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In a previous paper (13) various propositions were presented which would have to be included in any theory of human motivation that could lay claim to being definitive.
Young in a recent article (21) has summarized the work on appetite in its relation to body needs.
Thus it seems impossible as well as useless to make any list of fundamental physiological needs for they can come to almost any number one might wish, depending on the degree of specificity of description. In a previous paper (13) it has been pointed out that these physiological drives or needs are to be considered unusual rather than typical because they are isolable, and because they are localizable somatically. It should be pointed out again that any of the physiological needs and the consummatory behavior involved with them serve as channels for all sorts of other needs as well. If all the needs are unsatisfied, and the organism is then dominated by the physiological needs, all other needs may become simply non-existent or be pushed into the background. Another peculiar characteristic of the human organism when it is dominated by a certain need is that the whole philosophy of the future tends also to change.
One main implication of this phrasing is that gratification becomes as important a concept as deprivation in motivation theory, for it releases the organism from the domination of a relatively more physiological need, permitting thereby the emergence of other more social goals. This statement is somewhat qualified by a hypothesis to be discussed more fully later, namely that it is precisely those individuals in whom a certain need has always been satisfied who are best equipped to tolerate deprivation of that need in the future, and that furthermore, those who have been de-[p. Although in this paper we are interested primarily in the needs of the adult, we can approach an understanding of his safety needs perhaps more efficiently by observation of infants and children, in whom these needs are much more simple and obvious. Another indication of the child’s need for safety is his preference for some kind of undisrupted routine or rhythm. The healthy, normal, fortunate adult in our culture is largely satisfied in his safety needs. Otherwise the need for safety is seen as an active and dominant mobilizer of the organism’s resources only in emergencies, e. In our society the thwarting of these needs is the most commonly found core in cases of maladjustment and more severe psychopathology.
Satisfaction of the self-esteem need leads to feelings of self-confidence, worth, strength, capability and adequacy of being useful and necessary in the world. The specific form that these needs will take will of course vary greatly from person to person. The clear emergence of these needs rests upon prior satisfaction of the physiological, safety, love and esteem needs. If we remember that the cognitive capacities (perceptual, intellectual, learning) are a set of adjustive tools, which have, among other functions, that of satisfaction of our basic needs, then it is clear that any danger to them, any deprivation or blocking of their free use, must also be indirectly threatening to the basic needs themselves. We must therefore introduce another hypothesis and speak of degrees of closeness to the basic needs, for we have already pointed out that any conscious desires (partial goals) are more or less important as they are more or less close to the basic needs. As for the concept of emergence of a new need after satisfaction of the prepotent need, this emergence is not a sudden, saltatory phenomenon but rather a gradual emergence by slow degrees from nothingness. Thwarting of unimportant desires produces no psychopathological results; thwarting of a basically important need does produce such results. When adults are residing at the Red vMEME, we often think of them as "spoiled." But you need Red energy to overcome restrictions and boundaries put on you by other systems. George Kelly in 1955 developed his Personal Construct Theory, focusing on the study of individuals, families, and social groups, with particular emphasis on how people organize and change their views of self and world. Personally Constructed Reality, for the most part, is driven by Needs, the nature of which is determined by where a person sits on Maslow's hierarchy. The hunger drive (or any other physiological drive) was rejected as a centering point or model for a definitive theory of motivation. Any motivated behavior, either preparatory or consummatory, must be understood to be a channel through which many basic needs may be simultaneously expressed or satisfied. What this means specifically is, that in the human being who is missing everything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others. For our chronically and extremely hungry man, Utopia can be defined very simply as a place where there is plenty of food.
Emergency conditions are, almost by definition, rare in the normally functioning peaceful society. The physiological needs, along with their partial goals, when chronically gratified cease to exist as active determinants or organizers of behavior.
But thwarting of these needs produces feelings of inferiority, of weakness and of helplessness. It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. We shall call people who are satisfied in these needs, basically satisfied people, and it is from these that we may expect the fullest (and healthiest) creativeness.[8] Since, in our society, basically satisfied people are the exception, we do not know much about self-actualization, either experimentally or clinically.
This most common reversal in the hierarchy is usually due to the development of the notion that the person who is most likely to be loved is a strong or powerful person, one who inspires respect or fear, and who is self confident or aggressive. Their creativeness might appear not as self-actualization released by basic satisfaction, but in spite of lack of basic satisfaction.


For instance, if prepotent need A is satisfied only 10 per cent: then need B may not be visible at all.
394] postulation that a man who is thwarted in any of his basic needs may fairly be envisaged simply as a sick man. Neurosis may have at its core a thwarting of the affection and esteem needs in a person who is generally safe. One clear implication of our definition would be that (1) since a man is to be called sick who is basically thwarted, and (2) since such basic thwarting is made possible ultimately only by forces outside the individual, then (3) sickness in the individual must come ultimately from sickness in the society. Maslow identified a hierarchy of needs [see chart], which is one way to think about the upward flow of human consciousness.
We have a curiosity and sometimes an urgent need to know the truth that corresponds closely to the real world, in order to understand what is going on, to grasp the causes of our situation and the consequences of our actions. Constructs are often defined by words, but can also be non-verbal and hard to explain, such as the feeling you get when your football team just won the championship. That is to say, the appearance of one need usually rests on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need.
Two recent lines of research make it necessary to revise our customary notions about these needs, first, the development of the concept of homeostasis, and second, the finding that appetites (preferential choices among foods) are a fairly efficient indication of actual needs or lacks in the body. Conversely, it is possible to satisfy the hunger need in part by other activities such as drinking water or smoking cigarettes. A person who is lacking food, safety, love, and esteem would most probably hunger for food more strongly than for anything else. This is what we mean by saying that the basic human needs are organized into a hierarchy of relative prepotency. All that has been said of the physiological needs is equally true, although in lesser degree, of these desires.
Here too we may list science and philosophy in general as partially motivated by the safety needs (we shall see later that there are also other motivations to scientific, philosophical or religious endeavor).
Practically all theorists of psychopathology have stressed thwarting of the love needs as basic in the picture of maladjustment. Ordinarily sexual behavior is multi-determined, that is to say, determined not only by sexual but also by other needs, chief among which are the love and affection needs. By firmly based self-esteem, we mean that which is soundly based upon real capacity, achievement and respect from others. Danger to these is reacted to almost as if it were a direct danger to the basic needs themselves. An act is psychologically important if it contributes directly to satisfaction of basic needs. Acquiring knowledge and systematizing the universe have been considered as, in part, techniques for the achievement of basic safety in the world, or, for the intelligent man, expressions of self-actualization. It is true that most of the people with whom we have worked have seemed to have these basic needs in about the order that has been indicated.
If they are dominated by a higher need, this higher need will seem to be the most important of all.
What we have claimed is that the person will want the more basic of two needs when deprived in both. However, as this need A becomes satisfied 25 per cent, need B may emerge 5 per cent, as need A becomes satisfied 75 per cent need B may emerge go per cent, and so on.
As we evolve upward we pass through levels of needs, from our physiological needs to our safety needs, next to our belongingness needs, then to our self-esteem needs, then to our needs for the good, the true and the beautiful, and finally to our self actualization needs at the very apex of the hierarchy. Through identification and enculturation, much of this becomes an automated, mechanical system, with the mindful Self largely asleep or obscured; to raise our society to a higher level of spiritual intelligence, we need to reawaken consciousness in ourselves of a higher Self that is our mind's caretaker. In other words, relatively isolable as these physiological needs are, they are not completely so.
The receptors and effectors, the intelligence, memory, habits, all may now be defined simply as hunger-gratifying tools.
Many clinical studies have therefore been made of this need and we know more about it perhaps than any of the other needs except the physiological ones (14).
Also freedom of inquiry and expression have been discussed as preconditions of satisfactions of the basic needs. But essentially they seek high self-esteem and its behavior expressions more as a means-to-an-end than for its own sake; they seek self-assertion for the sake of love rather than for self-esteem itself. It then becomes possible, and indeed does actually happen, that they may, for the sake of this higher need, put themselves into the position of being deprived in a more basic need. People who have been satisfied in their basic needs throughout their lives, particularly in their earlier years, seem to develop exceptional power to withstand present or future thwarting of these needs simply because they have strong,[p. In actual fact, most members of our society who are normal, are partially satisfied in all their basic needs and partially unsatisfied in all their basic needs at the same time.
It becomes so only when it threatens or thwarts the basic needs, or partial needs that are closely related to the basic needs (10).


Apart from this, however, needs cease to play an active determining or organizing role as soon as they are gratified.
If we are interested in what actually motivates us, and not in what has, will, or might motivate us, then a satisfied need is not a motivator. 396] theory of inter-personal relations, (i) implications for psychotherapy, (j) implication for theory of society, (k) the theory of selfishness, (l) the relation between needs and cultural patterns, (m) the relation between this theory and Alport’s theory of functional autonomy. Also no need or drive can be treated as if it were isolated or discrete; every drive is related to the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of other drives.
Thus a child who because of some bad food is taken ill may, for a day or two, develop fear, nightmares, and a need for protection and reassurance never seen in him before his illness. True though these formulations may be, they do not constitute definitive answers to the question as to the motivation role of curiosity, learning, philosophizing, experimenting, etc. We may expect that after a long-time deprivation of the more basic need there will be a tendency to reevaluate both needs so that the more pre-potent need will actually become consciously prepotent for the individual who may have given it up very lightly.
Let us say again that there are many determinants of behavior other than the needs and desires. These as well as certain other less important questions must be considered as motivation theory attempts to become definitive.
The Spiral Dynamics model currently has defined eight levels of consciousness, but allows for the potential of new, more complex levels emerging. But this would not happen either, were it not for the developing consciousness of the child in its struggle for self-realization and self-expression.
A definition, which permits our students to be more effective in life, after completing the courses. In this way, we attempt to fill in the blanks so the overall picture appears seamless - our subjective reality is felt to be equivalent to the objective reality, and we forget that the filtering and extrapolation was needed in the process of creating this correspondence. Perhaps one could express this more accurately by saying that the child needs an organized world rather than an unorganized or unstructured one.
If we wish to see these needs directly and clearly we must turn to neurotic or near-neurotic individuals, and to the economic and social underdogs. 382] we may call the desire for reputation or prestige (defining it as respect or esteem from other people), recognition, attention, importance or appreciation.[6] These needs have been relatively stressed by Alfred Adler and his followers, and have been relatively neglected by Freud and the psychoanalysts.
These conditions are not ends in themselves but they are almost so since they are so closely related to the basic needs, which are apparently the only ends in themselves.
Some are very directly related to the protection or attainment of the basic needs, others are only weakly and distantly related. Thus, a man who has given up his job rather than lose his self-respect, and who then starves for six months or so, may be willing to take his job back even at the price of losing his a self-respect. 389] is satisfied perhaps 85 per cent in his physiological needs, 70 per cent in his safety needs, 50 per cent in his love needs, 40 per cent in his self-esteem needs, and 10 per cent in his self-actualization needs. What we have called the basic needs are very often largely unconscious although they may, with suitable techniques, and with sophisticated people become conscious. Within the sphere of motivational determinants any behavior tends to be determined by several or all of the basic needs simultaneously rather than by only one of them. This point should be emphasized because it has been either overlooked or contradicted in every theory of motivation I know.[12] The perfectly healthy, normal, fortunate man has no sex needs or hunger needs, or needs for safety, or for love, or for prestige, or self-esteem, except in stray moments of quickly passing threat.
If I were permitted this usage, I should then say simply that a healthy man is primarily motivated by his needs to develop and actualize his fullest potentialities and capacities. In between these extremes, we can perceive the expressions of safety needs only in such phenomena as, for instance, the common preference for a job with tenure and protection, the desire for a savings account, and for insurance of various kinds (medical, dental, unemployment, disability, old age).
Indeed if we wished, we could speak of more basic and less basic defense mechanisms, and then affirm that danger to the more basic defenses is more threatening than danger to less basic defenses (always remembering that this is so only because of their relationship to the basic needs). 390] needs is in part an attempt to account for this unity behind the apparent diversity from culture to culture. If a man has any other basic needs in any active, chronic sense, then he is simply an unhealthy man. Practically everything looks less important than safety, (even sometimes the physiological needs which being satisfied, are now underestimated). Eating may be partially for the sake of filling the stomach, and partially for the sake of comfort and amelioration of other needs. The claim is made only that it is relatively more ultimate, more universal, more basic, than the superficial conscious desires from culture to culture, and makes a somewhat closer approach to common-human characteristics, Basic needs are more common-human than superficial desires or behaviors. As an illustration, I may point out that it would be possible (theoretically if not practically) to analyze a single act of an individual and see in it the expression of his physiological needs, his safety needs, his love needs, his esteem needs and self-actualization.




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