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Most of the characterized ribozymes are molecules of ribonucleic acid that catalyze reactions on one of their own phosphodiester bonds or within other RNAs.
In order to drive this reaction in the direction written it can be coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP.
The measurement of the serum levels of numerous enzymes has been shown to be of diagnostic significance.
The measurement of plasma troponin I levels are highly diagnostic of necrosis of cardiac muscle.
Elevated serum GGT levels are found in diseases of the liver, biliary system, and pancreas.
The CAs catalyze the reversible interconversion of CO2 and HCO3– and as such these enzymes are involved in respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, pancreatic exocrine secretions of digestion, and gastric acid.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have a broad spectrum of utility including the treatment of glaucoma, as anti-epileptics, and as diruetics in the treatment of certain forms of hypertension.
The cardiac-specific TnI isoform is encoded by the TNNI3 (troponin I type 3, cardiac) gene. The muscle CPK isoform is expressed from the creatine kinase, muscle (CKM) gene while the brain isoform is expressed from the CKB gene.



The gene nomenclature for the carbonic anhydrases is CA1-CA4, CA5A, CA5B, CA6, CA7, CA9, CA12, CA13, and CA14). The two CAs expressed in erythrocytes are CA I and CA II, both of which are cytosolic enzymes.
The CA inhibitors that are diuretics function by inhibiting the CA isoforms present in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT).
Dependent upon the tissue of expression, three major CPK isoforms are found in human tissues. All five of these genes (GGT1, GGT2, GGT5, GGT6, and GGT7) encode a precursor protein that is post-translationally cleaved into a heavy and a light chain. The presence of CA in erythrocytes is critical for the transfer of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
The heavy chain anchors the enzyme to the membrans while the light chain possesses the catalytic activity. The transmembrane CA isoforms are CA IX, CA XII, and CA XIV while the CA isoform that is anchored to the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage is CA IV. CA I and CA II along with CA VB and CA IX are expressed within the GI tract where they play an important role in overall digestive processes.


In addition to these five genes there are three human genes that encode GGT light chain proteins only and, therefore, the encoded proteins are not associated with membranes. CA II is found in cerebrospinal fluid and measurement of increases are useful in the diagnosis of various brain diseases.
The inhibition of CA by these drugs results in bicarbonate retention in the urine, potassium retention in urine and decreased sodium absorption.
Humans express three additional genes designated as carbonic anhydrases due to sequence similarity to functional carbonic anhydrases, however, the encoded proteins do not possess carbonic anhydrase activity. These three genes are designated CA8, CA10, and CA11 and all three are predominantly expressed within the CNS. Although the encoded proteins of these three CA related genes lack CA activity, the importance of the proteins can be demonstrated by the fact that the neurological defect in the lurcher mutant mouse is the result of a loss of CA8 gene expression.



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