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The sport medicine community has become aware of the integral role that psychosocial factors play in the injury occurrence and recovery processes (Brewer, Jeffers, Petitpas, & Van Raalte, 1994). Although the study confirmed that the fear of injury can be directly related to a loss of confidence, the study was designed to assess the strategies used by gymnasts to overcome their fear of injury.
The background information questionnaire asked respondents basic personal information such as age, type of sport and level of sport played. Conversely, Goodhart (1986) tested participants on an anagram task and found that the performance of negative thinkers was better than for positive thinkers. At the end of the 30-second test, the time from the clock-counter was recorded in seconds on the participants’ information sheet. However, swimming and baseball results indicated that females had more fear of injury in their respective sports. A repeated cycle timer (Lafayette Instrument Model 51013, Lafayette, IN) was used to signal the tester when the 30 second time limit had ended. Following the test, participants completed the Belief in Self-Talk Questionnaire and the Type of Self-Talk Questionnaire.

However, results did reveal a 25-point range out of 40 possible, adequate pilot test-retest reliability, and acceptable internal consistency. Overall, athletes perceived relatively low levels of risk and fear of being injured in their respective sports and were confident in their ability to avoid injury.
Participation in the study was one option of several that students could select for extra credit in a Psycho-Social Aspects of Sport class at a midwestern university. Each participant had a 30 second practice trial followed by a 30 second rest and a 30 second test. Results from the test of internal consistency suggested that the 8 items displayed acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha = .74.
On the casual effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive evaluation theory. Correlations between the measures indicated a positive relationship between the fear of injury and probability of injury and a negative relationship between fear of injury and confidence in avoiding injury. On a scale of 0-10, these values indicated that participants perceived a low level of fear of being injured in sport.

In a comparison between sports on all measures, swimming showed the most perceived risk, fear and least confidence in avoiding overuse injuries. Perhaps the reason for such a different response is the type of sport included in the study.
The hypothesis that females would perceive more risk than males was inconsistent, with results similar across all sports. It is possible that the high confidence level in track athletes for avoiding surface related injuries, is due to the fact that track athletes have more control over the surface they train and compete on.

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