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Blank Resume Template For High School Students are examples we provide as reference to make correct and good quality Resume. At 12:30 a€?Cheta€?, from a€?Over the Road Toursa€? picked us up in a twenty seat tour van. The city itself is enormous, stretching some 40 miles in across and encompassing several large mountains. We enjoyed a few hours of shopping, then stopped at a Starbucks for some of that strong nectar.Then, we walked back along the boulevard to the Doubletree, enjoying the sunshine and warm temperatures.
Frank Lloyd Wright first came here, in 1937 at age 72, to found a Winter sanctum, to cure his ailing lungs.He ,his wife and acolytes camped in tents for four years, until the prarie-style masterpiece took shape and was completed.
The foundation that runs the property is a functioning architectural firm, that admits 11 architectural students a year to mentor with working architects. It was late afternoon and we were tiring, in spite of the arhchitectural brilliance of Taliesin West.
We met Jerry and Muriel from Boston, cousins Michelle and Jane from New Jersey and a whole passel of friendly Canadians. It was sunny and nice out, with an azure sky, as we continued up along Oakcreek Canyon along Rte.#89-A.
The line of cars, waiting just to enter the Grand Canyon, was an hour long.We sat patiently, awaiting our turn.
We walked along the narrow trail, looking out some ten miles across to the North Rim of the Canyon, 1,000 feet higher in elevation.
We walked back to the Maswik lodge and had coffee and danish in the small lodge.Everyone else was up and about. We were approaching the Glen Canyon Damn.The huge project had created a 200 mile long Lake Powell and filled the huge Glen Canyon to the top with the water from the Green, the Escalante, the Colorado, the little Dirty and the San Juan Rivers, over a 17 year period.
We sat with a Canadian couple and Kim Durham, chatting while everyone trooped up to the breakfast bar.
We took a side road into the a€?Gouldings Trading Post.a€? It is a complex of gift shops, trading posts, a small museum, two dining rooms and a small hotel.
Mary and I walked through the museum, the Dukea€™s shrine, the gift shop and then looked all around us at the towering mesas and wierd stone pillars, all covered in a dusty vermillion paint. After lunch, we saddled up in the back of two very large pick-ups for a tour of the valley. Kanab, a small metropolis of eight thousand souls, had been an outpost for the early Mormons, who ran their buisinesses under a a€?United ordera€? concept, something like a benevolent socialism, where a€?each got according to his need and gave according to his ability.a€? I found it interesting to see this pocket or socialism so deeply embedded in the American West. The country side was getting more snow-covered as we rose in altitude towards Bryce Canyon.
The kids from Florida were laughing and throwing snowballs, unused to playing in the white powder. At a€?Sunset Pointa€? we saw a vast panorama of bright orange hoodoos, with alabaster tops. We stopped by the Zion Lodge for breakfast and then returned to our room to put our bags out and prep for the day.
The terrain was getting flatter and browner as we approached the desert mecca of Las Vegas.The passengers were stirring with anticipation at so fabled a destination. After a€?T.Ia€? as it is now called, we walked to the Mirage, former home of Sigfried, Roy and their Tigers. After breakfast, we walked down the strip towards the Luxor Casino, that huge pyramid and assemblage of all things Egyptian. We caught an early dinner in the Zanzibar cafe, at the Alladin, before setting our for a walk along the strip to the Luxor and our show for the evening.
Afterwards, we walked back along the crowded strip, amazed as always at the sheer throngs of people streaming by. There are numerous important revolutions that have dramatically changed the world that we live in.
The decline of feudalism, the emergence of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the expansion of trade with other distant countries and continents, and the discovery and exploration of new cultures awakened a desire to explore the nature and workings of the universe that surrounds mankind.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands, to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies.
In 1491, Nicholas enrolled at the University of Cracow (Poland), where he took an interest in astronomy.
Copernicus is the first to propose a new view of the solar system--the heliocentric view of the solar system in contradiction to the traditional geocentric view.
Because Copernicus merely stated his ideas as a hypothesis, he was not considered dangerous to the Roman Church, as Galileo was a generation later. Even though Copernicus made sense to some, the traditional geocentric scheme simply would not disappear. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and, although a student of Brahe, disagreed with his teacher. He was also one of the first to say that Ptolemy was wrong (Ptolemy taught the traditional geocentric view of the solar system) and maintained that Copernicus was correct--the earth did revolve round the sun, and not vice versa.
These announcements, published in his work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, brought Galileo (1564-1642) into conflict with the Roman Church. In 1992, 350 years later, Pope John Paul II stated that errors were made in condemning Galileo.
The case of Galileo is perhaps the best-known illustration of the tension between science and religion.
Bacon is considered by many historians to be the a€?founder of modern science,a€?A  although by training and vocation he was not a practicing scientist.
Empiricism -- the theory that reality is discovered through the senses, through experimentation and testing.
Induction -- drawing conclusions from onea€™s observations and testing and from that developing general principles. By Bacona€™s rejection of ancient authorities, namely Aristotle and Ptolemy, a new science exploded on the scene, producing a plethora of discoveries and inventions that has continued nonstop to this day.A Under Ptolemy, there would likely not be television, iPhones, or space shuttles.
What Bacon attacked was medieval scholasticism--the idea that everything we need to know has already discovered in the past. Scholasticism denied the very idea of experimentation and taught that the only thing left for the learned mind to do was to clarify was had already been discovered in the past!
Sir Francis believed that, in fulfillment of Daniela€™s prophecy, man would increase in knowledge in the last days by casting off unbiblical authorities like Aristotle and investigating Goda€™s natural revelation (creation) with minds that had been created in His image. His major works were The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620) [the New Order], and New Atlantis (1627). Harvey was a physician in England and was a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in London and a Christian.
Following his death on April 1727, Isaac Newtona€™s body lay in state in great honor n Westminster Abbey for an entire week. He developed the answer, he believed, and published his work in his masterpiece, Principia, published in 1687.
Among the greatest scientific geniuses of all times, Isaac Newton made major contributions to mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy. To Newton, the very orderliness and design of the universe spoke of God's awesome majesty and wisdom.
Seeking to further understand God's methods, Newton studied and developed formulas for specific phenomena such as ocean tides, paths of comets, and the succession of the equinoxes. Newton spent a tremendous amount of time studying the Bible, especially the prophetic portions of Scripture. Though he outwardly conformed to the church of England, Newton privately was an Arian Christian. List and explain what new social and political conditions existed in Europe to make possible the scientific revolution.
Explain why the Copernican hypothesis was so startling to the populace and so threatening to the Vatican and to Luther and Calvin. Explain how the relationship of Galileo to Copernicus was so similar to that between Hubble and Einstein in the 20th century and how they had similar impacts on the thinking of their generations. Describe how the scientific discoveries impacted the world of politics and urged men like Hobbes to pursue a new course of reasoning.
The dissatisfaction by many with patterns of government and the practices of absolute monarchies in Europe and Asia created a hunger to find (1) new and better ways to govern, (2) ways that would better cultivate tolerance for diversity in religion and thought, (3) ways that would promote and value progress rather than tradition for traditiona€™s sake, and (4) where processes of social justice would acknowledge and protect natural rights of the individual.
In simpler terms revolutionary thinking emerged especially in France, England, Scotland, and Germany which generally sought the following: (1) eliminate absolutism in government, (2) toleration for faith and thought, (3) openness to progress, and (4) freedom for the the individual.
Major events in the late 17th century set the conditions in Europe for a revolution in thought. The New Attitude: By the 1700s Europeans were quite certain that they could make the world a better, more comfortable place to live. The New Question: If there are natural laws that govern the physical universe, certainly then must there not also be natural laws that govern the spheres of religion and rationality? The new conclusion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discern the natural laws of the physical universe, we must use the same tools to discover the natural laws of the spiritual world. In other words, what can be known about God, eternity, spiritual laws and commandments, and other related items, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. And if we can discover the natural laws of the spiritual world, we can also discover the natural laws of how to live with each other in this world, including how to govern and to be governed. The Renaissance questioned traditional thoughts and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers.
The Enlightenment, likewise, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together on earth.
If we are to discover the natural laws governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? If human reason with the scientific method as its tool can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? They met to discuss and debate, in the spirit of the scientific revolution, what the natural laws were that were to govern all people in their personal, social, and community lives. There were the common people who knew and cared little about those philosophers fortunate enough to sit around and debate natural laws!
The printing press that had aided the Protestant Reformation now became the instrument to spread the ideas of the Philosphes. The Philosphes and their disciples tended to occupy seats in the faculties of the universities. They also tended to arrive at a new conclusion about religion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discover the natural laws of the physical universe, then we must use the same tools to discover through human reason the natural laws of the spiritual world. The Renaissance questioned traditional beliefs and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. If we are to discover the natural governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? While the leaders the scientific revolution were for the most part orthodox Christians (and believed that they were discovering evidences of Goda€™s intelligent design expressed through the laws they discovered and described), many of those who became leaders in the revolution in thought were deists. However, as we shall see, the new thinkers in the Age of Reason were not the only people in town. In France the philosophes (a€?the philosophersa€?) gathered often in private homes (salons) hosted by wealthy women to read their latest essays. Although they dealt with a variety of topics, for our discussion we will concentrate primarily on their views dealing with politics and government. He viewed government to be ideally a function of free and rational men -- not simple-minded men who lived as serfs within feudalism or blindly obeyed the dictates of a prince or king. Obviously, his ideas were a direct threat to Roman authority and to the absolutism of Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Baron de Montesquieu was a member of nobility in France, a judge in a French court, and one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century.
In his major work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), (French, De la€™esprit des lois) he concluded that when all power rests with one leader or even several leaders, despotism inevitably develops and human freedoms disappear. Yet, Montesquieua€™s political thought was one of several basic ideas that was used to found the Constitution of the United States of America. His openness to ideas and toleration was exemplified in his marriage in 1715 as a Roman Catholic to a French Huguenot woman. Montesquieu believed that if natural laws were found that could best explain the natural world, then certainly there are laws that can teach us how to live with one another in peace and harmony in the world of culture and society.
He also believed that educated persons best discover what these natural laws are that produce harmony, and, therefore, educated people govern best. Governments are best shaped by the people and their surroundings, the climate, the environment. Voltaire was an opponent of Roman Catholic religious dogma and spoke strongly against blind obedience to the pope.
One of his major and most important works was A Treatise on Toleration (1782) that raised havoc when it was circulated within the last days of the reign of King Louis XVI.
After returning to France in 1734 he had to again flee imprisonment due to comments made about the absolutists French government in Letters to the English.
These personal examples created in him a hatred for oppression of any kind, whether by a despotic king or a democratic mob rule. Concerning politics, if Voltaire could choose one best form of government, it would be an enlightened monarchy. He opposed war of any kind and called it a€?sophisticated murder.a€? This did not sit well with many in France who basked in the glory of Francea€™s hegemony under Louis XIV, which was achieved in large measure through warfare.
Perhaps his best known work was the novel, Candide (1758), in which the central character, Candide, is a joyful, optimistic world traveler. Organized religion is led by charlatans who exploit the weak and who foist ignorance on the uneducated.
Religious leaders maintain power by oppressing anyone who disagrees with them on even the simplest theological matters.
Material wealth provides some comforts and power but in the long run drifts away at he hands of corrupt government officials (taxes, bribery) and dishonest merchants. A great earthquake takes place in the story of Candide which was based on a real earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 with great loss of life. Voltaire expressed in Candide the opinion that God is either indifferent towards, or lacks the power to prevent evil within human history.
As a youth he was educated by Jesuits, and was not an atheist, as some maintain, but bitterly opposed religious oppression of individual rights, and who believed that what can be known about God comes not through revelation and church dogma but through human reason. It can probably be said that Voltaire was at best an agnostic, that the God who was championed by religion, as Voltaire experienced it, was at the core of a suppression of individual thought and freedom and therefore should be discarded. Voltaire maintained that the only places on earth where there was true freedom of religion and speech were in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland. Diderot was an atheist who believed that all mankind are born with a totally free will to live life as they wish, with no accountability to a divine being.
His Encyclopedia was a critical attack on and mocking of Christianity and resulted in his flight from France to Russia where he was protected and supported by the a€?enlighteneda€? ruler, Catherine the Great. Born in Geneva, Rousseau was orphaned while young and placed in the care of a strict uncle. Rousseau was a brilliant thinker who is claimed by Geneva today as one of its most prominent sons. Probably as a result of the harsh upbringing he experienced while living under his strict uncle, Rousseau had much to say about education and how young children develop. He promoted the idea that children develop through specific stages and should be raised and educated accordingly. The truly educated person is one who has been trained to be self-governing by making rationale choices. Rousseau was among the first of the French to promote the ideal family as being a nuclear family (father, mother, and children) with a mother serving at home as the manager of the family affairs.
Rousseau promoted the concept of a democratic, Christian Republic where the rights of the individual were carefully protected and where the Christian faith was part of culture.
In his Social Contract (1762) Rousseau describes man as being inherently good, born both free and innocent, who is increasingly corrupted by culture and society. He personally had deep religious roots, first as a boy who was born and lived in Calvinist Geneva, then as a Roman Catholic while living in France, and then returned to Calvinism when he moved back to Geneva in his later years. A great faith arose about the ability of human reason to think, weigh, argue, and conclude rather than mere faith on the one hand and the mere gathering of knowledge on the other. By observing human behavior we can discover natural laws that govern how we are to live together and then use these laws to draw up patterns for communities and patterns for governments that will produce harmony, order, and the preservation of individual rights and dignity. Once these natural laws are discovered and agreed upon, the common people are to be taught these newly found laws and trained in the use of reason. Once this system is at work, old institutions that rely upon traditions, unjust rules, and unreasonable patterns will be swept away for they keep the human race from progress.
A new world will be created, a new society will be built, governments will be reshaped, and there will follow unlimited human progress. Every person is (1) capable of reason and the human mind can discover any truth and the human spirit can achieve any ambition; (2) innately good, potentially virtuous, and every society can become perfect. While some rejected religion altogether (Descartes and Hume), most still held to the values and principles of traditional Christianity. The printing press, which greatly promoted the ideas of the Reformation, now also greatly enabled the philosophes to spread their ideas quickly, inexpensively, and widely throughout Europe.
Locke lived during the time of the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II and James II and was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Locke taught that all people have innate, natural rights that no one has the right to diminish or deny. Locke transferred these observations about the nature of each person to how he or she is to be governed--each person is to be in charge of how he or she is governed and to participate in how society as a whole is governed. Lockea€™s ideas about government were contained in his work, Two Treatises of Civil Government. He also opposed the idea held by those who supported the divine right of kings, that men are not naturally born to be free.
However, in order to preserve his life and his property a man has to choose to enter into society and to live happily with others in a government where the will of the majority rules.
Government, therefore, is a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed.
Because men tend to misuse one another, Locke saw the necessity for a government that contained (1) a written code of laws, (2) laws that exist for only one purpose -- to protect the good of the people, (3) legislative and judicial branches in government to enforce and define those laws, (4) no taxation without the consent of the people, and (5) no war or treaty powers are given to anyone without the consent of the people. Together with Montesquieu, Locke provided three of the foundational concepts that formed the new United States: (1) the necessity for a division of powers (Montesquieu and Locke), (2) the necessity of government to protect the natural rights and property of the individual (Locke), and (3) the formation of a commonwealth as a social contract where those who govern are selected by the people and remain in office so long as the people agree to such (Locke). Locke was not an atheist, but he resisted any religion that did not grant freedom of thought and belief, especially the Roman Church. He pictured in his work, Leviathan (1651), the all encompassing necessity of a strong central government that extended into every area of life. And yet Hobbes also called for the preservation by government of the natural rights of all citizens, and viewed the monarchy as existing only at the will of the people through a social contract. The absolute monarchies of Europe, and France in particular under Louis XIV, tended to practice mercantilism in the realm of economics and industry.
Adam Smith took on the mercantilistic establishment with the publication of his work, The Wealth of Nations in 1776. In his work, Smith maintained that man is at heart selfish in the sense that if given the opportunity, he will use industry to further his own economic well-being. Smith maintained that mercantilism is contrary to human nature and is ultimately destructive to a nationa€™s economy. Rather than the governmenta€™s hand, there would be an invisible hand to guide a free market, marked and fueled by competition. Competition among producers to acquire the best workers raises the level of salaries of workers.
Competition among producers increases not only their own wealth but that of the nation which taxes their profits.
Producers, if allowed to reinvest their profits back into increased machinery, workers, research and development, produce a better quality of goods, sell more of their products, and make a greater profit.
Money should circulate freely among men as blood does in the human body, a concept he learned from the revolution in science. Colonies in North America where free enterprise was either allowed to occur, or occurred because the people were too remote to be controlled, tended to become more prosperous than the economies they left behind in Europe.
Adam Smitha€™s theory became the economic policy of the newly formed United States of America.
Deism was a popular religious belief based on a God who created the universe, set it in motion with a set of specific, orderly, natural laws, then stepped back to let it operate itself.
The Deists often compared their view of God to that of a clockmaker who, having once created a clock, then wound it up, moved off, and let it operate in an orderly fashion on its own, governed by natural laws.
Deists believed that all religions could be reduced to the worship of an orderly, rational God who does not perform the miraculous in violation of or apart from his natural laws (hence, no virgin birth, no miracles, no resurrection), and a moral code that human reason and common sense can agree on.
While some of the philosophes rejected the notion of any kind of God at all and became atheists, most remained loyal to the Christian church.
To Diderot and the contributors to the Encyclopedia all religious dogma was absurd and the result of human imagination. Voltaire disagreed with the atheists and said their atheism had a religious dogma of its own. If religion is either not important for good government or not important for good society, and if principles for living together in society is based upon a commonly accepted set of values derived from common sense, what happens to people who my their own free choice choose not to live by those principles or standards? The general conclusion was that if someone disobeys a€?reasona€? or what the majority decides is a€?natural law,a€? that person has to be either removed from the perfect society or be a€?re educateda€? so that they use more enlightened reason. The Enlightenment thinking led not only to societies and governments where great, unheard of levels of human freedom were to be realized (which took place in Englanda€™s Glorious Revolution and which we will see in the American and French Revolutions), but in reality also produced some of the most cruel and totalitarian governments ever before realized in human history. The Enlightenment that helped to produce both the United States of America also led, as well, to Hitlera€™s Nazi Germany!!
The Big Question: Was this really an a€?enlightenmenta€? or is it better called the age of deifying human reason?
There was another side to the Age of Reason where Christian men and women lived and taught and where spiritual movements took place at the same time as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau. The outbreak of Christian revivals in England and America in the 18th century greatly impacted the social, moral, financial, spiritual, and political aspects of culture in Great Britain and America so that these cultures differed significantly from those of Italy and France.
The Great Awakening in America turned the colonies upside-down and prepared the way for independence from Great Britain. The Baroque Age in Music broke with tradition, and produced a radical departure from the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spener was born in Alsace, whichat that time was a part of Germany, but is now a province in Eastern France.
Later posts in Berlin exposed Spener to much criticism from other Lutheran ministers because of his emphasis upon personal transformation and cleansing through a spiritual rebirth. Although he is called the a€?father of pietism,a€? he, himself, did not teach nor practice what the later pietists called for--an emotional experience of salvation as a proof of conversion and the separation of the Christian from all secular life. Spener founded the University of Halle, a center of opposition to the ideas of the French philosophes. Early in his career Spener became widely known as a vocal opponent of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (see Hobbes above).
The Age of Reason had begun to infiltrate Lutheran Germany and presented a new threat to the Lutheran churches. Spener taught that the cure for the cold dogma in the Roman Church and the dogma increasingly developing in German Lutheranism was not rationalism or human reason, but a deeper, personal commitment to Christ. His grandfather moved the family to Germany to avoid forced conversion to the state-religion, Catholicism. With wealth received from his family Zinzendorf purchased an estate in East Saxony, Germany (at the intersection of Saxony, Poland, and Czechoslovakia) where his intention was to create a community of people who desired to follow the teachings of Spener and to publish books which might awaken Lutheranism from what he felt was its stupor.
Within months a request came from Moravia and Bohemia, now sections of present-day Czechoslovakia, from a group of Protestants who were the dominant group in Moravia and Bohemia before the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648), but were now a persecuted minority. Zinzendorf worked diligently to unite the various groups coming from a variety of cultures and Christian backgrounds into a unified Christian community. Zinzendorf continued to view the new community, not as a new reformation, but as a means to breath new life into the Lutheran churches. When civil authorities grew suspicious and concerned about Zinzendorfa€™s community, they banished them from the estate.
Zinzendorf is mentioned here because, like his godfather, Spener, he emphasized the necessity of the new birth and of an intimate, personal relationship with Christ as the cure for the cold dogmas of Rome and the increasing coldness of the Lutheran Churches. Rather than an emphasis on human reason, Zinzendorf was faithful to biblical teachings and to cultivating the spirit and the new heart.
Edwards is considered to be one of the most brilliant Amercian-born philosophers and theologians. Edwards was a Calvinist minister in Northampton, Massachussetts and preached during some of the first revivals connected with the Great Awakening in (c.
As with pietism in Europe, the Great Awakening emphasized an intensely personal relationship with Christ, brought the Christian faith to the common man, and was marked by prayer, bible study, intense introspection, and a personal commitment to a biblical standard of morality. The Great Awakening impacted the attitudes of the colonists towards authority and especially to the government of England. The impact of the Awakening produced a revolution in the American colonies that was totally distinct from the revolution in France that occurred about 15 years later. At Oxford he joined the Holy Club, a group of deeply committed Christian students who met regularly to pray and study the Bible.
Because he was not assigned a pulpit by the Anglican Church, Whtiefield preached wherever people would gather, in parks, in public squares, in marketplaces. One of Whitefielda€™s most ardent supporters was Benjamin Franklin, who published all of Whitefielda€™s sermons and tracts in his Gazette.
On one occasion in Philadelphia, Franklin walked from the outdoor pulpit area where Whitefield was preaching on Market Street down to the Delaware River, just to see how far his booming voice would carry.
Although Franklin did not agree personally with Whtiefielda€™s message of repentance and faith, he nevertheless admired him as a friend. It is said that Whitefield preached to more people in his lifetime than another other person prior to Billy Graham, and all without the benefit of air conditioning, PA systems, and closed circuit TV! Whitefield crossed the Atlantic to the American colonies numerous times to conduct preaching campaigns from Massachusetts to Georgia. His preaching in Wales and England did much to prevent English society from being impacted by the humanism of the French philosophes. Earlier, the Wesleys had traveled to Georgia in the American colonies to do missionary work among the native Americans. It is understandable, therefore, that under the direction of the Wesleys many of their followers became leaders in major service projects and organizations, leading the way in prison, orphanage, hospital, and social reform. The Wesleys were abolitionists and were friends of William Wilberforce and John Newton, other English leaders in the anti-slavery movement in England.
It can be safely stated that the words of John Wesleya€™s hymns have been sung by millions around the world and are words memorized by millions.
List five major members of the Philosophes in France, England, and Scotland and explain their particular contributions to the Age of Reason. Explain the roles that natural reason and the newly discovered laws of nature played on the thinking of the leaders of the Age of Reason. Discuss specific Christian thinkers of the 18th century who opposed the French philosophes. In a brief statement be able to summarize the impact of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Locke on the framing of the American government.
Explain how Hitlera€™s Nazism and Americas democracy could flow from the same fountain called the Age of Reason.
Explain why many of the philosophes had trouble accepting the claims of the Scriptures concerning the virgin birth, the resurrection, Jesus walking on water, etc.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands,A  to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and we have 2 teachers that are professional in Traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramics workshop.
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Mimar Sinan University,The Anatolian Seljuks were of course influenced by the cultural heritage they encountered in their new homeland, adapting them to the techniques that they had brought with them from the Iranian plateau. A type of architectural decoration used in conjunction with glazed brick was hexagonal, triangular, square, and rectangular monochrome tiles. Excavations carried out in 1965-66 at Kalehisar near Alacahoyuk have revealed important evidence of the Seljuks' ceramics industry in the 13th century. Sgraffito and slip-decorated wares continuing Seljuk techniques and styles were also produced during the Emirate period.
The earliest example of the new styles that emerged in the early Ottoman period are the 'blue-and-white' Iznik ceramics.
Another blue-and-white group from Iznik is erroneously called 'Golden Horn ware' because the first examples of it were discovered at a site on the Golden Horn in Istanbul.
Iznik is also where another misnamed group of ceramics known as Damascus ware was manufactured. Yet another group of polychrome underglaze Iznik ceramics to be erroneously attributed to another place is the one misleadingly known as Rhodos wares, so-called because of the numerous examples of them purchased from the island of Rhodes and taken into the Cluny Museum.
As late as the middle of the 16 century, the Ottoman ceramic industry was producing more utensils than architectural tiles. During the first half of the 19th century, Kutahya's ceramics industry suffered a downturn from which it slowly recovered during the second half and into the early part of this century. There is a third important group of Turkish ceramics that are quite different from both the sublime products of Iznik and the humbler wares of Kutahya. To summarize, the art of Turkish tile and ceramic-making developed over the centuries incorporating many different techniques and styles. The art of Turkish tiles and ceramics have a very important in the history of Islamic art.
There is a widely held but quite erroneous belief that figurative painting, is not found in Islamic art due to prohibition by the Koran. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and we have 2 teachers that are professional in Traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramics workshop. Please send us an e-mail if you are interested in participating our classes as individual or a student group. Thus it is better to spend some time on-line and to study requirements to essay title page than to get a lower grade later. Though content and substance should remain the main concern in any type of essay, a sufficient amount of attention should also be given in the details included on the essay’s cover page.
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Consider using this style if you have a background in a specific industry and want to use it to attract freelance writing clients. You’ll also need to show examples of where you were able to communicate clearly, follow instructions properly, and complete projects on time. About Jodee RedmondJodee Redmond is a freelance writer, blogger, and editor who has been working on a full-time basis for more than a decade.
An APA, American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. You may not need it in your APA essay, but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time.
In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper.
What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. I am a Tweet loving, technology integrating, mom of two with a passion for classroom design! We had tried to check in on-line, with Southwest Airlines, after midnight , and had no success.
Two pools, tennis courts, exercise facilities and a restaurant and bar make this a comfortable place to stay.
Several shiny new bank buildings, a huge sports arena and convention center compliment the state capitol building complex to make an attractive downtown area. Camelback, South and newly named Piesowa Mountain, which was renamed from Squaw Mountain, to honor the first Native American woman soldier recently killed in Iraq dominate the skyline.
It was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and has two eighteen hole golf courses on its grounds.
The concierge had recommended a nearby Southwestern restaurant, called the a€?Tequila Grille.a€? It was a great find. We were headed for the very pricey a€?Fashion Island Mall.a€? The sun was shining and it was warm and in the 60a€™s out. We had decided to make a pilgrimage to Frank Llloyd Wrighta€™s a€?Taliesin West a€? this afternoon. Low slung and angular, the house, in Wright tradition, seems like it is part of the surrounding land itself. First year students are required to sleep in tents, for a year, to get the feel of the land and the wind and their relationship to the buildings. We had salmon and a glass or two of cabernet, as we chatted and became acquainted with a table-full of fellow travellers.Everyone seemed amiable enough and would prove to be good travelling companions over the course of the next week.



Most of the town lies along both sides of Rte.#179 and extends a mile or so along the road. We packed our bags and put them outside the door.Then, we set off for a sunrise walk to the Canyona€™s rim. Every time, the canyon came into view an appreciative a€?ooha€? and a€?ahha€? rose from all of us.
We drove across the bridge, admiring the chasm beneath us and the huge expanse of the damn itself. The original Gouldings had come to Monument Valley in the early twentieth century and set up shop.
Mary and I elected to wash off the trail dust and enjoyed a welcome shower before venturing over to the dining room. An all female city council and mayor had first appeared here in the late nineteenth century and done a good job for the town too.
We could see ranges of snow capped mountains along the skyline.Winter hangs long and departs slowly in these parts. In brief, after an uplifting had raised the Colorado Plateau, from beneath an inland ocean to the 8,500 foot level, rivers and winds had eroded a huge portion of the upraised Colorado plateau, shaping it in the form of a Grand staircase, that runs from here, in Bryce Canyon at the 8,500 foot level, down through Utah, Arizona and Nevada and finally reaching the floor of the Grand Canyon at the 3,000 foot level. A peak-roofed,wooden sided, two-story dining room, reception area and gift shop are flanked by several two story wooden lodges with guest rooms. We waved to several of our fellow travellers and then were seated by a€?Jonathana€? at a nice table for six.
We crossed over the time zone into Pacific Standard Time and all set our watches back one hour to accomodate the change.
The sidewalks were awash with families and hordes of young people, streaming up and down the strip. We stood patiently, until the water falls in front erupted into the controlled fire of a small volcano.
We walked back to the Alladdin and decided to catch some sun on their sixth floor pool deck. At the Alladin, we bought some quarters and fed the video poker machines for an hour, enjoying a glass of wine, as we threw our money away. No longer were men and women content to simply trust the traditional explanations for what seemed to drive the universe around them. The magnetic compass and astrolabe and new maps were enabling ships captains to better navigate the uncharted waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. He then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (Italy) where he met scholars who challenged Aristotle's traditional cosmologya€”that the earth was at the center of the universe known as geocentrism.
It was thought to be genuinely a€?Christiana€? and a€?biblical.a€? Brahe came up with a variation of an earth-centered model that was satisfactory to many.
He disagreed with the Copernican idea that the planets travel in circular routes around the earth. He heard of a new spyglass that had been invented in the Netherlands and set out to build his own. The Jesuits saw in his teaching the worst consequences for the Church of Rome--they would be seen to have been in error and that their interpretation of the Bible was in error!
There were others before and since, but whenever the topic of science and Christianity is discussed, Galileo usually is introduced into the argument as the primary example of one who proved the Church wrong.
He is credited with being the first researcher in the Western world to describe in exact and correct detail the circulatory system of the human body and the process used by the heart in pumping blood around within the body. At the funeral, his coffin was carried by three earls, two dukes, and the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. If the planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits, and all at different rates of speed and tracking different pathways, how is it that this is all so orderly?
Everything tells us mathematically, said Newton, that once on a trajectory, the planets they should continue on out in a straight line, like an arrow or a missile, and never return.
He concluded that the same force that drew the apple downward was the same force that kept the planets and the earth in orbit -- gravity.
He discovered the law of gravitation, formulated the basic laws of motion, developed calculus, and analyzed the nature of white light. This theory explained quite fully everything from the movement of the planets through the skies, to the movements of the tides, to the velocity of falling objects--and more. The design of the eye required a perfect understanding of optics, and the design of the ear required a knowledge of sounds.
He believed history was under the dominion of the Creator, and prophecy showed how the Creator was to establish His earthly kingdom in the end. He believed Jesus Christ was the Savior of the world, but he did not believe He was very God. Whatever forms of government the nations had used to govern, it seemed to the new thinkers that inevitably they always resulted in war.
The so-called Enlightenment began in the late 17th century and continued through most of the 18th century. In other words, what can be known about God, about eternity, about spiritual laws and commandments, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. The Reformation questioned the traditional beliefs, teachings, and authority of the Roman Church. A deist is one who believes in a God who created the universe, wound it up like a clock, and then walked away from it, allowing it to operate on its own under fixed laws. The common people of Europe knew and cared little about the philosophers who could sit around and debate natural laws: a€?We have to work for a living!a€? There were also great ministers and Christian theologians, especially in England and Scotland, who challenged the conclusions of the new thinkers.
It was more or less an undercover exchange of ideas within the context of an absolute French monarchy that was generally opposed to the ideals being discussed by the philosophes. Some were committed to the basic truths of the Bible but knew that something other than absolutism had to be embraced (whether absolutism in government or the Roman Church) if God-given individual rights were to be set free. Although he did not fully develop his ideas concerning government, the later philosophes claimed Descartes as their forerunner.
The most fundamental idea of Montesquieu was the idea that all men are prone to evil and men with power are exceptionally prone to evil. For in his day, Rome was enamored with absolutism--especially if the Roman Church was in charge or if one of its hand-picked monarchs was on the throne. Montesquieu was widely read by the American colonists and was the most frequently quoted author in the letters and books of colonial writers in the period 1740-1780. Her belief system greatly impacted his view of government and faith, and he saw no reason why she should be suppressed and censored because of her beliefs.
If we can tame the natural world, then we can do the same with government, society and culture. Thomas Jefferson picked up on these ideas from Montesquieu and championed the idea that in the new America only the educated should be given the right to vote and to serve in public office.
There is no one system that fits all, he concluded, BUT whatever form of government is used, it MUST grant freedom to all of its citizens. He advocated religious freedom for all and the guarantee of civil liberties, fair trials and freedom of thought and speech.
There he learned to admire the freedoms that the English enjoyed under the parliamentary monarchy, where, he said, "The English, as a free people choose their own road to heaven.
He distrusted a democracy as much as a despotic king, because mob rule, to Voltaire, was as despotic as one-man rule.
What he soon finds is hardship, disappointment, and treachery everywhere as part of the human condition. That it occurred is an indication of to Voltaire of Goda€™s indifference towards mankind and perhaps even his cruelty.
The true God of heaven was suppressed by the false gods created by religions--especially the Roman Catholic Church.
Of all the philosophes, Diderot was the most outspoken critic of all religion, not simply because of the arguments raised by Voltaire and others, but simply because he believed that human reason excelled all forms of human religion. She did so in exchange for his willingness to sell to her his extensive and expensive art collection, something needed, she felt, if Russia was to enter the 19th century as an enlightened nation of Europe.
As suggested by Locke earlier, both the rulers and those ruled should live by means of a social contract. His trust in the general will of the majority to do and to rule in a good fashion was viewed as extremely idealistic. They valued the concept that all men were created in the image of God with certain innate, inalienable rights. Each person enters the world as a blank page, a tabula rasa, but as each grows older his or her experiences in life shape their personalities. Second was a mana€™s right to work his property and to own and control what he makes from it. This was an excuse, per Locke, to justify some men ruling over other men without their consent. One of his important works was the defense of the Christian faith in his work, On the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695).
Written during the English Civil War (1642-1651), Leviathan presented an absolute monarchy as the only hope to prevent mankind from self-destruction. In this system the government controlled production of goods, the pricing of goods, setting of tariffs and taxes to control the flow of goods in and out of the country, and in general controlled most aspects of the economy.
If the government allows its citizens to use personal greed in production and in buying and selling, it will motivate towards great economic progress.
The most healthy and prosperous economies, said Smith, would be those were government takes its hands off of the economy. Investors will purchase stock to enable the producer to even further invest in machinery, workers, and research and development. When Thomas Paine moved to France from America, where, complained, the new nation was too religious, he joined them.
While many of the concepts of Locke and Montesquieu helped shape the new government that was created in the United States of America, the message of the philosophes in France created an increasing agitation that led to the French Revolution and to the European revolutions of 1848. So heavily involved were ministers in this movement towards American independence, that the resulting war between Great Britain and America was called a€?the Presbyterian Revolta€? in the Parliament of England. Music in England and Germany tended to strengthen the spiritual dimensions of culture and inspired people to faith.
It resulted in new musical forms: polyphonic music, the opera, the ballet, the oratorio, the symphony, and compositions where instruments accompanied vocal music. He was troubled by the worldly attitudes of many Lutherans, by the wide-spread reliance upon infant baptism as a guarantee of salvation, and by the seeming coldness of many towards private communion with God. Any idea that unaided human reason could arrive at absolute truth, or that mankind could achieve harmony and a just society apart from God, were ludicrous for Spener. He began to advocated communal living and taught that the community was more important to onea€™s spiritual and emotional development than even the nuclear family. Many resettled in other areas of Germany, but many settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania in English America. He was among the first 29 persons to be inducted in 1900 into the Hall of Fame of Great Americans. Edwards son-in-law, David Brainard, became a missionary to the native Americans in New England. Because he had no funds, he entered Oxford University as a sevitor, or student of the lowest rank who earned his tuition by serving the needs of tuition-paying students.
There he met the two brothers, Charles and John Wesley, and together with them formed the Methodist movement within the Anglican Church, which later separated and became the Methodist Church.
And on another occasion when Whtiefiled urged the immense crowd to give financially to the spread of the Gospel, Franklin emptied his wallet!
He once admitted to Whitefield that, a€?You have almost persuaded me!a€? Franklin once remarked that after Whitefield had preached in Philadelphia, Franklin walked through the streets and almost everywhere heard families in their homes singing psalms. Together with his brother Charles he framed an outline of Christian disciplines, which, if followed, could lead a person into a deeper, more intimate relationship with Christ. Upon returning home, however, they both realized a deep emptiness in their hearts, and spoke about this with a Moravian in England who was waiting for a ship to sail to Georgia. They are still sung today and remain to form far more vibrant ideas than anything written by their contemporaries, the French philosophes.
In our place, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramic painting lessons. This resulted in a distinctively Anatolian style of Seljuk architecture that was in full bloom by the 13th century.
Unlike brick, these were preferred for indoor applications and were suitable for a multiplicity of geometrical arrangements.
Two kilns were unearthed along with a substantial quantity of kiln material and incomplete and spoiled examples of ceramics decorated with the sgraffito and slip techniques.In the sgraffito technique, the object is allowed to dry to leather-hardness after which the design, usually plant and floral motifs, is incised into the surface, which may or may not be given a coat of slip beforehand. During early Ottoman times, they appear among Iznik wares reflecting the tastes of folk art.In the course of excavations at the site of ancient Miletus, the archaeologist and art historian F.
The techniques involved in their manufacture are quite advanced as compared with anything previously done.
Dr Oktay Aslanapa's excavations at Iznik have demonstrated incontrovertibly that these wares were manufactured there. Thereafter however production shifted heavily in favor of the latter as there was a strong surge in the demand for tiles as decorations in the extensive building programs undertaken by Suleyman I (1520-1566) and his successors when the Ottoman Empire was politically, economically, and culturally at its peak. Thus do we find examples of Kutahya-made tiles decorating a number of late-Ottoman buildings.
Canakkale ceramics have begun attracting the interest and attention of researchers and collectors more and more in recent years.The earliest examples of these ceramics can be dated to the end of the 17th century. Enriched by the arrival of the Seljuks, the ceramic industry in Anatolia achieved a deservedly worldwide reputation with the support of the Ottoman court. Its roots can be traced at least as far back as the Uighurs of the 8th and 9th centuries. Religious rulings issued only in the ninth century discouraged the representation of any living beings capable of movement but they were not rigidly enforced until the fifteenth century. There are not so many requirements, but they may differ depending on essay’s reference style.
However, if your professor fails to do so, you may follow the guidelines set by any academic style guides such as MLA (Modern Language Association of America) or APA (American Psychological Association).
Sadly, not all professors are generous to even consider this saying when going through a student’s paper. So, any college student must make sure the essay contains the topic, student’s name, course name and date.
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It’s a different exercise than writing a resume for a brick and mortar job, since freelancers are dealing with clients, not employers. Freelance writers work for many clients during their career, and a gig may end up being a short-term one.
If you are new to freelancing or want to transition to a different type of freelancing work, you may want to consider using a functional resume instead of a chronological one. For example, if you have experience working as a nurse, lawyer, interior designer, dental technician, skilled tradesperson, or other area where you can bring your credentials to the table, present your knowledge as a reason the client should hire you. It doesn’t matter that you may have little (or even no) experience applying them to freelance writing projects. Don’t let it grow stale by letting it sit for more than six months or so without updating it.
Her work has appeared online and in print, and she has written on topics ranging from commercial property to addiction, insurance, personal development and the paranormal.
This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. Unlike MLA style which doesn’t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format. Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student’s concerns. Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you’ll need to structure it. Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.
Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time!
Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page). If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint – you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.
To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers.
Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Despite the ample amount of substantial research materials and intelligent ideas, the essay may end up flawed if the student does not have effective writing skills. Do you need a strategic resume to get your next leadership role or even a more challenging position? There are so many kinds of Free Resume Templates.
Given our tight time frame today, we were apprehensive about boarding our flight later this afternoon. Green Park areas, several restored 19th century homes and a general aura of clean prosperity greeted us as we drove around the bustling city.
They then start to sprout a€?arms.a€? The Cacti can grow to enormous size, live without water for up to seven years and exist for over 300 years.
Casual and comfortable, we had some Dos Equis beer and a plate of Que Sedias that were wonderful A basket of Mexican corn chips and several tangy dips were also great to the tatse. Sited on the brow of a desert bluff, (Taliesin is Welsh for shining brow) just below the crest of a nearby Mount McDowell, you can look out over 90 miles across the desert and seeTuscon,on a clear day.
Second year students have to design and build their own quarters.They also work the kitchens, to be familiar with what design elements should be incorporated in well designed kitchens. Kim Durham introduced herself as the Collette representative and gave us an overview of the week ahead of us. We watched the desert scenery flash by, enjoying the various flora and the remarkable a€?green carpeta€? on the desert floor.The area had enjoyed bountiful rains this Winter and the desert was blooming with flora. They were replaced by scrubby pinon trees , thin ponderosa pines and short, flat, prickly-pear cacti.
Jewlery shops, art galleries and the entire array of tourist support structure lay waiting for us.We browsed several of the stores and bought some decent Indian jewelry. We were ascending onto the Colorado Plateau, at the 7,000 foot level, as we traversed the winding switchbacks. We saddled up and drove over to move into building #9, room 6904.The rooms were pine-panelled and basic, but clean and had all the amenties. Whole families took up tables for eight and ten and were busily going through the various psycho dramas that families endure at dinner time on vacation. We stopped for a brief time at the visitora€™s center.They have all manner of schema on the dama€™s functioning and its construction. They were big enough to have a knife and fork in their fins, as they wolfed down the floating cheesbits. I think the hotel manager has to kick some butt here to get ready for the coming tourist season. The practice of Polygamy of course is the nettle that stuck in the rest of the countrya€™s craw. We left Rubya€™s and drove higher into Bryce Canyon.The snow pack was much deeper here, often several feet thick.
There are vast coal deposits there, a source of much wealth for Navahos in the future, should they elect to expolit their most sacred site.
Each had on snow shoes, with iron pitons attached to the bottoms, for gripping the slick ice. Along the way, weirdly beautiful shapes of all sizes and colors had been created by the forces of erosion. Several sheep and cattle farms sit along the fast running Virgin River here, giving the area a visage of quiet prosperity. The traffic was building heavily as we entered Las Vegas.The place grows yearly by leaps and bounds, reinventing it self in the process. We walked down to the Venetian Casino and sat down for a light supper and a glass of wine in a small cafe, bordering the canal. The sidewalks were thickly jammed in front of the Casino, with other griswalds waiting to watch the show which appears hourly. At one point ,during the performance, giant rolls of crepe paper pass over the head of the entire audience.
Some musician had finally securred his gig in Vegas, even if it was only playing on the pool deck of a casino. A kindly businesman shared his cab with us, or we would have been waiting at the airport still. They are mankinda€™s achievements as we attempt to fulfill Goda€™s command to subdue the earth and have control over it -- germs, bacilli, water, weather, steam, fire and all the other resources that God has so graciously given to us. But an increased interest in astronomy to further assist navigation also resulted in a re-thinking of astronomy itself. Medieval theologians embraced the teaching that the earth was the center of the solar system, proof that humankind was the center of God's attention.
He proposed a model in which the eartha€™s moon and the sun revolved around the earth, while the planets revolved around the sun. His mathematical calculations convinced him that the planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun. Man, created in Goda€™s image, said Bacon, has the responsibility to observe Goda€™s creation and learn from it and learn about it.
Behind all his science was the conviction that God made the universe with a mathematical structure and He gifted human beings' minds to understand that structure.
His Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended used astronomical data to argue that the Bible was the oldest document in the world and that the events of Biblical history preceded all other ancient histories.
Newton believed the Athanasian creed and the doctrine of the Trinity diminished the sovereign dominion of the Almighty and corrupted the purity of the church for centuries. The lives of common people were turned upside-down, agriculture and industry destroyed, and all of Europe involved in military buildup.
The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together in harmony on earth. Some of the philosophes were skeptics, questioning much of everything, including Christianitya€™s basic claims. He also concluded that not only religious people can do this but all can engage in it, hence, religion is not necessary to harmony in society. Here the nobles are great without insolence, and the people share in the government without disorder" (Voltaire, Letters on the English, 1733). In the end, these events do not seem to achieve any apparent good except to point out clearly the cruelty and folly of mankind and the apparent indifference of the natural world and its God. However, he also predicted that Newtona€™s law of gravity would eventually (within one century) overthrow Christianity as it was then known and practiced.
He advocated allowing children to set their own agendas in school and granting them freedom to study what was of interest to them. In his own personal life, Rousseau had four children by his live-in a€?wifea€? who bore him four children. This was in opposition to the Calvinism of Geneva with its twin doctrines of original sin and predestination. Every person, if allowed to live a life of freedom, has the innate ability and capacity to reach perfection here on earth and to share that perfection with his or her fellow humans! The duty to preserve onea€™s life is so strong that he neither has the right to end his own life or to subject his life to slavery. As creatures of God each person has the capacity to take charge of their own destiny and can regulate and improve their situation in life. However, he did not say that a man could amass property without limits or to the hurt of others.
The king and queen would be subject to the input, the laws, and the regulations of those who they governed. His view of government, therefore, called for a strong central government necessary to thwart mindless revolts.
Although Austria was a Roman Catholic country and Vienna was the seat of the Holy Roman Empire, the Zinzendorfs had converted to Lutheranism. His father was an official in the government of Saxony but died several weeks after Nikolausa€™ birth.
The American War for Independence was heavily impacted by the Great Awakening, and whatever impact the French philosophes and the Enlightenment had on American thinking, it was greatly tempered by Edwards, the Wesleys, and George Whitefield. They later parted company with the Moravians because they rejected the a€?quietisma€? emphasized by the Moravians.
The hymns emphasized the free grace of God expressed through the death and resurrection of Jesus, emphasized the personal relationship that the Christian is intended to enjoy with God through Christ, and those practices of the Christian life that Methodism developed. Its subsequent development was influenced by Karakhanid, Ghaznavid, and (especially) Iranian Seljuk art. Usually lessons are 2 hours based and by the end of 2 hours, you will be able to finish one item like a tile, plate or a figure. Seljuk mosques, medreses (theological academies), tombs, and palaces were lavishly decorated with exquisite tiles. The resulting design is then covered with a transparent glaze of a different color and then the piece is fired. Sarre came across a type of polychrome pottery that erroneously became known as 'Miletus ware'. Raby has proposed calling them the 'Tugrakes spiral style' instead.5 The motifs of tiny leaves and flowers on spirals are executed in shades of cobalt blue, turquoise, and black. The forerunner of the style is said to be a lamp in the Dome of the Rock that is dated 1549 and bears the signature 'Musli'. These ceramics have an extensive palette and are generally decorated with naturalistic flowers. Countless examples of mosques and tombs not only in Istanbul but all over the empire were adorned with the products of the Iznik potters' skill.These underglaze-decorated ceramics and tiles were decorated with a rich palette of shades of cobalt blue, turquoise, green, black, brown, and the famous 'coral' or tomato red, the last of which appears in a slight relief resembling sealing-wax. The tiles on the Tomb of Sultan Mehmed Resad V in Eyup (Istanbul, 1918) for example were made at the manufactory of Hafiz Emin Usta, which was then operating in Kutahya. Fairly good-quality wares continued to be produced up until the beginning of the 19th century.
Its subsequent development was influenced by Karakhanid, Ghaznavid, and (especially) Iranian Seljuk art. Figural art is especially rich in tiles as well as stone and stucco reliefs of the Seljuk period, adorning both secular and religious reliefs monuments.
So, before sitting down to work you have to check for reference style requirements or personal instructions from your professor or evaluator. The MLA style is commonly used in providing guidelines for papers on Humanities while APA is used for Social Sciences. But even then, the first page should contain certain elements of the standard title page, such as the tittle of the essay and the student’s name. Sometimes, the essay title page is a key component to the impression made by an academic paper. You have to make your essay topic detailed enough to give your readers an idea about your essay, but not too long. We highly support copyright laws, and even use anti-plagiarism software to ensure that all papers released by the company are original. Our professional writers produce the paper on time and can even complete an order within 8 hours, in case of an emergency. Just imagine, you place the order before you go to sleep and in the morning an excellent, 100% unique essay! You simply place an order with the writing instructions you have been given, and before you know it, your essay or term paper, completely finished and unique, will be completed and sent back to you. You could put an actual sentence or three or four bullet points that tell the client what sets you apart from other freelance writers. You may not be able to reveal that you worked on a project for confidentiality reasons or because of personal preference. When you get to the part of your resume where you will be listing your freelance work, list yourself as the employer.
You don’t have to list client names, but can describe the type of work you have been doing. The idea of using this type of resume is to list your skills, not necessarily show exactly where you have used them. As you build your freelance writing career and take on new projects, you will want to add your new experiences to your freelance writer resume. Even though it took her some time to figure out what she wanted to be when she grew up, she finally has it right. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student’s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).
If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays.
The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format. For a novice writer, this may seem as an intimidating task because translating your thoughts on paper can be tricky. We were surprised to be able to sail through everything and make the a€?Ba€? sectiona€? of our Southwest flight. It was the beginning of a delightful caloric onslaught that would stretch out over the next 10 days and engulf us in some memorable tastes and aromas.
The entire area is set in the huge Sonorran Desert that stretches for 2,000 square miles all around us. Wright also held many soirees at the school, so that prospective students would become accustomed to socializing with wealthy patrons and learn how to secure commissions for work.The man thought of everything.
Most of the rest of the gang had just arrived, in the last few hours, and looked pretty tired. The huge red sandstone expanses of Bell Rock, Cathedral Buttes, Snoopy and Thumb Peak all stood like vermillion lamp posts in the morning sun. Then we settled into the a€?Canyon Breeze,a€? on their open back deck for lunch, joining Gerry and Muriel.
The vistas, back across the valley, were awesome, not comfortable for acrophobics on the narrow road. Cars were parked everywhere along the roadsways, while their occupants walked the rim path. Gerry, Muiriel, Mary and I settled into a small booth and ordered up a martini, manhattan and glasses of wine to take off the chill. We rode back up to the lodge, then returned to our rooms for a half hour break, before we were to set off, in the landcruiser for Monument Valley, deep in the Navaho Reservation.
Harry Goulding had taken pictures of the colorful Buttes and traveled to Hollywood, in the early 1930a€™s.He camped in director John Forda€™s office, until he got in to show him these great vistas. Next, we droped by the diner, where efficient and pleasant Navaho waitresses serves us some tasty a€?Navaho Tacos.a€? We much enjoyed them.
We chilled out, had a glass of Mondavi Cabernet and enjoyed a decent, if very slowly served meal. We browsed through Dennya€™s., had some good coffee and delicious maple fudge and then took pictures of ourselves standing in front of a large wooden bear and a replica of an old stage coach.
You could but look and silently admire them as they sat there in quiet stillness and let the wind and the snow swirl through and across them.
And then, we came upon the first a€?window.a€? An enormous a€?windowa€? had been carved from the rock and looked out over a vast canyon of stone.
They were pine-panelled and pleasant enough, with views to the Virgin River just across the grassy entrance way.
We watched a parade of gondoliers singing for their tourist fares, as the poled up and down the small canal. We entered the Luxor and retrieved our tickets for the evening performance of a€?Blue Man Group.a€? ($105 each) A tram took us back to the storied castles of the Excalibur and we then walked along the strip, past New York, the Monte Carlo and other palaces.


You find your self pulling madly on the crepe covers and throwing it onto the seats beneath you, in a mad frenzy. We managed to get to our castle in time to change the clocks back for the Spring time change. Chinese and Arab insights and discoveries often suggested new explanations for natural phenomena. The telescope, first produced in the Netherlands and improved by Galileo in Italy, led to the discovery and confirmation of the new way to conceive of our solar system--heliocentrism (literally: a€?sun-centereda€™). He was the first to discover the moons of Jupiter, the first to see spots on the sun, the first to realize that the Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars and to suggest that the moon is mountainous. If something is empirically true, it has been proven to be so through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Man is to trust God for new insights and new revelations about Himself and his created universe. They remain in motion due to an immense force that set them into motion and, they remain in their course because of a law that holds them in orbit. Therefore, onea€™s religious beliefs should not be the test of being a good, acceptable citizen.
Corrupt government officials work hand in hand with dishonest clergy against the common people.
Violating his own stated ideal for children and the family, he required her to place them in homes for orphans.
Coupled with this was the notion that a nationa€™s economic health was directly measured by the amount of gold and silver it was able to accumulate. His mother requested Philipp Jakob Spener to serve as Nikolausa€™ godfather, and sent the child to live with her mother, who was a godly, pietistic Lutheran.
With the Seljuks' victory over the Byzantines at Malazgirt in 1071, the art followed them into Anatolia and embarked upon a new period of strong development fostered by the Anatolian Seljuk sultanate.There is a widely held but quite erroneous belief that figurative painting, is not found in Islamic art due to prohibition by the Koran.
Examples of such tile-clad structures can still be seen in the Seljuks' capital city of Konya as well as in the cities of Sivas, Tokat, Beysehir, Kayseri, Erzurum, Malatya, and Alanya.The most frequently-encountered type of architectural decoration during the Anatolian Seljuk period involved the use of glazed brick in which glazed (and also unglazed) bricks were arranged to produce a variety of patterns, mostly on the facades of buildings. In the slip technique, the design is painted onto a red-paste surface using diluted white slip to produce a slightly molded effect. We now know, as a result of recent excavations, that these wares were actually made in Iznik. In this object we find a new palette of colors incorporating, in addition to the traditional cobalt blue and turquoise, eggplant violet and a cumin green. Many examples of Kutahya ceramics from this period are to be found in museum and private collections in Turkey.The difficult straits into which the Iznik industry had fallen in the 18th century inspired some in Istanbul to establish a reliable source of tiles that was closer to home and easier to control.
In addition, efforts are also being made in private workshops and educational institutions in Iznik, Istanbul, and Bursa to keep the art of traditional Turkish tiles and ceramics alive and develop it so that it can address the demands of modern-day life.Felt Making Workshops in Istanbul,Traditional Turkish Felt Making,Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres.
With the Seljuks' victory over the Byzantines at Malazgirt in 1071, the art followed them into Anatolia and embarked upon a new period of strong development fostered by the Anatolian Seljuk sultanate. The subjects included nobility as well as servants, hunters and hunting animals, trees, birds, sphinxes, lions, sirens, dragons and double-headed eagles. Sure, requirements may differ from college to college, but having sample front page examples will help you avoid making mistakes. Other styles are also available depending on the essay topic or research paper format set by your professor. There should be some intrigue in the essay topic written on the title page, so the professor feels compelled to read on.
Basically, you have to state the same information on a thesis title page as on essay cover page. The resume is a way to demonstrate that you have the skills and abilities to complete the project you would like to be considered for. The person reading the resume does not need to know whether any particular project lasted one day or six months unless you decide you want to reveal the information.
Jodee has the privilege of working with wonderful clients and doing work that allows her to learn something new every day. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style.
The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title).
Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders.
These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea.
The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences.
Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. The cacti, flowers and other flora were a delight to us, just coming from the frozen tundra of Buffalo. Early city leaders had built 130 miles of aqueducts to carry water in from the Salt and Colorado Rivers, in the nearby White Mountains, to nurture the city. We enjoyed our narrated tour through the small and nautically designed living and sleeping quarters, admirng the many unique architectural features that brand the man a genius.
We could see the white expanse of snow covered Mt.Humphrey, far along the skyline in the San Francisco peaks. We enjoyed their rust-red beauty and took photos of ourselves with the rock formations as backdrops. In a brief time we reboarded the bus for the short hop over to the Bright Angel Lodge, sitting right on the Canyona€™ s Rim. A pleasant waiter, from Providence, Rhode Island, served us up some decent River Trout, steaks and wondefrul deserts. It was quiet as we walked.Only a few other brave souls were out and about in the morning cold. The Navaho Reservation stretches across 27,000 acres in parts of three states and encompasses mountain ranges, deserts and rivers.
You first encounter the massive red sandstone pillars of a€?stagecoach butte, a€? a€?the two mittens,a€? a€?rabbits earsa€? and many more colorful stone monuments.
Ford was so taken with the area, that he, John Wayne, Henry Fonda and Ward Bond filmed several classic Western epics in the valley. The Utah area, comprised formerly of native Paiutes and Utes tribes had first been scouted by the same Spanish priests, who recconoitered Arizona, Fathers Escalante and Dominguez in the late 1700a€™s.
You can but gaze intently and try to capture the images in your minds eye, as you enjoy the vast panaroma before you. In that the Emerald Grotto trail wound upwards for several hundred feet in elevation, we drew a by. We would love to visit here for a longer time and spend a few days wandering the hiking trails.
We noticed the graceful, slim brown envelope of the new a€?Wynn Casino.a€? It would open in a few weeks. We walked back along the boluevard to the Bellagio and stood waiting for the hourly a€?fountains dance.a€? In a small lake out front, computer controlled fountain jets orchestrate an hourly dance of fountain sprays, accompanied by classical music. For $19 each, we sat down to coffee and an enormous selection, of every type of food available, in the many stations in the huge buffet. We browsed through the pricey boutiques, admiring the casual opulence on display and wondering who actually buys all this stuff?
We put our bags in the check room and walked next door to the Paris Casino complex, where we walked a bit and then settled into sit and watch the throngs go by. If human reason coupled with the scientific method can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? Montesquieu attributed Polybius, ancient Greek philosopher, for many of his foundational principles. Newtona€™s discovery completely overturned ancient superstitions, including those of the Roman Church. Dead formalism was replaced by excitement, enthusiasm, spiritual fervor, and individual commitment to Christ.
Religious rulings issued only in the ninth century discouraged the representation of any living beings capable of movement but they were not rigidly enforced until the fifteenth century. We also have the Tile owen to finish the process.Group lessons for High Schools and Universities can be provided all year long. Turquoise was the most frequently-used color for glaze although cobalt blue, eggplant violet, and sometimes black were also popular. There are rare examples with traces of gilding.A third technique in which the Anatolian Seljuks were skilled was that of mosaic tile. The surface is then given a coating of transparent glaze colored blue, green, or light or dark brown and then fired. The styles, designs, decorations, and techniques of these ceramics are quite distinct from Seljuk traditions. During this period, naturalistic such as tulips, roses, pomegranates and hyacinths begin to enrich the repertoire of stylized plant motifs and arabesques. Although the traditional designs of stylized plant motifs, arabesques, and Chinese clouds appear in the compositions, there is a shift towards a more naturalistic style in which tulips, carnations, hyacinths, roses, spring blossoms, lilies, cypress trees, and clusters of grapes and vine leaves appear. Ibrahim Pasa, a grand vizier during the reign of Ahmed III (1703-1730), had a tile-making factory set up at Tekfur Sarayi in Istanbul. Designs consist of underglaze spots, simply-drawn ships, flowers, fish, birds, and buildings that are applied free-hand. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials. If the paper needs to be done in MLA format, the title page is usually not required, if not mentioned otherwise. We understand the pressure students are under to achieve high academic goals and we are ready help you because we love writing.
Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers.
As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Among the three, a student must focus most of his writing on the body, as it is the heart of your essay. Someone from Collette Tours was supposed to greet us at the airport and transport us to the Doubletree Hotel in nearby Scottsdale. We walked across the busy boulevard and headed through a subdivision towards Camelback Mountain in the distance.
We had called the local tour company and arranged for a Phoenix city tour in the early afternoon.
Paul Harvey and Glen Campbell still called these impressive haciendas and faux Roman Villas home.
Row after row of shops, like Nieman-Marcus, Nordstroms, Gucci and dozens of other fashion names command your attention.
He had a feel for the land and thought of the house as a ship sailing on an ocean of desert. A huge landcruiser, from a€?Tour America West,a€? was parked out in front of the hotel, presumably our a€?ridea€? for the next week. Snoopy,a€? and several other red sandstone creations, in the noon day sun.These are the real attractions of the area.
The bus took us out of the park and drove through Grand Canyon Village to the small airpark outside town. The locals were hoping that the heavy Winter snows and ensuing Spring run off would put back another 50 feet of water into the huge Canyon. They are varied in shape and a dusty vermilion in color.You can read images into them like you do when staring at the clouds. I can see even now, the a€?Dukea€? charging at the head of a cavalry troop, or riding long, lonely days with Jeff Chandler in a€?The Searchers.a€? Every time that I see these great epics again, I will think of Monument Valley and smile.
Each yeah an entire hillside, with hundreds of actors, draws tens of thousands of tourists there to watch a four-day pageant, acting out in light and song, the history of the mormons. Then, the Mormons came to this forbidding land in the mid 1800a€™s to develop it as a mining and agricultural complex, which it remains today.
The casino was featuring a small impressionist collection of Moneta€™s and works by Sissler, Pissaro and Renoir in its gallery. We sat for a time, at the end of the mall, waiting for the hourly performance of the a€?talking Roman staues.a€? They performed as they always do on the hour, never tiring of their own preprogrammed ribald comments and hearty laughter.
We would have no plastics, no machinery, no cures for infection, no successful surgeries, we would walk everywhere, and have very limited knowledge about and communication with the rest of the world -- and even with communities that exist only 100-200 miles away! Figural art is especially rich in tiles as well as stone and stucco reliefs of the Seljuk period, adorning both secular and religious reliefs monuments.
This was also employed in interiors, especially in mihrab niches, the interiors of domes, transitions to domes, vaults, and walls.
During the firing, the areas decorated with slip assume a lighter shade of the glaze color, which appears darker in the ground.
They are decorated with motifs executed in tones of blue, turquoise, and violet under a colorless or colored glaze. These changes in the Iznik potters' production habits are attributed to attempts to imitate the 15th-century Ming porcelains that were reaching the Ottoman court in various ways.
Compositions are relaxed and free, offering greater scope for experimentation with new and richer arrangements.
The output unfortunately was incomparably inferior to that of Iznik: designs were poor copies of Iznik originals, glazes had a blue cast and were flawed, and colors were dull and lifeless.
Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Many cultures have legends as to the origins of feltmaking. In this case all the relevant information about the author, the course, and the professor’s name and the due date should be presented in left side corner of the first page. If you have any doubts and questions you can consult essay writing companies, asking for free samples of essay cover pages which will help you in your work. By choosing us as your partner, you can achieve more academically and gain valuable time for your other interests.
The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. The Army Corps of Engineers had turned it into lush parkland and a golf course, much enhancing the area.
Novel touches, like an acousitcally perfect recital hall, and reflected light everywhere kept our attention riveted to the house and the tour guide. We walked along the rim, past the Bright Angel Lodge, Look Out Point Lodge and a few other early structures, some now undergoing rennovation, enjoying the solitude and the light effects as the sun hit the far canyon walls. A heavy magnezium content colored some sands green, iron dyed them red and sulfur, a yellow to give the far away desert floor a multi colored hue in its vast expanse.
The Vermillion Bluffs, Echo Bluff and Navaho Montain all crowded our skyline and drew our appreciative glances. Carrot cake and coffee finished off this lovely repast, as we dined quietly, enjoying the momentary lull in the pace.
I remember well these scenes, from the many times I had watched the Western classics.And now, I was here amidst them. The terrain is hilly from erosion and the roads earthen and rough, with no improvements.The spiky chapparal and sage didna€™t do much to hold down the dry, red dust that coated everything and everyone. Kim put on a video of a€?October Sky.a€? We watched it during the ride back, our thoughts remembering what we had seen, and realizing that we would never this way walk again. The viewers were into the window surprise, as we flashed through the dark and winding cocoon of bored rock. It was a mind shift for us, to go from the grandeur of erosive stone to the manufactured brilliance of the enormous casinos on the Las Vegas Strip. They had some interaction or other and, with lighting and sound effects, one of the huge ships sunk into the small lagoon.
For $20 each, we wandered through the crowded gallery and admired several of Moneta€™s dusty mauve works of Cathedrals and seascapes.
It is actually interesting and enjoyable, if you let yourself get into the madcap performance. Examples in which the motifs have black contours are also known, as are pieces with black decorations under a turquoise glaze. Tile manufacturing at Tekfur Sarayi lasted thirty years or so and the enterprise was generally regarded as a failure. The most common forms are dishes, plates, and jars.During the 19th century, quality dropped off sharply. If a student fails to avoid mistakes in a title page, what should one expect from the essay itself? The format of your thesis cover page for Bachelor’s, Master’s or PhD thesis also has some peculiarities. Luckily there were only five of us on the tour, so we could spread out and minimize the noisy and cramped seats.
Huge forests, high mesas and mountain ranges, with suguaro cacti everywhere, are beautiful. Crowds of kids were headed to the Cinemas and more crowds of locals were off work for Good Friday.This is a very busy place, especially during the Summer months, when the outside temps can reach and stay in the 100-plus temperature ranges for weeks on end. We were only to be 33, so it promised not to be as crowded and claustriphobic as some we have experienced. One intrepid female was already sitting on a rock face meditating on the rising sun.Another couple read their bible as they looked out over the canyon.
We ogled the Canyon from its eastern end and enjoyed the shadings and sculptings of the canyona€™s walls.High above us, a giant condor floated on the heated air currents rising from the canyon walls. Finally, we arrived outside of Bryce Canyon and stopped at the very large and comfortable a€?Rubya€™s Complex.a€? Conference center, lodge, diner, gift store, provisioner and a€?old towna€? amusement center, Rubya€™s has everything. And then, we emerged into an even more fantastic lanscape.The Virgin River had carved the canyon into weirdly shaped formations.
Interesting as it had once had been, we now found the whole show somewhat tacky and inconsequential, compared to the physical grandeur that we had experienced during this last week. We had coffee and muffins, in a small cafe, and then walked back into the casino area, to throw some more money into the video poker machines at Caesara€™s. Different styles of calligraphy adorn the tile friezes on monuments; on utensils we find images of ships, 'rock-and-wave' motifs, triple-spots, animal figures, and fish-scale patterns. Nevertheless some of its output was used in buildings in Istanbul such as the Hekimoglu Ali Pasa Mosque (1734), the Yeni Valide Mosque (Uskudar, 1708), the Cezeri Kasim Pasa Mosque (Eyup, a restoration done in 1726 of a mosque originally built in 1515), and Kandilli Mosque (1751). Forms from this period consist of jars, ewers, jugs, vases, flower-pots, and candle-holders as well as animal and human figurines. The story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that while fleeing from persecution, the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters.
But nevertheless, there are many students who do not pay due attention to essay title page.
First of all, there should be stated that it is submitted “in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree”. We ogled the Grand Cassas stretched out before us, in neat rows, like small movie sets in the desert. Much of Arizona is federal land (54%) Another 17% of its land is on native American reservations.
We laughed, thinking of doing a a€?Chevy Chase.a€? (standing and looking out across the canyon for 30 seconds, then walking back to the bus) It was a scene from National Lampoona€™s vacation and we mention it often when we are touring. The place does that to you, brings you back to the things elemental like nature and religion. For $10 each, we sat through a stomach lurching visual of an aerial ride over and through the Canyon.The photography was magnificent.
When the bus came to a crossing, the lead cow stopped the ones behind it, until we crossed over the road. We arrived in Kanab (a€?willow basketa€? in Paiute) and stopped at a very prosperous a€?Dennya€™s Wigwam.a€? Besides the requisite jewlery, Dennya€™s carries an expensive line of Western clothing. Brigham Young took over the reigns of the religion, which exists and prospers today as the Church of the Latter Day Saints. We wandered around the huge gift store and adjacent art gallery, admiring the western and native trinkets and baubles.Except for the pricey sculptings and paintings in the Gallery, things probably hadna€™t changed much from the time when beef jerky and oxen feed were the staples.
The crowds were still building as we walked across one of the overhead crosswalks to the east side of the boulevard.
I find that if you step back about 12 feet from these works, and catch them at about a 45 degree angle, they snap into sharp focus from their diffused frontal perspective. I was tiring and had come down with some malady or other from breathing all the recycled air during the last week. The pieces were arranged glazed-side down after which a whitish mortar was poured over them.
A feature of most 'Miletus' ware is that the interiors are given a coating of slip but part of the exteriors and the bases are not.
There is also a proliferation in vessel forms of which deep and footed bowls, vases, ewers, dishes, lamps, candle-holders, and mugs are but a few.Around the middle of the 17th century, the quality of the Iznik potteries began to feel the impact of the economic distress and political upheavals from which the Ottoman Empire had begun to suffer.
There is also a hearth, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, whose tiles were made at Tekfur Saray.
Only a single-color glaze was used in these ceramics and there are instances in which black, white, blue, red, yellow, or gilded designs were applied over the glaze.10 Ceramic manufacturing at Canakkale was still being carried out as late as the middle of the 20th century.
At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks.Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made. Besides, at the bottom of thesis cover page the year of submission should be stated instead of the due date. Our hotel is located about 13 miles from the airport, so we settled back to enjoy the new surroundings. Mystic figiures like the a€?Kokopellia€? petroglyphs embellished the surfaces of these majestic rock faces. The day was fast cooling, as we stood on the stone flagged terrace of the hotel and looked out ovet the canyon.The setting sun cast a thousand differing shadows, as it set behind the West Canyon walls. A narrator gave early history of the area and included Major Wesley Powela€™s expedtion exploits through the Canyon.
At one stop, an obliging Navaho, sitting on his horse, posed on a stone mesa and let us all photograph him. It was interesting to see how fast the transition had occured from native American to a€?westerna€? in only so few a number of miles. Designs tend to be plant motifs and geometrical arrangements but animal figures are also encountered.
The decorations include stylized foliage, arabesques, and Chinese clouds alone or in skillfully-executed compositions.Iznik blue-and-whites can be classified in a number of subgroups on the basis of their motifs and styles. Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers.
The sky was a bright, turquoise blue, and the sun was shining benignly on a wealthy land of milk and honey. The indians had learned to scrape away the dark, a€?desert varnish,a€? that is a form of algae, and leave inscribed figures on the rock faces, depicting animals, rain and other tribal mysteries. We talked with Jane, Michelle, Gerry and Muriel as we watched the lights go out all along the Canyon. It had been a good, albeit brief, visit to a phenomena that would be here for eons after we shucked this mortal coil. When the others rejoined us, they all spoke of the breathless beauty of the helicopter rides. A small room, off the trading post, also lists all the films that had been shot in these environs, including the a€?Eiger Sanctiona€? and those crazy car commercials that show a vehicle airlifted onto huge pillars of stone. After the gallery tour, we stopped at a small ice cream parlor, in Bellagio, and had coffee as we watched the swirl of people drift by. A small rail shuttle took us out to the Southwest terminals.They were jammed with Griswalds. Mosaic-tile compositions are generally geometrical but floral motifs and Kufic or Thuluth calligraphy are also found. The contours of the designs are picked out with a mixture of beeswax or vegetable fat and manganese oxide. One group, with motifs consisting of stylized lobed leaves with curling tips is attributed to a 'Baba Nakkas', a chief designer at the Ottoman court studios in the 15th century, and is therefore known as the Baba Nakkas style .4 Cobalt blue in various tones is the principal color.
In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.Traditional Turkish Felt Workshop by Mehmet Girgic Mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. The temps were dropping into th 20a€™s tonight and we were all lightly dressed, so we ambled back into the Bright Angel and milled around with all the other Griswalds.
The bus dopped us off and we scurried to our various rooms, to pack for the morning departure, settle in and crash from the long daya€™s travel. Huge chunks of red sandstone, some bigger than the bus, lay along the roadside, testimory to the enormous rock falls that occurr here regularly.
The colorful Dale Chihuli glass ceiling, in the Conservatory, is always worth a look as well. During the firing, the wax or fat burns away producing contours of red or black that also prevent the differently-colored glazes from running into one another.The cuerda seca technique permits extremely complex and detailed designs to be applied to ceramic surfaces. One, a composition of thick motifs radiating around a central motif, is identical to the grooved designs on metal bath-bowls.2,The late 15th and early 16th century marks the beginning of a new period in Ottoman tile and ceramic-making.
A former collection of huge citrus groves, and named for 19th century army general Winfield Scott, the area now bustles with 225,00 residents. Through it all, Rosie filled us in on Navaho customs and even tried to teach us some of the language. In addition to plant motifs, examples decorated with calligraphy and (less commonly) geometric patterns that are a continuation of Seljuk traditions are to be found.
During this period the Iznik manufactories apparently turned their attentions more and more to the demands of customers who were less finicky than the Istanbul court and its circles. We made our goodbyes, to our dinner companions, and walked back, through the inky and cool darkness, to our room. A rich and subtle palette of colors was available with colors such as turquoise, cobalt blue, lilac, yellow, black, and pistachio. Designs prepared by artists who were employed in the studios of the Ottoman court were sent to Iznik to be executed in wares ordered for use at the palace. There is even evidence, in the form of written complaints, that orders placed by the court in Istanbul were being delayed.8 By the 18th century, the ceramic industry in Iznik had died out completely and Kutahya replaced it as the leading center in western Anatolia. In the lesson you will make the whole stages of a Felt making process and by the evening, you will be able to finish 1 item like a hat, bag, shoe, a scarf or a design that you choose..
We walked through the busy casino area, of the Alladdin and rode the elevator to our aerie, where we settled in to let the sand man whisk us away. We settled in to read and pass the time, as the overloaded behemoth off-Lifted into the Nevada sky and flew eastward towards the frozen tundra of Western New York. The only place in Anatolia were tiles of this type have been found is Alaeddin Kiosk in Konya. The court's patronage stimulated and supported the development of an artistically and technically advanced ceramic industry in Iznik. Indeed, Kutahya had been in operation as a secondary center along with Iznik since the 14th century 9 but its production always paled in Iznik's brilliance. It had snowed all day in Buffalo and we knew not what we faced.The cold and flu hit me hard, in the air, on the flight back.
The palette of colors that this technique offers is much greater and one finds shades of violet, blue, turquoise, green, red, brown, black, and white as well as gilding. Fine examples of cuerda seca tiles are to be found at the Bursa Green Mosque (1419-1420) and Tomb (1421-1422) the Mosque of Murad II (Edirne, 1436), the Tiled Kiosk (Istanbul), and the Tomb of Prince Mehmed (Istanbul, 1548). But where production at Iznik was discontinued, Kutahya plodded on.For a while, the Kutahya potters produced inferior copies of Iznik blue-and-whites but they also began producing ceramics whose forms, colors, and techniques are quite distinct. We made our case, got checked in and even had coupons, provided by the manager, for breakfast tomorrow morning. Some colors were applied under the glaze and then fired; others were applied over the glaze which then received a secondary opaque white, transparent, or turquoise glaze and was fired again. Among them are a group of Christian liturgical utensils and tiles with religious themes that were made by Armenian potters for their churches. The designs of minai tiles are lively and reminiscent of miniatures with themes taken from palace and court life.In underglaze tiles, the designs are painted onto the surface, which is then glazed before the tile is fired. 18th-century Kutahya ceramics are made with a white paste and are usually decorated with underglaze-applied designs in yellow, red, green, cobalt blue, turquoise, black, and violet.
Betul is our professional Artist that is graduated from Mimar Sinan University department of fine Arts in Istanbul.
Most of the residents of the reservation do what they can to survive economically, but I think they fair not well. She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. It wouldna€™t take a large mind-blink to revert back hundred of years here, to a land and a time when the gods of thunder had walked the earth and cast large shadows amongst and above the few primitives who huddled here.
Forms, which can be elegant, include thin-walled small cups, saucers, bowls, ewers, pitchers, flasks, incense-burners, lemon-squeezers, and ornamental eggs.
The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). Fine examples of these tiles have been discovered at the excavations of the Kubadabad Palace in Beysehir, where the tiles are decorated with plant motifs as well as with figures of human beings and animals.The luster technique first appeared in Abbasid Iraq.
This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. Later developed to a high level by the Fatimids in Egypt, it was successfully employed by the Iranian Seljuks. It is often employed as a writing surface fo calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul?
The tiles discovered at the excavations of the palace are now on display at the Karatay Medrese Museum in Konya. Luster tiles are decorated in an overglaze technique in which the design is painted with lusterA?a mixture of metallic oxides incorporating silver and copperA?onto a previously glazed and fired surface. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. The tiles are then given a second firing at a lower temperature producing a range of lustrous, mostly brownish and yellowish tones. Seljuk palace luster tiles are decorated with plant motifs as well as with human and animal figures.Anatolian Seljuks sometimes used square, rectangular, hexagonal, and triangular tiles to cover interior walls. Its origin might ultimately hark back to China, where a document from the T'ang dynasty (618-907) mentions a process of coloring paper on water with five hues. These tiles are plain, with turquoise, violet, or cobalt blue being the chief colors applied in the underglaze technique. Sometimes the traces of overglaze gilding are to be found; however because the gilding was fired at a low temperature (or not fired at all), it was not durable and has mostly disappeared.
By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print. To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water. Patience and a good knowledge of traditional culture are characteristic of ebru masters.After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’.
Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums. Also, early texts dealing with ebru, such as “Discourse on decorating paper in the Turkish manner”, published in 1664 by Athanasius Kircher in Rome, helped to disseminate the knowledge of this kind of marbling art. There is agreement amongst scholars that the so-called Turkish Papers played a colourful influence on the book arts in Europe.MATERIALS USED IN CLASSICAL TURKISH MARBLING Gum tragacath – Dye – Paintbrush – Basin – Water – Paper - Gall Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”.
The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces . Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes.Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye. In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable. Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free. In order to increasethe absorbtion capaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface. For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.3.
MARBLING APPLIED TO PAPER PATTERNS,Marbling is similar to cooking; it is impossible to give the exact recipe.
The density of the gummed water and the relationships between the water and the dye, the dye and the tensioning agent (gall), the quantity of gall in the dye are all very important. Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”.
When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a “nightingale nest”. In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the “sprinkled marbling”. If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the “prophyry marble” which resemble most to marble.,Nonetheless above patterns may be divesified by selecting one of the above as a basis and making concentric drops of different colors. Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu). The paper is then careflly lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any).
Hikmet BARUTCUGIL,Mimar Sinan University paper marbling, fabric marbling, faux marbling, parrys graining and marbling, marbling paint, contemporary create design fabric marbling paper technique traditional, Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name.
It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Bahar !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
EXPERIENCE the sensuous flow of Ottoman Calligraphy,CONTEMPORARY create designs with Turkish patternts on tiles,Our teacher that is shown in the pictures are Mrs.



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