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This is a political cartoon representing the public's mixed emotions about the education reform.
By the 1820s Americans were experiencing exhilarating as well as unsettling social and economic changes.
A desire to reform and expand education accompanied and informed many of the political, social, and economic impulses toward reform. At the heart of the common school movement was the belief that free common schooling dedicated to good citizenship and moral education would ensure the alleviation of problems facing the new republic. The person most identified with the common school movement was Horace Mann (1796–1859), a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, and then secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. The struggle for greater educational opportunities for women was clearly linked to the antebellum reform movement, and in particular the campaign for women’s rights. Emma Willard started teaching when she was seventeen; in 1814 she founded the Troy Female Seminary, the first recognized institution for educating young women. Education for black slaves was forbidden, especially after Nat Turner’s slave insurrection in 1831. Barbara Winslow is a historian who teaches in the School of Education and for the Women’s Studies Program at Brooklyn College, The City University of New York. Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits. Otherwise, click here for information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students.
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All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits! Antioch College, Canterbury Female Boarding School, Emma Willard School, Hartford Female Seminary, Massachusetts Board of Education, Mt.
Before this time, only wealthy children were able to go to school because they could afford the tuition. In the North, the familiar rural and agrarian life was slowly being transformed with the rise of factories, the emergence of a market economy, and the growth of towns and cities. In particular, suffrage was expanded to all white male citizens, which resulted in the emergence of new popular political activity.
Three particularly important core components of education reform developed in the antebellum period: education for the common man and woman, greater access to higher education for women, and schooling for free blacks.
The “common school movement” was a description of a particular type of formal education, one that would become available to all citizens, developed and managed through increased governmental activity at the state level and supported by local property taxes. Mann’s ideology was based upon a strong sense of Protestant Republicanism that was rooted in a secular, non-sectarian morality. The common school movement failed to address the issue of racial exclusion and segregation. The demand for greater educational opportunities has always been a cornerstone demand of feminists. In 1823 she founded the Hartford Female Seminary, and offered her students a rigorous academic curriculum with an emphasis on women’s physical education.
One of the most courageous of these reformers was Prudence Crandall (1803–1890), who in 1831 founded the Canterbury (Connecticut) Female Boarding School.

Holyoke Female Seminary in South Hadley, Massachusetts, the first institution of higher education for women. Oberlin College in Ohio was the first to admit women; Antioch College (founded by Horace Mann) was the first college to allow women to publicly accept their graduation diplomas as well as the first college to hire woman professors and pay them equally with men. The institution of slavery militated against the emergence of manufacturing and urbanization, two critical factors that led to educational reform in the North. Freedom Schools were created by abolitionists to educate the newly emancipated slaves; historic black colleges, such as Howard University were founded.
And of course Carol Berkin, Presidential Professor, Baruch College and the CUNY Graduate Center, who thinks of everything. Click here to see the kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and here to read more about the Institute's educational programs. Click here to edit your profile and indicate this, giving you free access, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program.
Many people did not support this idea, thinking that all children should have an equal oppurtunity to get a good education.
The government—primarily state governments—and private individuals were investing in roads, turnpikes, bridges, canals, and railroads, linking the distant parts of the expanding republic.
The Protestant ruling elite expressed alarm at these developing social conditions, concerned that poverty would lead to prostitution, gangs, drunkenness, crime, and other manifestations of social decline and disorder. This increased political activity brought about labor strife and labor organization in response to the growth of waged labor and increasing social stratification.
Common schooling was free and “universal”; that is, it was to be available to all children regardless of class (although African Americans or Irish Catholics were marginalized or excluded). He believed that education was a child’s “natural right,” and that moral education should be the heart of the curriculum.
Only when African American parents and their political allies challenged the whites-only schools and school districts would there be partial, but not lasting reforms. While young women were admitted into the public or common schools, the majority of women in the United States were denied educational opportunities at every level. An advocate of a rigorous curriculum for girls, she addressed the New York State legislature in 1819 and challenged Thomas Jefferson’s disparaging views about women’s mental capacities. Like Mann, Beecher believed that women were natural teachers; teaching was the extension of women’s domestic labor into the schools.
Both colleges were “stations” on the Underground Railroad and graduated generations of leading education reformers as well as social justice activists throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Quakers were in the forefront of this movement, establishing racially integrated schools in cities like New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. Not all efforts were benign; in particular the Indian schools such as Carlisle were racist attempts to destroy Native American cultures. While the rich children went to expensive private schools, poor children went to second rate schools or did not go at all.
The new world of industry was transforming the rhythms of work, discipline, and social relations. Increased immigration after 1830, especially of the impoverished, unskilled, Catholic, and non-English-speaking Irish, further threatened the Protestant middle class.
That, along with other changes brought about as a result of industrialization and the growing difference between the North and South over slavery, combined with a genuine concern for the plight of the poor, led to the development of reform movements in the areas of temperance, prison, mental health, land ownership and development, women’s rights, and abolition. The main purpose of the common school was to provide a more centralized and efficient school system, one that would assimilate, train, and discipline the emerging working classes and prepare them for a successful life in an industrial society.
In order to accomplish education reform, Mann advocated state-controlled boards of education, a more uniform curriculum, and greater state involvement in teacher training. Catholics in Massachusetts and New York opposed Mann’s Protestant Republicanism in the common schools.

Her entire life was devoted to women’s education, and many of the graduates of the Emma Willard School joined the ranks of the women’s rights movement. Furthermore the purpose of women’s education was to prepare them to be better mothers and teachers. Her vision for higher education included bringing in women from all socio-economic levels to study a demanding curriculum with a clear moral vision. Wealthy planters sent their sons (and sometimes their daughters) to private academies in the North and South and to England.
In the early years of the twentieth century, Chinese Americans successfully sued to desegregate the public school system; women’s educational opportunities continued to flourish, and finally the influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, Asia, and the Caribbean, as well as African Americans from the south, changed the face of public education in America. A report showed that about one out of three school-aged children were actually attending school during this time period. Young men and women were leaving the farms for factory life, changing forever traditional family forms.
Fearing religious and anti-immigrant discrimination, Catholics set up their own system of parochial schools. Just as Horace Mann defined the common school movement, Emma Willard (1787–1870), Catharine Beecher (1800–1878), and Mary Lyon (1797–1849) were three leading figures in the advancement of women’s education.
Education for poor white southerners was provided by charity schools and some religious institutions. One exceptional effort to educate free blacks in the South involved the work of John Chavis, a well-educated free African American.
The issues of the purpose of public education as well as its accessibility and curriculum originally faced by Mann, Crandall, Beecher, and Chavis, continue to be a part of the national debate. Skilled craft workers were being replaced by machines and age-old crafts began to disappear. Historians such as Michael Katz have challenged the widely held assumption that the common school movement was an enlightened liberal reform movement designed to ameliorate the social divisions in American society.
However, unlike Mann and the common school movement, woman reformers themselves had to struggle for education as outsiders and as second-class citizens.
Holyoke’s success was followed by the founding of other women’s colleges, such as Wellesley, Smith, and Vassar.
In 1831 he conducted classes in a school in Raleigh, North Carolina, for whites during the day and for free blacks in the evenings. Rather, Katz and others argue that the common school movement was a deliberate attempt by the Protestant elite to control the lower classes, force assimilation of immigrants and non-Protestants, and prepare the working classes to acquire the “virtues” necessary to factory life—in particular, respect for discipline and authority. In spite of support from prominent abolitionists, Crandall was forced to close the school in 1834.
Sunday Schools, which were founded in part to provide literary, religious, and moral instruction to working class and poor rural children, also educated some slaves.
At first, the wealthy people opposed the idea of public education because they thought it was a waste of money. All of the criticisms of Mann and the common school system—racial segregation, religious (or lack thereof) bias, centralized school boards, and a curriculum designed for conformity were left unresolved, and are recurrent themes in the history of education and the subsequent movements for meaningful educational reform. Whatever limited educational progress existed in the slave south, it was not connected to the larger movements for social reform. On the other hand, working class people that would initially benefit from the schools were the greatest supporters of the movement.

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