Wilderness survival kit list pdf spanish,books to read out loud to preschoolers,upper stomach swelling causes - PDF 2016

Then you're gonna love my free PDF, 20 common survival items, 20 uncommon survival uses for each. Contour lines are a method of depicting the 3-dimensional character of the terrain on a 2-dimensional map.
Even after years of using a map and compass I could never remember how to correct for declination. If your declination is west, then magnetic north is less than true north and the map bearing is less than (<) the magnetic bearing. Map Bearing to Magnetic Bearing: If you are taking a bearing from one point on your map to another point on the map with respect to true north, then you are working with the map bearing. Magnetic Bearing to Map Bearing: If you use your compass to take a bearing from your current position to a point on the landscape, then you are working with the magnetic bearing. If your declination is east then magnetic north is greater than true north the map bearing is greater than the magnetic bearing. Make it a habit of keeping your map and compass handy and refer to them every hour or so to locate your position (more often in low visibility).
Place your compass on the map so that the edge of the base plate lies is parallel to the east or west edge of the map with the direction of travel arrow toward the north edge of the map.
Holding the compass on the map, rotate the map with the compass until the north end of the magnetic needle points to the N on the compass housing (i.e. With the map oriented, look around for prominent features landscape features such as mountains, valleys, lakes, rivers, etc. Orient Your Map: You can eliminate the need to correct for declination if you use your compass to orient the map each time. Lay the long edge of the compass base plate on the map, making a line from the starting point to the destination (from point X to point Y).
Holding the base plate steady, rotate the compass housing until the compass orienting lines and orienting arrow are pointing to true north.
Lay the long edge of the compass base plate on the map, making a line from the starting point to the destination (from X to Y).
Rotate the compass housing until the north orienting arrow of the compass housing lines up with the red magnetic needle. After taking the bearing, as described above, hold the compass level and in front of you, so that the direction of travel arrow points to the destination. Continue to sight on other features along the bearing and walk to them, until you reach your destination. To walk a bearing taken from the map, you may need to correct for declination if you did not orient the map to magnetic north before you took your bearing.
Sometimes the terrain isn’t always so cooperative to let you just follow your bearing in a straight line so there are a number of techniques to use when traveling on a bearing. Line of Sight – Walk to an obvious landmark-a tree or boulder that is directly on the bearing. Back Bearings: To check your position while walking a bearing, you can take a back bearing. For easy access to your gear, pack all your gear in small stuff bags then pack the backpack. The Zone Method of packing a backpack can make the difference between drudgery and enjoyment during the time spent on the trail.
There is also a benefit in placing the densest weight high in the pack, as it will be more directly over the center of gravity. Water purification: As a minimum boil water or add 1 iodine tablet per instructions on tablet bottle. Stepping backward with the left foot and crouching slightly to slant the right thigh, drag or lift the frame to rest on the thigh. Steadying the frame with the left hand, and holding the upper part of the right shoulder strap, put the right arm under the shoulder strap. Buckle the hip belt in place and adjust the shoulder straps to hold the frame high on your back. A good pack frame will have welded construction Well padded hip belt that will tighten snugly just above his hips.
The shoulder straps should be attached to the frame high enough above the shoulder that the straps come down from the frame to the front of the shoulder. Good quality sleeping bag and tent straps should also be bought to securely fasten the bag and tent to the pack. Bungee or elastic cords should not be used to fasten items to the exterior of the pack because these allow the load to shift and bounce around. NOTE: When a backpack is fully loaded with all necessary gear and equipment it should not weigh more than 20% to 25% of the total body weight of the person who is carrying the pack. An overloaded, too heavy pack will lead to quick fatigue, possible physical injury, and for certain an unpleasant backpacking experience. SUGGESTION: Buy a pack that fits now and sell it to a smaller scout when your son outgrows it. A good bag will be made with offset or slant layer construction which will not be sewn all the way through the inner and outer covering.
These types of Bags a very expensive but last forever, be careful choosing the weight, size packed, and fill of the bag. A closed cell, foam sleeping pad is a must for winter camping, since it insulates you from the cold earth. I do however, use a REI Marino Wool™ liner, it’s really small, light and I hate sleeping on nylon.
Hiking boots should always be worn with sock liners (polypropylene or silk) and wool hiking socks. Make sure that you wear hiking sock liners and wool hiking socks when you go to try boots on in the store.
In top-roping, a rope from the top of the climb always holds the climber, making most slips off the climb harmless. The anchor at the top of the climb is assembled from loops of webbing connected to carabiners attached securely to the rock. The anchor’s carabiners with the rope passing through are suspended below the top of the climb to prevent the rope from rubbing.
The climb may be no longer than half the length of the rope; when the climber starts, the rope must cross the full length of the climb twice. The belayer stops the rope with a belay device attached to his harness if the climber slips. The belayer must keep the slack in the rope to a minimum since when a climber slips, any slack must be taken up before the rope can stop the fall.
In lead climbing, two people, a leader and a follower, ascend the climb in pitches: sections of the climb shorter than the length of the rope.
First the leader climbs the pitch, wedging pieces of protection into the rock and attaching the rope to them with carabiners.
Once the leader makes it to the top, she anchors herself to the rock and belays the follower, who climbs the pitch, removing the protection. Ideally, so the rope is not forced to go around friction-increasing corners, the protection should be along in a straight line between belay stations. This weekend course aims to introduce you to the incredibly technical and ancient craft of flint knapping. In addition to flint, several other hard and durable natural materials can be used to create sharp edges, points and scraping tools. The course will be run from our woodland base camp with plenty of quiet corners to set up a tent amongst the Hazel, Ash, Birch and Oak.
This course assembles at 7pm on the Friday and finishes at approximately 4pm on the Sunday. PLEASE NOTE: This course is one of our wilderness crafts workshops and is therefore a part self catering course. First aid is the help that you give someone quickly after they have hurt themselves or have had an accident .
Do not move a person who may have a broken bone , internal injuries or an injured spine unless you really have to. If the victim is unconscious turn the head to one side to keep the person from choking .
A victim who suffers from shock may look afraid, confused , weak and be extremely thirsty . A person who has swallowed something poisonous may die within minutes if they are not treated . If a person has inhaled a poison like carbon monoxide or chlorine gas move him or her to fresh air at once. Poisons can also be absorbed through the skin if you get in contact with poisonous plants or chemical substances . When you treat burns never open blisters and do not put oil or other greasy substances on the burn. It is a good idea to have a kit with first aid supplies at home or in your car when you travel.
10 ways to survive a snowstorm includes being prepared so you aren't caught off guard in severe weather.
Being able to build a bow cheaply and on the fly it a great skill to have, and once you build a few, you start to get creative. Knowing how to tie good camping knots is an invaluable skill in wilderness survival situations. Describes how to construct and maintain a shelter using primitive tools in a survival situation.
Urban Survival Tools for the best First Aid Kits, Survival Gear, Survivor Tools, Emergency Packs, Bug Out Bags, Long Term Food Storage Containers and Backpacks,water treatment,water filters.



A Bug out bag is basically a big survival kit that contains all of the items you would require to survive after a disaster. Search and Rescue Manitoba stress the importance of planning in order to experience a safe and enjoyable outdoor adventure.
Along with our partners, The Search and Rescue Manitoba (SARMAN) Volunteer Association provide documents to help you plan your wilderness trip. Use this handy form to list your departure, travel plans, when you expect to return, and what equipment you are taking.
A handy pocket card with information on planning a trip, and what to do if you become lost. This will also subscribe you to my newsletter so you stay up-to-date with everything: new articles, ebooks, products and more!
A topographic map uses markings such as contour lines to simulate the three-dimensional topography of the land on a two-dimensional map.
Latitude lines run east and west and measure the distance in degrees north or south from the equator (0° latitude). A scale of 1:250,000 (be it inches, feet, or meters) means that 1 unit on the map is the equivalent of 250,000 units in the real world. The map location is given by the latitude and longitude of the southeast (lower right) corner of the quadrangle.
Just like isobars in the atmosphere depict lines of equal atmospheric pressure, contour lines drawn on the map represent equal points of height above sea level.
The map legend will indicate the contour interval-the distance in feet (meters, etc.) between each contour line. The shape of the earth’s magnetic field is roughly the same shape as the field of a bar magnet. The angular difference between true north and magnetic north is known as the declination and is marked in degrees on your map.
This dip varies in different parts of the world and compasses are specially calibrated for that dip. When you look at your map, it is drawn in relation to true north; when you look at your compass, it points to magnetic north. A bearing is a horizontal angle measured clockwise from north (either magnetic north or true north) to some point (either a point on a map or a point in the real world). It displays true north, but it doesn’t include magnetic fields as the real world does, so you need to make accommodations when going from your map to the real world. Some compasses have an outer degree ring that can be unlocked either with a setscrew or a latch. Rotate the map until recognized features on the ground roughly align with those on the map. Make a mental note of the geographical features you will be traveling along and seeing during the day. As long as the map is oriented with respect to magnetic north, any bearings you take from map to compass or compass to map will be the same.
Since the base plate is parallel to the direction of travel arrow, the base plate can be used to set the direction to the destination.
Here you see the orienting lines and arrow are parallel to the line from A to B as well as to the map gridlines.
You see a summit ridge above tree line that looks like a great place for photographs, but there’s a valley thick with Douglas fir between you and the summit. Once you have corrected for declination, follow the same procedure as indicated above for walking a bearing taken from the land. Before you start to walk on your bearing, turn around take a bearing 180° off of the bearing you are going to walk.
Don’t buy just for camping if you ever plan on backpacking, camping equipment is no good on a backpack trip, but backpacking equipment is perfectly fine for a camp out. However, the quality usually is much, much better and you can have it a lifetime if taken care of properly. Plastic zip lock bags make excellent small and medium stuff bags especially to keep items dry.
However, the following are a few recommendations that have proven to be easy and safe for both pack and packer.
The belt should be tight enough to support the pack on the belt when loaded with 25 to 30 lbs. Also the rated degrees is VERY important, you can supplement bags with extra blankets on camp outs or double up the bags when it gets real cold.
These pads weigh more than foam pads and are not recommended for new scouts who need to conserve weight. Before wearing boots on a hike the boots should be worn around the house for several days to break them in properly.
As shown above, the climber is attached to one end of the rope, the middle is passed through an anchor at the top of the climb, and the belayer holds the other end. The rope is passed through some of the carabiners, and the others are attached to either pieces of protection, wedged into a convenient crack, or bolts, which other climbers have drilled into the rock.
When bolts or protection are far from the top of the climb, substantial lengths of webbing are needed to place the carabiners correctly. Finally, both the leader and follower are at the top of the pitch with all their gear, ready to climb the next pitch. Unlike top-roping, where slipping off the rock usually doesn’t result in a long fall, a leader can fall twice the distance from the last piece of protection before the rope can help. One carabiner is attached to the loop on the piece of protection; the rope is passed through the other. This is not always possible, so longer pieces of webbing in the quickdraw are used to make the path of the rope straighter.
As shown above, the center of the rope is passed through an anchor at the top of the climb.
You will be shown how to select the right flint nodule, break into it and using a hard, hammer stone or soft antler billet, remove razor sharp slithers and shards of varying sizes and shapes.
We’ll show you how to work bones and antlers using both ancient and modern techniques to create awls, needles, scrapers and weapon points.
The materials for your projects will be harvested from these surrounding woodlands, by you.
Please bring enough lunch and main meals for the duration as the base camp is quite remote and re-supply is a bit of a mission. If you don't know the phone number of the local doctor or hospital dial an emergency number: 144 for an ambulance , 133 for the fire department and 122 for the police. An ambulance needs to know where the injured person is located and what exactly has happened. You must begin helping a person at once, especially if the victim is bleeding strongly, has been poisoned or if breathing has stopped. If the leg or arm is hurt you can try to stop bleeding by putting pressure on the artery that carries blood to the injured body part. In such a case either call a doctor , an ambulance or take the person to the nearest hospital . In such a case remove all the clothes that someone is wearing and flush the skin with water for about 10 minutes. Two or three minutes without breathing can cause brain damage and six minutes can be fatal . It should include bandages , tissue , something to write on, a flashlight , scissors , safety pins , a spray or a lotion that kills germs . A No Shelter This is a two fold mistake that will cost you your life in a Wilderness Survival Situation.
These documents are guides and are not to be replaced with approved and appropriate courses in outdoor survival, navigation, first aid, CPR or emergency procedures.
The date of the map is shown in the column following the map name; a second date indicates the latest revision. In addition, a USGS map includes latitude and longitude as well as the names of the adjacent maps (depicted on the top, bottom, left side, right side and the four corners of the map).
There will be heavier contour lines every 4th or 5th contour line that are labeled with the height above sea level. After tracing out your route, pull the string straight and measure it against the scale line in the map legend. Unfortunately for the wilderness traveler, true north is not at the same point on the earth as the magnetic north Pole which is where your compass points. So you can’t take a compass made for North America and use it in South America and get accurate readings. To make the map and compass work together you must decide on one North as your point of reference and base all your calculations on that. If you look at the map of North America in below you will see the line roughly marking 0° declination. In order to transfer this information back to your magnetic bearing you need to add the declination to your map bearing to create the proper magnetic bearing. In order to transfer this information back to your map you need to subtract the declination from your magnetic bearing compass bearing to create the proper map bearing.
In order to transfer this information back to your magnetic bearing you need to subtract the declination from your map bearing compass bearing to create the proper magnetic bearing. In order to transfer this information back to your map you need to add the declination from your magnetic bearing compass bearing to create the proper map bearing. This will also give you an idea of how far you have traveled and whether your Time Control Plan is accurate. If you keep the terrain in your mind, you will usually have a general idea of where you are just by looking around.


What you need to do is take a bearing from your current position to the summit and use that to travel through the forest.
The north-orienting arrow must be pointing in the same direction as the red (north) magnetic needle. You could just follow your back bearing (see below) back to your location, but there is bound to be some error, when you hit the trail where will you be in relation to your campsite?
For example, if you are going to walk a bearing of 45°, shoot a bearing directly opposite your course of 225°.
The sleeping bag can be stuffed in the bottom toward Zone C or strapped to the bottom of the pack. Before following the suggestions outlined, start with a realistic weight, by loading the pack as if you were going on a hike. With practice a loaded frame can be put on or taken off with ease and without injury or damage to the packer or the frame.
It should be fitted with a rain fly that comes almost to the ground; otherwise rain can blow under the fly. I use a LightSabre Bivy by Black Diamond™ This is my tent, it gives me the benefit of sleeping under the stars, removes the claustrophobia associated with most bivys, is really breathable on hot nights and when the seams are sealed it’s water proof.
Details about hand placement, foot placement, balance, and other technical climbing techniques are not described here.
While doing this, the belayer must never release the rope fully to ensure the climber could never fall far.
The figure below depicts a fairly pleasant lead fall–the leader has fallen and is dangling in midair. This provides some separation of protection a rope, allowing the rope to twist without dislodging the protection, pass more smoothly past the protection, and go more directly up the climb. Occasionally on smooth rock, other climbers have drilled permanent bolts into the rock that can be used with a quickdraw to attach the rope to the rock.
The person descending wears a harness and attaches himself to the rope with a belay device, which he uses to control his descent.
These can be further worked using techniques such as percussion and pressure flaking to become knives, adzes, wood working tools, arrow and spear heads…in fact a whole lithic tool box!
This weekend course is all about ancient crafts and in order to haft your flint blade to a handle or glue your arrow head to a shaft we’ll also provide (and in some cases demonstrate the manufacture of) birch tar, pine pitch and animal hide glue, sinew and rawhide bindings and natural plant fibre twisted cord.
In some cases, you will be given instructions on what to do until a doctor or ambulance arrives. When a person is in shock blood does not carry enough oxygen and food to the brain and other organs. Then put a sterile handkerchief , cloth or towel on the wound and press it down with your hand. Call a doctor or a poison control centre immediately and follow the instructions that you are given carefully.
Second degree burns damage deeper skin layers and third degree burns destroy tissue of deeper layers of skin. Longitude lines measure the distance in degrees east and west from the prime meridian that runs through Greenwich, England. Three hours later, as the tide has risen, draw another line at the water level and again three hours later.
The images below illustrate how a variety of surface features can be identified from contour lines. As you can see the following chart, failure to take declination into account can put you way off target. While navigating through dense fog on a sea kayaking trip, I finally came up with an easy way to remember. If you are on the line where the declination is 0°, then you don’t have to worry about any of this, since magnetic north and map north are equivalent.
If you are working from your map, it is called a map bearing and the angle you are measuring is the angle measured clockwise from true north on your map to this other point on the map. The basic principle is this: to correct for declination, you want the map bearing and the magnetic bearing to be equivalent. For example, if the declination were 14° East, you could rotate the degree dial to the right so that the magnetic needle was pointing to 14° instead of 360°. What you need to do is take a bearing on your map from your known campsite back to a known point on the trail that you can identify on the map.
However, when a pack is placed on the back, the body leans forward to bring the pack’s center of gravity directly over the ankles.
Lifting the frame with your right hand, swing your elbow back to slide the frame around on your back. Freestanding tents work best for the new scouts since they can be easily moved after set up and they can be cleaned by lifting up and shaking them out.
I use a Hennessy Hammock™ Scout Model, Costs about $75 and only weighs 2 lbs 8 oz., holds 200+ lbs, has a rain fly and has a 1 oz. The friction of the foot moving inside the boot will occur between the two pair of socks not between layers of the skin, which causes blisters. More often, the leader will hit the rock on the way down–a common cause of climbing injuries.
Getting Down There are three common ways to get down from a climb: walking, Rappelling, and lowering. You will have full use of our kitchen and cooking equipment and your food will be stored securely in waterproof containers or a cool box provided by us.
The grid created by latitude and longitude lines allows us to calculate an exact point using these lines as X axis and Y axis coordinates. It is a good idea to be conservative and add 5-10% of the total distance to take into account things like switchbacks that don’t appear on the map. The magnetic field lines of the earth are constantly changing, moving slowly westward (? to 1° every five years). If you are taking a bearing off a real point on the landscape with a compass, you are using your compass to measure the angle clockwise from magnetic north to this point on the landscape. If you are lucky enough to be on the line where the declination is 0°, both are already equivalent, or if you orient your map with your compass then you have made the two equivalent. Once you do this, you will no longer have to add or subtract for declination because your compass is aligned to true north. It also means that each time you use your map, your will need to re-orient it with your compass. Once you have moved a short distance along your bearing, turn around and shoot a bearing back to that landmark.
Consequently, it is advantageous to keep the pack’s center of gravity as close to your back as possible to prevent unnecessary forward lean.
While the frame is held high and far to the left, put the left arm through the shoulder strap and pull the strap into place. My Tent, Sleeping Bag and Sleeping Pad weigh less than 4 lbs together, which is what a normal backpacking tent weights by itself.
The cordura boots are lighter in weight but are not waterproof unless you choose a pair with Gor-Tex, which greatly increases the price. Warm the affected area with the heat of your hand or cover it with clothes until you can get the victim indoors. Other maps that you’ll find helpful are local trail maps which often have more accurate and up-to-date information on specific trails than USGS maps do. As you see below, the three-dimensional shape of the mountain is mapped by calculating lines of equal elevation and then transferring the lines onto the map. If you are to the left of the line, your compass will point toward the line (to the right) and hence the declination is to the east. Otherwise, you will need to make your own bearing corrections by adding or subtracting the declination amount.
Now when the compass needle is inside the orienting needle, the compass bearing that you read off your compass will be in relation to true north instead of magnetic north. You can also place the compass on the map so that the edge of the base plate lies along the magnetic north indicator line on the map legend at the bottom and rotate the map as described above. If you are on course, that bearing will still read 180° off your bearing of travel (in this case 225°).
Down filled sleeping bags loose up to 90% of their thermal properties were a Synthetic filled sleeping bag retains up to 85% of its thermal properties. A coated nylon style, properly sized for the wearer to maximize protection without dragging the ground will last for many years. It is especially common to do this with top-roped climbs, since most have a way to hike to the top to set the anchor. An old map will show a declination that is no longer accurate, and all your calculations using that declination angle will be incorrect. If you have a fixed-ring compass, you can mark the declination angle on the compass ring with a piece of tape. Most multi-pitch lead climbs do not have a way to walk down from every belay station, but there is often a way to walk down from the top. As you will see, understanding this distinction becomes important when navigating with a map and a compass. Sailors and sea kayakers use back bearings all the time to check for lateral drift from wind or currents. Back bearings are also useful if you are heading out to someplace and then returning along the same line of travel.



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