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08.12.2013

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This article offers step-by-step instructions for nine insight meditation exercises, as well as a detailed explanation of mindful eating, hints on dealing with problems such as wandering mind, sleepiness, disturbing mental images, unpleasant emotions, and more. Although these Buddhist meditation exercises come from the traditions of the Burmese teacher Mahasi Sayadaw and the Thai teacher Chao Khun Bhavanapirama Thera, you don't have to be a Buddhist to practice them.
If you meditate in the bedroom it's better to sit on the floor instead of the bed, which may cause sleepiness.
To know an object during vipassana meditation means to experience it with bare, nonverbal awareness. Here's how to use the mental noting technique with this exercise: As the abdomen expands, say the word "rising" in your mind. Imagine lying on your back, putting a coin or some other object on your stomach and, with your eyes closed, mentally "watching" the coin move up and down as you breathe. If you can watch your abdomen rising and falling one time, you can practice insight meditation. Likewise, although we are aware of the foot during walking meditation, we don’t care about its corporeal mass, which only serves as a "marker" for the important part, the movement. If meditation seems very difficult or you lack self-discipline, try this strategy: decide you will meditate just one minute per day.
However, although the labeling technique is mainly for beginners, even advanced meditators benefit from using it when mindfulness and concentration are weak. The instructions for noting secondary objects apply to all the meditation exercises in this article.
In the beginning your mind will often wander during meditation, spinning out thoughts about the past and future. During vipassana practice meditators should try to ignore the content of their thoughts completely. Imagine two meditators: the first has many angry thoughts but doesn't get involved in them (or act on them, of course). When a meditator is aware of a thought early enough, he realizes, "The thought was not in existence before; it appeared just now and disappeared at once.
When no thoughts or other secondary objects distract you, your attention should stay with the primary meditation object. But it should be understood that in any two consecutive moments the meditation object may be different.
Put your hand in your lap, noting "placing." Now you are back in the original meditation posture.
By practicing insight meditation we gradually realize there is no bodily position comfortable enough that we can always maintain it. For more advanced meditators there is an additional method for dealing with physical pain, which is to disengage your attention from it and observe the mind itself. Generally speaking, when feelings arise during meditation they should be observed and labeled with a mental note. If an image occurs, try to focus on the primary meditation object again (such as the rising-falling motions), ignoring the image.
Insight meditators usually alternate a period of sitting with an equal period of walking meditation, especially during an intensive retreat in which vipassana is practiced many hours per day. Here we'll describe how to change from sitting to standing in a step-by-step manner, enabling you to maintain mindfulness. First, note your intention as "intending to move." Next, start moving the body slowly, breaking the motion down into a series of separate actions. Once the body is upright you should observe the standing posture for a few moments, noting "standing." This means to focus awareness on the position or shape of the body, being aware of how it feels. Whether you are standing, sitting, or lying down, apply this step-by-step technique whenever you change posture during vipassana practice.
Lift the left foot and place it down next to the right, noting "turning." By now you should be facing in the opposite direction, having turned one-hundred-and-eighty degrees.
Since mindfulness sometimes gets "bored" or slows down when observing the same object for a long time (especially during a meditation retreat), changing to another primary meditation object can help mindfulness maintain strength and continuity.
The hand motions exercise, performed while sitting or lying down, is especially useful for those who can't do the walking practice due to illness or disability.
Continue moving your hand down until the lateral side of the little finger touches the knee. Continue moving the left hand down until the lateral side of the little finger touches the knee.
There are a couple of Pali words worth remembering, because you will hear them over and over again in discussions about vipassana meditation.
Intermediate or advanced meditators may practice this exercise for the entire meditation period, or for a few minutes before practicing the rising-falling exercise. As soon as you're aware of an emotion during meditation practice, label it with a mental note.
The insight meditation method is a middle path between 1) suppressing an emotion and 2) indulging it by expressing it in words or actions, trying to feel it more deeply, or thinking about it further.
After noting the emotion for one or two moments, let go of it and gently bring your attention back to the primary meditation object. In training the mind to know emotions as they really are, a meditator comes to realize that even strong grief, anger or fear can last only a moment before passing away. Sleepiness may bother you more during an intensive meditation retreat than in your daily practice. But we should understand that during vipassana practice we won't always be able to focus on a "real" or "correct" meditation object, even if we try hard to do so. The way of focusing on objects in vipassana practice differs from that of concentration meditation, and it's important to understand the difference.
In order to have a complete foundation for mindfulness, a meditator observes both the mind and its object in each moment.


So when we say, for example, "be aware of the rising motion," what should be observed is, "knowing rising," or "the-act-of-knowing-rising." That is true for all meditation objects, not just the abdominal movements. Although not all meditation objects will have such clearly distinct phases as a single step does, we can use this example as a paradigm of how to observe other objects, too, even mental events. Please don't misunderstand: we don't mean you have to change to a different meditation object every single moment. Most of us have seen jugglers at festivals or street fairs, and their touch-and-go skill is a perfect example of how to focus on objects in meditation.
In this exercise your attention switches back and forth between two primary meditation objects. Meditation Posture: Mindfulness Meditation is a training of the mind not the body, the Buddha taught that you could meditate walking, standing, sitting or lying down, and everything in between. The Exercise: To begin this Mindfulness Meditation practice to train your attention take a meditation posture as above. Mindfulness of Breathing:Mindfulness of breathing is a method of training your attention, you can also observe your mind through getting to know its interaction with distractions that arise during the meditation exercise. Take the walking meditation seriously, by doing the walking meditation alone it is possible to attain deep Mindfulness and concentration. Mindfulness of daily activities is a very important part of your meditation practice, without Mindfulness meditation ceases, along with concentration and deepening understanding. Although vipassana is a very simple method, many aspects of meditation only become clear by actually doing it. If doing the exercise lying down, put your hands on the abdomen, one on top of the other, or at your sides.
In meditation these movements are called, respectively, "rising" and "falling." They never cease to alternate as long as you live. If you want to meditate longer than an hour, it is best to alternate this exercise with walking meditation. If a secondary object makes only a faint impression on the periphery of your awareness and does not strongly hook your attention, ignore it and continue observing the primary meditation object. It doesn't matter whether a thought is good or bad, pleasant or unpleasant; the conventional meaning is irrelevant in meditation. That doesn't mean you have to observe one object exclusively for the entire meditation period. Pain inevitably appears, even when lying down (if you doubt this, ask anyone who is bedridden in the hospital).
If you are sitting, get up and practice walking meditation or do the hand motions exercise.
Here the process has been broken down into sixteen steps (this information has been adapted from Helen Jandamit's book, The Way to Vipassana, Bangkok, V.H.
The basic walking meditation exercise is similar to normal walking, only slower and more deliberate.
Instead of looking around the room, keep your eyes directed straight ahead or slightly downcast toward the floor (but don't bend your neck too far forward, which may cause discomfort).
This means to focus awareness on the posture of the body as you stand (for a more detailed description of how to observe posture, see Exercise 4). Next we'll give five variations in which each step is broken down into a series of smaller movements. By focusing on a different part of the body, however, you give mindfulness a larger repertoire of objects, just as a weightlifter trains different muscles in rotation.
Here you will observe a stationary object—the sitting posture itself (strictly speaking, however, movement is still present, because the mind moves). For example, you might repeat the word "Buddho," or another mantra (a mantra is a special word or phrase repeated aloud and focused on in concentration meditation). In the context of vipassana meditation, some mental forms are "real," such as the intention to move the body, or a feeling of aversion or desire.
Having identified the appropriate meditation objects, we need to understand precisely how to observe them.
Even though we won't be able to do it clearly at first, our eventual aim during meditation should be to observe every object in this manner, knowing it with mindfulness from the instant of its arising all the way through to its ending, right in the present moment.
Students sometimes get confused because we say a meditation exercise such as the sitting posture can be practiced as long as forty-five minutes. But again, we need to understand how to focus from moment to moment during vipassana practice. While there is no magic posture the way you hold your body does have an effect of the energy flow, comfort and alertness during your meditation practice. The sensations that you experience when you breathe provides a constant object of meditation that is always available, one that reflects and develops with the changing state of your mind. The observing of the 'rising and falling' movements of the abdomen is initially used to increase your concentration and Mindfulness, once your concentration and Mindfulness is strong enough so that you no longer get lost in distraction , then you can place your attention on whatever is the dominant experience during your meditation. Don’t look around, you can do that after you have finished your meditation, if you do during your walking meditation then concentration will not develop and your Mindfulness will stay low. Instead of giving your full attention to your external problems you can turn your attention inward and watch how you are relating to them. You can use your own words, but the spirit of the aspiration should be something like this: "By this practice of insight meditation may I reach the end of suffering. The practice of mental noting helps keep the mind on the meditation object and prevents you from getting distracted. The coin and the buoy are like the spot on the abdomen, and the meditator just follows the up and down movement. The same applies to the motion of the feet in walking meditation, the movements of the hands in Exercise 3, and so on.
You will find, however, that once you get "over the hump" of your initial resistance and actually sit down to do it, you might sometimes want to meditate longer.


The strategy is simple: When you catch yourself thinking, silently say the mental note "thinking" for a moment or two, and then gently return your attention to the rising-falling movements (or whatever primary meditation object you were observing). When unpleasant memories arise we focus on how we were wronged, getting more and more upset.
Letting go of the previous meditation object happens automatically every time we focus in the present again.
As a result of meditating, you begin to see that uncomfortable bodily sensations arise much more often than you had thought.
No matter how comfortable the position is initially, we are always forced to move because of the changing nature of the physical elements. Emotions are valid meditation objects, too, objects of the fourth foundation of mindfulness. Sooner or later, mindfulness must learn how to handle emotional objects or we won't be able to make progress in insight. In the same way, as soon a meditator notes an object he drops it, or else he'll miss the next present moment. Mindfulness practice can be done walking, standing, sitting or lying down so any posture as long as you are aware of it is good. Wandering attention is the most difficult problem for the meditator and the only way to get it under control is to keep reapplying your attention to your meditation object. In all the exercises except walking meditation your eyes can be either open or closed (in walking meditation your eyes must be open).
Then thoughts will get stirred up—distracting, delusive thoughts about how difficult or boring meditation is. Just keep observing the primary meditation object and ignore the thoughts, which will fall away on their own. Only when making an effort to meditate can we see the full extent of the mind's restlessness as it jumps from one thought to the next. So even if you sit down to practice the rising-falling exercise for thirty minutes, it doesn't mean you will observe the abdominal movements during every single moment of that half-hour period. The important thing is to follow the principle of breaking down larger movements into separate, smaller actions that can be noted one at a time, and to stop completely at the end of each action before beginning the next. Every step has a clear beginning as you lift the heel, a middle phase as the foot travels forward, and an end as you place the foot down (these three phases segue into each other fluidly). Occasionally a meditator may experience disturbing mental images, in which case it may help to open the eyes. But even if you don't end up meditating longer, keep practicing one minute every day, without exception, and your attitude will gradually change. The meditator keeps taking consecutive "snapshots" of the posture, each one lasting roughly a couple of seconds. And when the body sits, the mind experiences the posture as a group of temporary sensations, different from when the body is standing or lying down.
Whether good or bad in conventional terms, all objects are treated equally during meditation practice. Likewise, a meditator has to concentrate or he will get distracted from whatever object is appearing in the present moment. Soon those thoughts will force you to stand up and walk away from the cushion without having finished your meditation session. In short, a secondary object is anything you're aware of that is not the primary meditation object.
After one or two moments of noting "hearing," return your attention to the primary meditation object and forget about the sound. As meditators, our only job is keep bringing the mind back to knowing what is happening right here in this present moment. The meditator is aware of the whole posture each time with the aim of understanding that this is all there is to "sitting"—only a momentary group of sensations, nothing more.
Instead of crossing your legs I recommend trying the Burmese meditation posture which instead of crossing the legs on top of each other, places one leg in front of the other flat on the floor, this lowers the pressure on your hips and make it easier to attain good body posture.
Be careful to follow the meditation techniques correctly so that mindfulness and concentration stay as balanced as possible.
To this sit down and fold one leg into your body so that the sole of the foot is facing the inside thigh of the other leg, next fold the other leg in front of it.
All we need to do is label the event with an appropriate mental note, such as "memory," "planning," or "imagining," and lightly bring the mind back to the main meditation object. This is one of many aspects of meditation that only truly becomes clear with practical experience. During a single meditation session mindfulness may jump back and forth from one object to another many times.
Continue to anchor your attention in these sensations, being aware if your mind wanders off, if it does its ok, just bring it back - This is how you train your attention, your ability to remember what is happening right now. If this still isn't comfortable then go easy on yourself, get to know your body and what it can and can't do, accept it and then work with what you have, there are other postures just as good like a chair or lying down on the floor.
Placing our attention in the lower part of the body brings the energy down, leading to the quietening of the mind and away from where most of us associate thinking to be.
If we are observing at the tip of the nose this shift can be very subtle and takes greater developed skill to discern this, therefore needing a more controlled environment, with less distractions to meditate. Often I have found that if my students just learn to breathe properly, using all of their lungs and lowering their diaphragm, that many of the anxious or stress symptoms disappear.



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