syndrome. Figure 1—Age-adjusted ORs (95% CI) for the 6-year incidence of the IDF-defined metabolic syndrome according to high ferritin and transferrin levels (both above the upper tertiles) (A), lower ferritin and high transferrin levels (B), high ferritin and lower transferrin levels (C), and lower ferritin and lower transferrin levels (D).
In 2006, data from the above French study was analyzed to determine the association of ferritin and transferrin to glucose metabolism. Figure 1—Standardized ORs for the 3-year incidence of hyperglycemia (IFG or type 2 diabetes) according to baseline iron biomarkers and CRP (independent variables) after adjustment for baseline age, BMI, WHR, and glucose and insulin concentrations in the DESIR study. In this 2005 Italian study of 269 metabolic syndrome and 210 control subjects, ferritin in metabolic syndrome subjects was significantly higher than in controls.
In this 2008 study of a population of 110 women with diabetes from Kuwait, researchers found an association of elevated ferritin with diabetes, but not with metabolic syndrome. Figure 1 Serum ferritin levels in male (white boxes) and female (grey boxes) individuals discriminated according to the presence or absence of defining criteria of the insulin resistance syndrome (A–F). As in the study described directly above, this was a 2012 reported study from the large EPIC epidemiologic survey undertaken in Europe.
This 2007 reported study of incident type 2 diabetes the researchers recruited participants from four clinical centers in the U.S. This 2009 study was based on "a longitudinal population-based study of approximately 6,600 Danes in a nested case-control design with the primary outcome of 5-year conversion to type 2 diabetes.
In this 2010 study from Iran, serum ferritin was measured in 128 pregnant women (64 women with gestational diabetes and 64 age-matched controls). This 2011 study was reported by researchers from Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention at the National Institutes of Health. In another study from Iran in 2008, serum ferritin measurements in 25 obese menstruating women and 25 non-obese menstruating women matched for age were obtained.
In 2008 these researchers examined the expression of iron transport molecules in NAFLD patients with or without iron overload, in hemochromatosis patients and in controls. This 2003 review further differentiates iron loading in NAFLD patients from that observed in hemochromatosis patients, and discusses findings that patients with chronic hepatitis and the C282Y hemochromatosis genotype "are more likely to suffer from advanced hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis and to do so at younger ages." and, "A role for modest iron overload in increasing severity of alcohol-induced liver disease has been well established from results of experimental studies.
This is an early study (2000) that explores insulin resistance in NASH and the role of iron. This 2009 research was reported in a study of 38 NASH patients, compared to 24 with simple steatosis (fatty liver) and 10 health subjects. In this 2009 study, the researchers measured and compared markers of hepatic oxidative stress in 38 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), 24 simple steatosis (NAFLD or fatty liver disease) and 10 healthy subjects.Oxidative stress was significantly higher in NASH patients than in those with NAFLD, and was related to iron overload, glucose-insulin metabolic abnormalities, and severity of disease.
This 1999 study done in France characterized insulin resistance associated with hepatic iron overload. In this 2008-reported, large population based survey conducted in Beijing and Shanghai, 3,289 participants aged 50-70 years were examined for fasting plasma ferritin, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, glycohemoglobin, inflammatory markers, adipokines; and dietary profile were collected.
This 1997 research was first to characterize this syndrome of unexplained hepatic iron overload and normal transferrin saturation. In a 2011 study of 65 NASH patients in Turkey the investigators measured iron metabolism markets and inflammatory cytokines.
In a paper published in 1999, this research team in France examined 161 non-C282Y homozygous patients (i.e. This 2010 paper presents a possible molecular explanation for the accumulation of iron in NASH patients.
This 2005 review describes the interaction of alcohol with increased iron absorption in alcoholic liver disease patients.
This review discusses several other factors that are likely contributors to the accumulation of iron in alcohol liver disease. This animal (rat) study provides more insight into alcoholic liver disease and the mechanism of iron accumulation in hepaocytes. I am working hard to get my numbers down and thought I was in a pretty good place, and then my endo burst my bubble by giving me a completely different average (not a true lab test at this point, we were just discussing numbers via email). That's the chart I was using, but I think the new eAG must be lower, because those numbers are quite a bit different. Because people with diabetes are more likely to check their blood glucose more often when they are low (for example, first thing in the morning and before meals), the average of the readings on their meter is likely to be lower than their eAG. If your numbers are "in a good place" the average on one test is meaningless in my opinion.


I always look at my meter's 7 and 30 day averages and convert using this calculator before I get my A1c done.
In my house, in the subway, at my job, and in random  places you wouldn’t think would have stairs. Riding my exercise bike 15-30 minutes a day has not made me thin, walking at least a mile or more a day had not made me thin, my daily stretches, my yoga, my summer swimming, my walks around the office has not made me thin.
There is nothing wrong with children enjoying movement and eating delicious and nutritious foods, but when you single out the fat kids, you cause eating disorders, low self-esteem and bullying.
Even with the evidence that most diabetic children under ten do not have type 2, the doctor stood by her diagnosis. Even the Village Voice article that reported this made a poor assumption because it said fat caused diabetes.
I'm not even a fucking doctor and I saw a child with elevated blood sugar, I would assume type 1. Could it be that the Affordable Health Care allows treatment of fatness that includes paying for diets, diet pills, and surgery. Not just from the stress of being bombarded with messages that you are less than human if you are fat, but bias in even getting your health care. I even spoke once to a supersized woman whose doctor refused to give her an lifesaving operation (the story has a happy ending, another doctor did the surgery). This means that everyone, fat, thin, young, old, learns to listen to their body, give it the foods it needs (without a moral implication of it i.e. More broadly, a higher BMI is associated with a greater risk of cardiometabolic abnormalities, as measured by blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin resistance and inflammation. The authors introduce their discussion as follows: "In this review, we discuss the role tissue iron and elevated body iron stores play in causing type 2 diabetes and the pathogenesis of its important complications, particularly diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to levels of GGT and ferritin, they were divided into three groups in each gender of each geological location (Urban or Rural), that is, Group 1 (both GGT and ferritin < median values), Group 2 (only GGT or ferritin ? median values), and group 3 (both GGT and ferritin ? median values).
The researchers noted, "This is the first prospective study associating ferritin and transferrin with the metabolic syndrome and its components. High and low levels were defined according to the three groups: men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women (DESIR). The investigators stated aim was "to determine, in a cohort of men and women, whether ferritin and transferrin were associated with glucose metabolism and whether they were predictive of the onset of hyperglycemia (impaired fasting glycemia or type 2 diabetes) after 3 years of follow-up. Geometric mean values of serum ferritin are shown for premenopausal women (black bar), postmenopausal women (white bar), and men (gray bar).
The researches concluded, "This study shows a significant correlation between SF and the presence of IRS criteria in a large representative population.
1 Odds ratios and 95% CIs for the association of clinically raised ferritin (group 5) vs ferritin in the normal range (groups 1–4) with incident diabetes in men and women, with adjustment for factors as stated (described in methods).
The investigators, "examined the association between serum ferritin concentration and the risk of diabetes. Researchers in Sweden "investigated associations of maternal preconceptional and early pregnancy heme and nonheme iron intake with subsequent GDM risk." "We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3,158 pregnant women. Serum ferritin and markers of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the obese women. The researchers first noted,"cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are inversely related to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). At that time it was noted that, "Excess hepatic iron may occur in insulin resistance-associated iron overload (IRHIO), characterized by hyperferritinemia with normal to mild increases in transferrin saturation. Iron reduction using phlebotomy significantly reduced oxidative stress in NASH patients and resulted in concomitant reduction in liver serum transferase.
Sixty-five patients with high ferritin concentrations, similar to hemochromatosis, but normal transferrin saturation, unlike hemochromatosis. In patients with iron overload of more than 50% above the upper-normal threshold, greater liver damage was noted (including advanced hepatic fibrosis),and a diagnosis of NASH. They attribute the process to enhanced expression of transferrin receptors and hyperdynamic state of retinoid (vitamin A) metabolism. All tips, guides and recommendations are followed at your own risk and should be followed up with your own research. However, it has served me well for over a decade, enabled me to completely reverse my neuropathies, and I am currently off all meds except for insulin.
The nice thing about this ADA calculator is that you can run it both directions: A1c-eAG and reverse.
I have to say that they often seem to turn up on site promoting the protagonisists of ultra-low carb diets. I'm just talking about general a1c charts floating around the interwebs, not labs or doctors office tests specifically.
It is the same treatment used in the last forty years and still hasn’t been proved to work in the long run. Even though HAES is more geared to fat people because of the discrimination we face in health care, HAES is meant for all body types. The health at every size concept implies putting off doing anything about excess weight indefinitely, instead accepting a higher BMI and focusing on healthy behaviours. Some fat people are metabolically healthy while in some people fat is a symptom of disease.
Thankfully I never do less than at 12oo cal diet but I did a lot of crazy things to lose weight. The mice with bacteria from fat twins grew fat; those that got bacteria from lean twins stayed lean. All of them require you to also do a low calorie diet and pills will help you lose a little more weight. Instead of treating all disease as  weight loss, why not look into actually curing the disease? The complexity of these treatments can make it difficult for many to lose a sufficient amount of weight," said lead author Gary Bennett, an associate professor of psychology and neuroscience and global health at Duke who studies obesity prevention.
In addition, we emphasize that iron overload is not a prerequisite for iron to mediate either diabetes or its complications.
Odds ratios for T2D in group 2-3 compared with group 1 were analyzed by multiple logistic regressions.
Among 360 new cases of diabetes, serum ferritin measured the study baseline was higher in cases than in controls (in men 96.6 vs. Ferritin serves as an antioxidant by binding excess iron, and elevated serum ferritin is a well-established risk factor for future type 2 diabetes. The green, yellow, and pink regions correspond to the low-, medium-, and high-risk strata, respectively. The figure shows the incidence rate of diabetes for male study participants in the four serum ferritin (SF) level quartiles. Note that the subjects with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) have significantly higher ferritin and transferrin saturation levels than the subjects with NAFLD and high iron. Multivariate regression showed that diabetes, serum ferritin concentrations, body mass index (BMI) and AST were independently associated with NASH." The researchers concluded, "Serum ferritin concentrations and BMI are strongly associated with fibrosis, portal and lobular inflammation in NAFLD patients.
OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for metabolic syndrome (A), type 2 diabetes (B), and IFG (C) according to joint classification of ferritin and CRP concentrations. OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) for type 2 diabetes according to joint classification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and ferritin concentrations. The research team stated that ferritin levels elevated to this degree are "an independent predictor of advanced hepatic fibrosis among patients with NAFLD." The researchers concluded, "(Serum ferritin 50% or more above the upper normal laboratory range) is associated with hepatic iron deposition, a diagnosis of NASH, and worsened histologic activity and is an independent predictor of advanced hepatic fibrosis among patients with NAFLD. If there is a discrepancy between the two averages the 7 day is usually the most accurate.In theory A1c is a 3 month average but because not all red blood cells live 3 months the most recent readings carry a little more weight. I suspect this may be because the older charts indicate much higher equivalent BGs than does ADAG for any given HbA1c (and thus make your control look worse). Also, all diagnosed patients were initiated on the same medication, without regard to the race, once elevation of blood pressure was noted on three separate occasions.
At the physical share the results with the medical provider to determine the necessity of medication. I admit when I sometimes climb to the subway (I often take an elevated train), I get winded and going up the incline I thought my heart was going to explode. I think of all the people who starve themselves or have weight loss surgery and consume less calories than a normal person needs. The results showed "(1) The prevalence of glucose abnormalities increased across the three groups of female subjects. The line through the box is the median, and the error bars are the 5th and 95th percentiles. Of these, 607 remained for analyses after exclusion of participants with missing data or abnormal glucose levels at baseline. Elevated iron stores, reflected in elevated plasma ferritin levels, may induce baseline metabolic abnormalities that ultimately result in diabetes. The results from the study were adjusted using Bayes’ law to reflect the observed 5-year incidence of 5.7% among the 3,032 at-risk individuals in Inter99 (A).
Pooled logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of GDM by quintiles of iron intake controlling for dietary and nondietary risk factors." "Dietary heme iron intake was positively and significantly associated with GDM risk.
Increased SF concentration is considered a contributing factor for developing T2D." The researchers "investigated 5,512 adult participants enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) between 1995 and 2001. HH patients are not protected from high levels of iron, yet they generally do not load macrophage iron and tend to have significantly lower levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. Adjusted for age, sex, region, residence, BMI, smoking, drinking, physical activity, education levels, dietary factors, and family histories of chronic diseases (A) or family histories of diabetes (B and C). The ORs were adjusted for age, sex, region, residence, BMI, smoking, drinking, physical activity, education levels, dietary factors, and family histories of diabetes.


Furthermore, elevated SF is independently associated with higher NAS (a fibrosis scoring system), even among patients without hepatic iron deposition.
The cohort included a high prevalence of (HFE) compound heteroyzgotes who had slightly greater iron burden. I'm a T2 not on insulin and my readings tend to stay within a fairly narrow range, not sure if this would work with someone experiencing a wider range of readings. Correspondingly, MDA levels (a lipid peroxidation product) were also higher in group 3 than other groups.
Significance levels were determined by the Mann–Whitney U-test and are indicated in the figure.
The increased risk of newly diagnosed diabetes was concentrated among participants with transferrin saturations < 45%. On the left axis, absolute risk is indicated, and relative risk is shown on the right axis. I tend to test 4 to 5 time a day unless my readings vary out of my usual range and I'm trying to figure out what is wrong. My husband can get to the top of a mountain but put him in a lake, and I’m going to zoom past him. It's learning to be as healthy as you can in the body you have whether it be too fat, too thin, disabled, or suffering from a disease.
Maybe it was time to move to HAES(tm) and that instead of focusing on large bodies, we could focus on getting all people to eat right and find enjoyable movement.
All multiple linear regression coefficients between ferritin concentration and concentrations of insulin, glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were positive and significant for both men and women." The investigators concluded, " "Elevated serum ferritin concentration was associated with an increased risk of diabetes. After adjusting for confounders, women reporting the highest heme iron intake levels (?1.52 vs. How do we become resistant to insulin and what causes our beta cells to fail?Insulin resistance can develop as a result of fat cells releasing more pro-inflammatory chemicals such as IL-6, and fewer anti-inflammatory chemicals such as adiponectin. Childhood Obesity 8(2): 97-105 (The article unfortunately is not available unless you subscribe) is filled with praise for programs who shame fat children. The researchers concluded, "GGT and ferritin were correlated with each other, and had synergistic effect on the risk of T2D in women. In more recent research reported on this page and on our Iron Reduction Therapy page the condition of relatively normal transferrin with elevated ferritin has been shown to be a combination of moderate iron overload accompanied by inflammation. This combination of factors has been described in other conditions including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and insulin resistant hepatic iron overload (IR-HIO).
Stratification of the at-risk Inter99 subpopulation by fasting plasma glucose status (B) and by DRS risk stratum (C).
Conclusion: Lower SF concentration was associated with lower risk of developing T2D in those regularly participating in CRF.
Most of the research on the remainder of this page and in our other Science Library pages is focused on the independent predictive value of either ferritin or GGT in relation to diabetes, heart disease and other diseases of aging. That is not what some of my textbooks say, which claim that type 2 diabetes has a stronger genetic component than type 1 diabetes.
Also, Health-e-Iron concurs with the recommendation that regular fitness activities will lower serum ferritin, but suggests that in conjunction with a fitness routine, participants should consider blood donation or therapeutic phlebotomy as an effective way to more quickly reduce and maintain optimal ferritin levels.
Unfortunately their authors have been lazy and taken the fact that type 2 diabetes runs in families as evidence of a genetic link. Unfortunately, not many people who commit to a regular fitness routine are able to maintain it for more than a relatively short period of months or years.
It is all to do with the fact that people in the same family follow a similar dietary pattern, and often a similar exercise pattern as well. In fact type 1 diabetes has a much stronger genetic component with a few genes on chromosome 6 being responsible for much of the susceptability.
In type 2 diabetes a large number of genes are associated with risk and none particularly strongly.What happens in the diabeticThere are some tissues in our body that let glucose in without insulin. Fat and muscle cells contain GLUT-4 transporters, which don't allow much glucose in without insulin being present.
The brain on the other hand has a lot of GLUT-3 transporters, which allow appreciable amounts of glucose in without insulin being present.Tissues which let in glucose without insulin are found in the eye, kidneys, peripheral nervous system as well as the liver, ovaries and seminal vesicles.
The unfortunate result for these cells is that they can accumulate too much glucose over time. However, those cells in the eyes, kidneys and in our peripheral circulation accumulate sorbitol, which causes swelling of the cells due to osmotic pressure. Most of these complications result from raised levels of glucose in cells which do not rely on insulin to obtain it. In particular some cells lining capillaries and nerves in the kidneys, eyes and limbs are vulnerable. As a result they leak proteins which ultimately result in constriction of the blood vessels supplying the kidney.
Since the brain uses sugar as its main energy source it goes to plan B which is creating ketones, which can provide energy also.
Too many ketones acidify our blood and cause excess urination, thirst, vomiting and tummy pain.
Ultimately severe dehydration, swelling of the brain and coma can occur, which is why hospitalisation is often needed. This is a serious complication of type 1 diabetes. However, it is uncommon with type 2 as some insulin is normally available.Curing diabetes naturallyExercising more and consuming foods that do not raise blood sugar levels is the key to reversing diabetes. While it becomes harder to regain full health the longer you have had diabetes, when first diagnosed, the vast majority of people have the potential to completely cure themselves of the condition.The correct dietThe modern western diet is the main cause of diabetes.
For instance on one of my GI lists I have a baked potato with a GI of 111, greater than pure glucose while peanuts are listed with a GI of just 7, which implies that foods containing the East Asian sauce, satay would be very low GI.
So in other words the GI is not an absolute value, but just a guideline. Sometimes it is more realistic to consider the glycaemic load or GL of a food, which takes account of the amount of a food you eat. Obviously one Cornflake (GI=93) is not going to raise blood sugar as much as a whole can of baked beans (GI=40), but a small bowl of them probably will.Foods that are normally low GI can be eaten as the main part of a diet for someone with diabetes. These include meat, fish, eggs, dairy as well as nuts, seeds, most vegetables and some fruits. The one vegetable that has a high GI is the potato (this includes the sweet potato), and the fruits with a high GI include ripe bananas, dates and raisins. Generally speaking fruits from warm climates have a higher GI than those from more temperate climates. For instance if you exercise soon after consuming the food then some of the blood sugar it creates will be taken up by your muscle cells. If you combine it with other foods of much lower GI or eat a small portion of it you will also find your blood sugar does not rise as far.Timing foodsIn general if you exercise then you will reduce your blood sugar level.
A 30 minute exercise stint before food will allow you to get away with a higher overall glycaemic load. Equally if you do some light exercise soon after a large meal you can lower the peak which your blood sugar will reach.In general it is best to leave some time between any meal and completely sedentary activity such as bed or watching the TV.
Kids get it about right when they automatically rush about after a meal, often to the frustration of their bloated parents. A bit of housework, gardening or short walk are often quite effective at making a real dent in your blood sugar readings.Treating diabetes with drugsIt really is best to avoid the need for drugs. I would always advise making concerted efforts to control blood sugar levels with increases in exercise and changes to the diet.
Many people find they can come off drugs completely when they do this properly.For those who cannot control their blood sugar levels without drugs then it is sensible to take them. The cumulative effect over time of high blood sugar levels is extremely damaging, and this is why so many diabetics suffer from amputations, blindness, heart attacks and strokes.Blood sugar lowering agentsThe main one is perhaps Metformin which lowers the amount of sugar your liver produces. Thiazilienediones such as Rosiglitazone increase insulin sensitivity of the tissues and glucosidase inhibitors such as Acarbose reduce absorption of glucose from the gut. All these drugs will be more or less effective in different people depending on how their diabetes is affecting them. Measuring blood sugar levelsDiabetes is diagnosed using criteria that are arbitrary. There are several ways that are used to measure blood sugar problems:Fasted blood sugar level - FBGThis measures blood sugar levels after not eating anything for at least 8 hours. However, this value will vary depending on factors such as stress, recent exercise and illness. Secondly their muscles get used to using fat as a fuel place of glucose and so more glucose is left in the blood. If you come into this category the measure below could be more useful to you.Long term blood sugar controlTo assess this we measure the amount of glycosylated haemoglobin - HbA1c, in your red blood cells. Haemoglobin - Hb, is the protein found in red blood cells that is responsible for carrying oxygen to your tissues. In good health somewhere between 3-5% of our haemoglobin is in the HbA1c form.Red blood cells live for an average of 120 days.
There are a number of factors that can skew the measurement:People with healthy low blood sugar have longer lived red blood cells that may survive for an average of 150 days. In this case a high end reading for HbA1c does not imply bad blood sugar control.Diabetics with high blood sugar levels have red blood cells that live shorter lives than average, typically around 90days.
It may be a better measure than HbA1c, and gives an indication of blood sugar levels over the previous 2-3 weeks(5).Glucose challenge or OGTTThe oral glucose tolerance test - OGTT is a measure of our response to consuming 75g of glucose in one hit.
It is unrealistic as most people never consume such a large and purified amount of glucose.
For most people achieving the low GI meal involves limiting the amount of starchy carbohydrates they eat.



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